Carnarvonia aralifolia

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked:

Order: Proteales

Family: Proteaceae

Sub Family: Grevilleoideae

Genus: From Henry Howard Molyneux Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon; 1830-1890, who was a British politician and a leading member of the conservative party.

Specie:From Aralia, which maybe Ancient Greek for a blooming flower and Folia, which is Latin for a leaf or foliage. It refers to leaves, which resemble those of the European Aralia genus.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Caledonian Oak, Caledonian Silky Oak, Red Oak, Caledonian Silky Oak or Red Silky Oak.

Distribution:

Carnarvonia araliifolia is found south from the Monkhouse Timber Reserve to Garrawalt near Charters Towers and the Paluma National Park. It is mainly found on and east of the Great Dividing Range.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Carnarvonia+aralifolia#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Carnarvonia araliifolia prefer full shade to dappled shade. It grows in warm to hot moist tropical montane rainforests and montane riverine rainforests. The altitude ranges from 650 meters ASL to 1200 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 6 degrees in July to 38 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 1200mm to 3600mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Carnarvonia araliifolia prefers better quality soils. The soils are derived from decomposed brown basalts, black basalts and granite. The soil’s pH ranges from a 5pH to 7.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils but requires constant soil moisture. Much of the soil moisture is derived from orographic precipitation. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:15m to 30m by 7m to 10m

Characteristics:

Carnarvonia araliifolia has a deep grey-brown bark has moderately to densely covered in lenticels.

The slender petiole of the compound leaf measures 70mm to 100mm in length. The leaves vary greatly from being digitately compound on mature trees, while the immature trees are a combination of a digitate and pinnate leaves. The leaves measure 70mm to 200mm in length by 50mm t0120mm in width.  New growth is covered in short pastel brown to almost white pubescent hairs. The mid vein is prominent on the discolourous leaflets while the lateral veins form loops well inside the margins. The upper lamina is deep grass green while the lower lamina is pale grass green.

 The pedicel are densely covered in cream to pastel brown or white, straight or predominantly prostrate pubescent to hirsute hairs mixed with a few erect hairs and measure 6mm to 10mm in length. The 4 tepals are strongly recurved and are externally moderately to densely covered in long, white appressed hairs. They measure 3mm to 6.5mm in length by 1mm to 2.5mm in width.. Hypogynous glands nil. The 2 ovule ovary is sessile.

The pedicels are laterally attached near the base and measure 7mm to 9mm in length while the green oblong fruits measure 35mm to 50mm in length by 15mm to21mm in diameter. The sub triangular to sub ovate, flat, deep brown seeds have a winged at one end.

Wildlife:

Carnarvonia araliifolia is a necessary plant in the support life of the endangered Southern Pink Underwing Month. (Phyllodes imperialis southern subspecies)

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant medium tree.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Carnarvonia araliifolia is a beautiful large shrub or small tree for warmer tropical, warmer temperate and arid area gardens. It would excell in the garden as a feature tree when scattered around the garden as the main feature tree. It is slow growing even when in good organic conditions prevail. Mine at The Pinnacles have grown just 1 meter in 2 years with multiple trunks, even when moisture content is maintained in the soil. Mulching is necessary to maintain a cool root zone and fertilizing on a regular basis with our recommended organic fertilizing regimes will ensure great flowering displays and hopefully pleny of fruit.

Carnarvonia araliifolia is long lived and will develop a strong robust trunk with a great canopy if looked after helping to highlite its great form. If it is to be grown in a small garden it can be the main feature or used with any scheme you desire, even a wallum scene can be easily established.

The leaf decoction is valued in the treatment of intermittent fever, diarrhoea, oral inflammation and earache. The boiled leaves are applied as a poultice to relieve toothache. Raw leaves has been proven as an apetite enhancer often leaving a slight tingling of the tongue similar to fresh Sichuan Pepper.

For me with its berries, horticultural potential this is probably the best all round tree you can have in the garden.

Propagation:

Seeds: Carnarvonia araliifolia seeds can be sown directly into 50mm native tubes and covered with 10mm of the mix with 30% perlite.

Once the seedlings have sprouted fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water. Reapply on an alternate basis every two months.

Once the seedlings reach 200mm to 300mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings will not be necessary as it is fast growing and when it starts to flower the displays will be most satisfying. Plants can be planted at 10 meter to 15 meter centers along a driveway or boundary fence where area is not a constarint.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.” In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

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Carpentaria acuminata

Classification:

Class: Commelinids

Order: Arecales

Family: Arecaceae

Subfamily: Arecoideae

Genus: Is named in honour of Pieter Carpentier a Dutch Govener. It refers to plants, which were first discovered in the Gulf of Carpentaria that was named after Pieter Carpentier.

Specie: From Acūmināta, which is Latin for being contracted or concave on the sides before protracting to a sharp point. It refers to apexes on the leaves or phyllodes, which have short sharp points.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Gulf Palm.

Distribution:

Carpentaria acuminata is native to the low land monsoonal rainforests of the northern tropics of the Northern territory. It is usually found along the river banks.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Carpentaria+acuminata#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Carpentaria acuminata prefers full shade to dappled shade, though it can handle full sun. The palms lose the real gloss in the leaves with the leaves growing shorter in full sunlight. It usually grows on plains around inland swamps, along river, creeks and shallow depressions. The altitude ranges from 20 meters ASL to 220 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 15 degrees in July to 42 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 700mm to 3000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Carpentaria accuminata prefer soils that have a high sand content to light gravelly clays derived from decomposed sandstone. The soil’s pH ranges from a 5pH to 6pH. It tolerates seasonal water logged soils with seasonal high water tables. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:18m to 20m by 6m to 7m

Characteristics:

Carpentaria acuminata has a beautiful slender glabrous silver grey trunk. The 200mm to 250mm diameter trunks retain the leaf scarfs.

The pinnate leaves measure 3 meters to 4 meters in length and 1500mm in width. The individual leaflets measure 500mm to 750mm in length by 50mm to 100mm in width. It is a self-cleaning palm shedding old leaves soon after they die. The leaves clasp the trunk for 1000mm to 1200mm. The leaflets are whorled around the leaf petiole.

The palms are monoecious meaning the male and female flowers appear separately on the same plant. The flowers first appear from the upper leaf base and progressively work their way down the crown. The compound corymb is pendant and measure 2000mm to 2200 in length. The flowers are clustered along the lower 1000mm to 1230mm. They are clustered in groups of 3 with 1 female flower to 2 male flowers.

The male flowers have 3 sepals and 3 petals. The petals are oblong with an acuminate apex. The 30 to 40 stamens measure 4.5mm to 5mm in length.

The female flowers sepals and petals remain closed opening just enough to allow the 3 locular stigma to be seen.

Carpentaria acuminata’s fruits are globular nut. The green nuts turn bright scarlet red when ripe. The stigma is persistent on the nut. There are 3 glabrous seeds in each nut each measuring 18mm to 20mm in length by 16mm to 18mm diameter.

Wildlife:

Many Pigeons and fruit bats consume the fruits of Carpentaria accuminata.

Cultivation:

Carpentaria accuminata is a beautiful palm from the Northern Territory that will take about 45 years to reach its full height in southern areas. This palm is a heavy fruiter so should not be planted near pools or areas where fruit drop will cause a problem. It is fast growing compared to other palms provided plenty of water is supplied. The trunk is suitable for stags and other epiphytes.

Carpentaria acuminate will grow on most soils especially those that are not pure sand as long as an adequate supply of water is given. They can grow in very wet soils providing the water is not stagnant and will accept being inundated on an annual basis.

The palms can take light frosts so should be tried in any frost free area south to Melbourne and Adelaide.

This is a great accent plant against hard surfaces like brick walls or where a slow maturing plant is required. Carpentaria acuminate does very well in large pots for several years as long as they are fed regularly to keep the colour in their leaves and moisture is maintained on the roots. As a potted specimen they can be used indoors or around the pool area and planted out once they out grow their usefulness. I have used this palm and the bungalow palm Archontophoenix cunninghamiana for many years before planting out in our bathroom with no set back to the palms on planting out.

Indoors and Potting on:

Sawdust or sand mixes are too well draining unless the sawdust has completely composted down where it exhibits a texture like plastacine to the touch. Moisture can be squeezed out between the fingers yet it remains moist. I find this a great basis to start with.

Mix equal parts of the well decomposed saw dust with the above feel with perlite and vermiculite. To this add two part sharp clean sand and one part compost. Make sure the sand comes from a source that does not have salt.

The Saw dust in this condition creates the moisture retention and holds nutrient in. The perlite and vermiculite make the mix neutral and both have great water holing capacity without shrinkage with age. The sand creates good drainage and is good for good healthy root development.

Indoor plants need good light and ventilation without drying breezes or wind. Again fertilize the plants on a monthly basis with the above formula on a rotation basis.

Propagation:

Seeds: Sow into a seed raising mix and cover with 20mm of mix. Seeds germinate fairly rapidly for a palm. When the seedlings are at the two to three leaf stages, prick them out and plant them into 75mm native tubes using a good organic mix.

Once the seedlings reach 250mm to 300mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Where mass plantings of Carpentaria acuminata are required, as a feature; plant them at 3 meters to 4 meters centers. Plantings along a drive way should be planted at 5 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health and vitality.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Carpobrotus glaucesens

Classification

Class: Eudicots

Order: Caryophyllales

Family: Aizoaceae

Genus: From Karpós, which is Ancient Greek for a fruit and Brotus, which is Ancient Greek for edible. It refers to the fruits which are very sweet and palatable in this genus. Probably the best tasting fruits in Australia.

Specie: From Glaucous, which is Latin for a filmy blueish or greyish white powdery covering. It refers to the stems leaves or fruits, which have a blueish powdered layer over the surface.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Native Pig Face.

In the Aboriginal language it is known as Katwort, keeng, Keenga or Karkalla, while in the local Gumbaynggirr language it is known as Barridamam.

Distribution:

Carpobrotus glaucescens is found along the coast south from Gladstone in central Queensland to Wilson’s Promontory in southern Victoria.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Carpobrotus+glaucesens#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Carpobrotus glaucescens prefers full sun. It usually grows on the frontal dunes or at times on the back dunes or along estuaries. The plants are often pioneer species especially in times of storm surges the plants may be covered in thick layers of salty froths, sea water or buried in sand. When completely buried in sand the plants grow vertically upwards breaking through the surface before recommencing their horizontal prostrate growth. The altitude ranges from 1 meter ASL to 5 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 2 degrees in July to 38 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 650mm to 1600mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Carpobrotus glaucescens prefers coarse sands to fine sands. The sands are derived from accumulated beach sands or rarely alluvial deposits. The soils pH ranges from 6.5pH to 7.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Moderately saline soils to extremely saline soils are tolerated as are salt laden winds.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.1m to 0.2m by 1m to 2m

Characteristics:

Carpobrotus glaucescens grows as a prostrate ground cover with a light yellow brown corky to longitudinal flaky stems. The stems measure 0.5 meters to 2 meters in length by from 8mm to 12mm in diameter. Juvenile stems are fleshy deep sea green to deep blue green and measure 10mm to 15mm in diameter. Both the older and younger stems root readily from the old leaf nodes and the existing leaf nodes.

The long linear leaves of Carpobrotus glaucescens are trigonous in cross section. They are glaucous, glabrous and measure 35mm to 100mm in length by 9mm to 12mm in width near the base. The leaves can be slightly curved or almost straight. The base is sessile while the apex tapers to be narrow acute. The leaf margins are entire.

Inflorescences of Carpobrotus glaucescens are a densely globular daisy like structures. Individual flowers are terminal subsessile or very shortly pedicillate. The perianth tube which will swell to form the large fruit measures 15mm to 25mm in length by 12mm to 20mm in diameter. There are 5 lobes with 2 being longer than the other 3 being 20mm to 40mm long. The petaloid and staminodes are bright pink to purple and white at the base. There are 100 to 150 petaloid in 3 or 4 rows. They measure 16mm to 30mm in length by 1.5mm to 2.5mm in width. Stamens are in 5 or 6 rows and number 300 to 400 while there are 7 to 10 styles. The ovary is a 4 to 10 locular. The flowers appear from early October to late January.

The lesser stamen and petaloid staminodes count along with very small teeth on the back of the leaf of Carpobrotus aquilateris are the methods of differentiating between the native species and the feral exotic species along the east coast.

The fruits of Carpobrotus glaucescens are soft berries. The berries measure 20mm to 30mm in length by 16mm to 26mm width. They are red to purple when ripe splitting to exude a white flesh and small black seeds.

Wildlife:

Carpobrotus glaucescens is the host to all of Australia’s native bees when in flower. Many medium size honey eaters and fruit eating birds take the fruits passing the seeds along the beach to new locations.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant ground cover in hot drier areas.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

This is a beautiful small ground cover that looks great in the garden as a feature plant in rockeries around swimming pools or in sunny court yards.

Drainage and pure sand is essential for successful flowering.

It often reaches its full potential of 2 meters by 2 meters in less than a year and flower from their first season. Plants are frost resistant at least to minus 5 degrees. One of the best summer flowering Australian ground covers.

Carpobrotus glaucesens is a short lived plant that will need replacing on an annual basis to keep the patch looking vigorous with plenty of flowers.

It is also very susceptible to woolly aphids and mealy bugs when grown away from the coast. This has been a regular problem even at The Pinnacles where we have pure sand and live within a 20 kilometres of the coast.

Both the flowers and leaves were eaten by aborigines. The explorer Flinders while circumnavigating Australia wrote in his diary that these were the best tasting fruit in Australia. Fresh fruits have a pleasant sweet strawberry flavour with the addition of salt.

Jams and conserves can be made from the fruits of Carpobrotus glaucescens. The fruits contain good quantities of pectin so a thick jam or jelly can be made easily. In my opinion the jam is of excellent quality rich in a flavour reminiscent of raspberry jam particularly when made from just the white inner flesh and seeds. If the whole fruit is used then some pectin will be needed and the flavour is more delicate.

Propagation:

Seeds: Carpobrotus glaucescens seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix. Cover them with 1mm of very fine sand water and allow draining. Place the trays in full sun.

When the seedlings are 15mm to 25 mm tall, prick them out and plant them into standard 50mm tubes using a seed well drained mix or add 1 part sharp sand to 1 part of our regular raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 100 to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved with spacing of 1 meter centers.

Division: Cuttings are easier than seed in this species.

1. Do not water before you start.

2. Cut back foliage to around 70mm to 100mm in length,

3. Use secatares to cut lead runners. Each piece should have at least two nodes

4. Use a small dipple stick or old pencil to poke a hole into the soilless potting mix. Ensure the hole is slightly larger than the stem diameter and place in 50mm native tubes and place beneath 30% to 50% shade,

5. When the cuttings have struck, transplant into their position in the garden.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Carpobrotus virescens

Classification

Class: Eudicots

Order: Caryophyllales

Family: Aizoaceae

Genus: From Karpós, which is Ancient Greek for a fruit and Brotus, which is Ancient Greek for edible. It refers to fruits, which are very sweet and palatable in this genus. Probably the best tasting fruits in Australia.

Specie: From Virens, which is Latin for becoming green. It refers to the colour of any organ, which becomes bright green.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Native Pig Face.

In the Aboriginal language it is known as Katwort, keeng, Keenga or Karkalla.

Distribution:

Carpobrotus virescens is found from near Sharks Bay on the central Western Australia coast south to near Albany then again from near Esperence to the Fitzgerald National Park in the south.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Carpobrotus+virescens#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Carpobrotus virescens is a prostrate ground cover that is found on the coastal frontal dunes. The plants are often pioneer species on exposed salt laden windy coasts. Especially in times of storm surges the plants may be covered in thick layers of salty froths, sea water or buried in sand. When completely buried in sand the plants grow vertically upwards breaking through the surface before recommencing their horizontal prostrate growth. The altitude ranges from 1 meter ASL to 8 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 2 degrees in July to 38 degrees in January on the beaches.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 250mm to 1600mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Carpobrotus virescens grows on soils which are pure white, brown or black sands, on the frontal dunes and along the limestone cliffs which face the ocean. The soil’s pH ranges from 6.5pH to 8pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Slightly saline soils to extremely saline soils are tolerated as are salt laden winds.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.1m x 0.2m to 1m x 3m

Characteristics:

Carpobrotus virescens grows as a prostrate ground cover with a light yellow brown corky, longitudinal flaky stem which measures 8mm to 12mm in diameter. Young stems are fleshy measure 10mm to 15mm in diameter and are blue-green. Both the older and younger stems root readily from the old leaf nodes at the existing leaf nodes.

The long linear leaves are triangular in cross section. They are glaucous, glabrous and measure 35mm to 100mm in length by 9mm to 12mm in width near the base. The leaves can be slightly curved or almost straight. The base is sessile while the apex tapers to be acute. The leaf margins are entire.

Inflorescences are a densely globular daisy like structures. Individual flowers are terminal subsessile or very shortly pedicillate. The perianth tube which will swell to form the large fruit measures 15mm to 25mm in length by 12mm to 20mm in width. There are 5 lobes with 2 being longer than the other. The 2 longer ones measure 16mm to 40mm in length. The petals known as a petaloid staminodes are bright pink to purple or white. There are 100 to 150 in 3 or 4 rows measuring 16mm to 30mm in length by 1.5mm to 2.5mm in width. Stamens are in 5 or 6 rows and number 300 to 400 while there are 7 to 10 styles. The ovary is a 4 to 10 locular. The flowers appear from June through to late January.

The soft berry fruits are 20mm to 30mm in length by 16mm to 26mm in diameter. They are red to purple when ripe splitting to exude a white flesh and small black seeds.

Wildlife:

Carpobrotus virescens is the host to all of Australia’s native bees when in flower. Many medium size honey eaters and fruit eating birds take the fruits passing the seeds along the beach to new locations.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant ground cover for for hot drier areas.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

This is a beautiful small ground cover that looks great in the garden as a feature plant in rockeries around swimming pools or in sunny court yards.

Drainage is essential for successful flowering.

They often reach their full potential of 2 meters by 3 meters in just 1 year and flower from their first season. Plants are frost resistant at least to minus 2 degrees. One of the best winter to late summer flowering Australian ground covers.

Carpobrotus virescens is a short lived plant that will need replacing on an annual basis to keep the patch looking vigorous with plenty of flowers.

They are also very susceptible to woolly aphids and mealy bugs when grown away from the coast. This has been a regular problem even at The Pinnacles where we have pure sand and live within a 20 kilometres of the coast.

Both the flowers and leaves were eaten by aborigines. Fresh fruits have a pleasant sweet taste with the addition of salt.

Jams and conserves can be made from the fruits of Carpobrotus virescens. The fruits contain good quantities of pectin so a thick jam or jelly can be made easily. In my opinion the jam is of excellent quality rich in a flavour reminiscent of raspberry jam particularly when made from just the white inner flesh and seeds. If the whole fruit is used then some pectin will be needed and the flavour is more delicate.

Propagation:

Seeds: Carpobrotus virescens seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix. Cover them with 1mm of very course sand water and allow to drain. Place the trays in full sun.

When the seedlings are 15 to 25 mm tall, prick them out and plant them into standard 50mm tubes using a seed well drained mix or add 1 part sharp sand to 1 part of our regular raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 100 to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved with spacing of 1 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Carronia multisepalea

Classification

Class: Rosids

Order: Fabales

Family: Menispermacea

Genus: Is named in honour of William Carron; 1823-1876, who immigrated to Australia, followed his father’s profession as a gardener then worked as a forester.

Specie:From Multus, which is Latin for many and Sēpalum/Sēparātum, which is Latin for to separate. It refers to the sepals, which are now known to be separate identities to the petal.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Carronia multisepalea is found south from Upper Yandina Creek and Kin Kin in southern coastal Queensland to Dorrigo National Park in northern New South Wales. It is found in cool subtropical rainforests on and east of the Great Dividing Range on the ranges.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Carronia+multisepalea#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Carronia multisepalea prefer part shade to dappled shade. It grows in cool sub-tropical rainforests particularly in riparian zones. The forest floors always have deep layers of forest mulch. The altitude ranges from 100 meters ASL to 750 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 2 degrees in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 1150mm to 2000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Carronia multisepalea prefers medium clays. The soils are derived from decomposed brown basalts or black basalts. The soil’s pH ranges from a 5.5pH to 6.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:10m to 20m to 4m to 6m

Characteristics:

Carronia multisepalea is a fast growing woody climber which relies on its leading shoots to twist around anything it comes in contact with. The scabrous bark is dull grey on older stems. New and juvenile stems are deep grass-green to sea-green and covered in caduceous rusty-brown pulverulent hairs.

The alternate leaves of Carronia multisepalea are lanceolate to narrow elliptical and measure 60mm to 280mm in length by 30mm to 80mm width. The base is rounded to broad cuneate while the apex is broad acuminate. The discolourous laminas are deep semi glossy, sea green and glabrous on the upper laminas while the lower laminas are paler and glabrous or sparsely covered in rusty puberulent hairs. The thin coriaceous laminas are convex between the mid vein and lateral veins on the upper surface and are undulating. The leaf margins are entire and decurve slightly downwards near the margins. The mid vein and lateral veins is prominent on the lower lamina and is distinctly visible and paler on the upper lamina. The petioles bend 90 degrees at a distinctly elongated pulvinus near the junction with the leaf base and measure 15mm to 50mm in length on adult leaves and shorter on juvenile leaves.

The dioecious inflorescences of Carronia multisepalea are spikes born usually from the leaf axils but can be terminal. The spikes measure 50mm to 180mm in length.

The male flowers are born in small clusters along the spike and are covered in pale grey hirsute hairs. The sessile flower’s green sepals number 16 to over 24 and measure 2mm to 2.4mm in length. The 6 white petals measure 1mm to 1.2mm in length. The 6 dimorphic white stamens measure 1mm to 1.2mm in length with the inner 3 stamens being longer than the outer 3 stamens.

The female flowers are born evenly along the spike. The 18 to over 24 green sepals measure 2mm to 2.8mm in length. The 6 white petals measure 1mm to 1.2mm in length. The carpels are covered in long pale grey-brown hirsute hairs. Callerya megasperma flowers appear from late September through to early November.

Carronia multisepalea’s fruits are orbicular, ovoidal or flattened ovoidal drupes. The drupes measure 16mm to 32mm in length by 12mm to 25mm in width. The green pods are covered in pale grey hirsute hairs and turn reddish-pink when ripe.

The single slightly flattened ellipsoidal seeds are fawn to pale brown and measure 12mm to 22mm in length by 9mm to 15mm in width.

Wildlife:

Carronia multisepalea is a necessary plant in the support of the endangered Southern Pink Underwing Month. (Phyllodes imperialis southern subspecies)

Cultivation:

Carronia multisepalea is a beautiful large woody vine for cooler tropical and warmer temperate gardens that looks great in the garden on a feature wall or covering a pergola. It is quick growing when grown in a friable loam or light clays, provided even moisture content is maintained in the soil. Mulching is necessary to maintain a cool root zone and fertilizing on a regular basis with our recommended organic fertilizing regimes will ensure great flowering displays.

Carronia multisepalea is long lived and will develop a strong robust trunk so ensure any structure it is planted on can take the weight of a fully developed liana. If they are to be grown on a pergola plant one on each corner. This vine can compete with most other vigorous climbers. Planting other vines like Callerya megasperma or Callerya australis and Pandorea jasminoides will compliment and yield the colour which may be missing on this species when in flower.

Propagation:

Seeds: Carronia multisepalea seeds can be sown directly into 50mm native tubes and covered with 10mm of the mix.

Once the seedlings have sprouted fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water. Reapply on an alternate basis every two months.

Once the seedlings reach 200mm to 300mm in height nip the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings will not be necessary as they are fast growing and when they start to flower the displays will be most satisfying. Plants can be planted at 4 meter centers along a wall or fence or on the corners of a pergola.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Caryota albertii

Classification:

Class: Commelinids

Order: Arecales

Family: Arecaceae

Subfamily: Coryphoideae

Tribe: Caryoteae

Genus: From Karuoôtis, which is Ancient Greek, for a date. It refers to the fruits resembling those of the date palm.

Specie: Is named in honour of Albert.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Australian Fish Tail Palm.

Distribution:

Caryota albertii is found south from the tip of Cape York Peninsular to Rocky River in far north east coastal Queensland. It also extends from the Philippines, Eastern Indonesia, New Guinea to the Solomon Islands.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Caryota+albertii#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Caryota albertii prefers full shade to dappled shade, though it can handle full sun. It usually grows on coastal plains and low land rainforests, vine forest and Melaleuca swamp forest. The altitude ranges from 50 meters ASL to 300 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 15 degrees in July to 40 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 1200mm to 3800mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Caryota albertii prefer soils that have a high sand content to light gravelly clays derived from decomposed sandstone, basalt or river alluvial deposits. The soil’s pH ranges from a 5pH to 6pH. It tolerates seasonal water logged soils with seasonal high water tables. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:14m to 18m by 6m to 7m

Characteristics:

Caryota albertii has a deep tan to grey trunk with widely spaced rings. The crownshaft is absent.

The leaf crown is large with 3meter to 7meter long bipinnate deep green leaves, while the lower laminas are glaucous green. The petiole is unarmed and up to 900mm in length. The leaflets are linearly obdeltoid to nearly linear, plicate with a rounded oblique base and with jagged apices. The pendulous leaflets measure 400mm to 580mm in length.

The pendulous, inflorescences are many branched and measure 1500mm to 2000 in length. The spikes with yellowish triad flowers have 2 male flowers to a single female. The outer segments of the male flowers are imbricate, rotund, sparsely covered in white ciliate hairs and measure 4mm to 5mm in diameter. The 3 inner segments are glabrous, valvate and measure 12mm to 14mm in length. There are 30 plus stamens. The plant is monocarpic which means it dies after fruiting has concluded.

The orbicular deep red to reddish-black ripe fruits measure 20mm to 35mm in length. There are 1 to 3 smooth black seeds in each fruit.

Wildlife:

Many Pigeons and fruit bats consume the fruits of Caryota albertii, while native bees swarm over the flowers and Cassawary eat the fallen fruit.

Cultivation:

Caryota albertii is a beautiful fast growing palm suitable for larger gardens only. It is fast growing compared to other palms provided plenty of water is supplied.

Caryota albertii will grow on most soils especially those that are not pure sand as long as an adequate supply of water is given. It is suitable for growing in very wet areas providing the water is not stagnant and will accept being inundated on a regular basis.

Propagation:

Seeds: Sow into a seed raising mix and cover with 20mm of mix. Seeds germinate fairly rapidly for a palm. When the seedlings are at the two to three leaf stages, prick them out and plant them into 75mm native tubes using a good organic mix.

Once the seedlings reach 250mm to 300mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Where mass plantings of Caryota albertii are required, as a feature; plant them at 3 meters to 4 meters centers. Plantings along a drive way should be planted at 5 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health and vitality.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Casearia multinervosa

Classification

Unranked: Tracheobionta

Division: Tracheophyta

Class: Magnoliopisida

Sub Order: Rosidae

Order: Malpighiales

Family: Salicaceae

Genus: From Cāseārium, which is Latin for cheese or pertaining to cheese. It refers to the fruits which have a cheese colour.

Specie: From Melior, which is Ancient Greek or later Multum, which is Latin for many and Nervōsum  which is Latin for sinewy, veins or nerves. It refers to leaves or at times other organs which have many prominent veins.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Cheese Fruit.

Distribution:

Casearia multinervosa is found south from Granite Creek between Bundaberg and Gladstone in southeast Queensland to south of Lismore in northern New South Wales. It is found on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Casearia+multinervosa#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Casearia multinervosa prefer full sun to dappled shade. It grows in dry rainforests particulary as an understorey plant. It was common in hoop pine forests (Araucaria cunninghamii) in the past. The altitude ranges from 10 meters ASL to 850 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 1 degree in August to 38 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 500mm to an average of 1100mm annually. In lower rainfall areas it favours dry creek beds and banks.

Soil Requirements:

Casearia multinervosa prefer light red clays, gravelly sandy clays to heavy clays. The soils are derived from decomposed basalts, metamorphic rocks, better quality sandstones or shale. The soils pH ranges from 4.5pH to 6pH are preferred. It isn’t tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 3m to 10m by 2m to 4m.

Characteristics:

Casearia multinervosa grows as a tall shrub or small tree. The bark on mature plants is various shades of brown with many whitish lenticels. The branchlets are a dull pale brown with many whitish lenticels. The juvenile stems are mid green and glabrous. The stems have a variable zigzag formation.

Casearia multinervosa’s elliptic to obovate leaves measure 50 to 100mm in length by 20mm to 45mm in width. The terete to semi terete, pale yellow-green petioles measure 50mm to 65mm in length. The bases are rounded to broad cuneate while the apexes are acute. The concolourous lamina are mid to deep green and semi glossy to glossy on the upper lamina while the lower lamina is semi glossy. The laminas recurve slightly upwards from the mid vein to the margins and have a slight undulation. The margins are entire but decurve close to the margins. The glabrous, yellow mid vein is prominent on the lower lamina and is distinctly visible on the upper lamina. The 8 to 11 pairs of lateral veins are prominent on the lower lamina.

The inflorescence of Casearia multinervosa are tightly packed clusters from the leaf axils with 6 individual flowers. The pedicels measure 2mm to 3.5mm in length. The 5 cream petals are broad ovate and densely covered in cream pubescent hairs externally and are glabrous internally. They measure 2mm to 3mm in length.

Stamens in Casearia multinervosa are rather complex. There are 8 cream stamens and staminodes in clustered around the ovary and style. The stamens measures 1.5mm to 3mm in length. The basifixed, orbicular anthers are deep yellow.

Peak flowering occurs in December but trees will commence flowering in late September.

Casearia multinervosa fruits are long elliptical berries. They measure 6mm to 9mm in length by 4mm to 6mm in diameter. The green pods turn bright yellow orange when mature.

Wildlife:

Wildlife is unknown to the author.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant large shrub for moist gardens.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Casearia multinervosa are magnificent small trees or large shrubs for the small suburban garden to large properties. It is moderate in growth in most gardens. It is frost sensitive but can withstand temperatures as low as minus 3 degrees once established. Garden subjects will grow into dense small canopy shade trees to 4 meters to 6 meters in height by 3 meters to 4 meters in diameter when grown in the open but can be tip pruned to encourage a dense bushy shrub. In Native gardens it can be used to protect more delicate plants giving good shade.

Casearia multinervosa is a beautiful spreading tree that looks great in the garden where a formal look is required or placed in the center of a driveway. It can be used very effectively and should be more widely grown on light to heavy clay soils and poor decomposed shale in semi-arid, tropical, semi tropical and warm temperate areas of Australia. It is also drought resistant once established.

The trees can be used to highlight architectural lines on low set long buildings to great effect because of the trees excellent umbrella shape especially in semi-arid areas of Australia.

Casearia multinervosa would make a very good accent tree in front of low set commercial or industrial sheds where they will break up hard rigid architectural lines and give warmth and breadth to a building. In front of high rise buildings they give balance especially where they could be grown in curves meandering to the entry doors or for something different used from the front of the path and meander back to the far corners with shrubs or flowers planted between the trees and the building and the trees and the nature strip.

It certainly could replace many of the exotic species presently being grown in Australian gardens.

Placed in a formal garden bed it can be surrounded by ground covers that prefer rich composted soils as the fallen leaves will help balance soils and add nitrogen at the same time. Most small Grevillea specie are compatible and prefer similar soils. Use Grevillea specie with finer, pale green or glaucous leaves for contrast.

Another strong character of the plant is that it can be planted adjacent to rainforests or used to start a small rainforest garden.

Propagation:

Seeds: Casearia multinervosa seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix without treatment. Place the tray in partial shade and water. When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 200mm to 250mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings, plant the trees at 10 meter to 12 meter centers for a rainforest or 16 meter to 20 meters for a park scenario.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cassia brewsteri

Classification

Unranked: Tracheobionta

Division: Magnoliophyta

Class: Magnoliopisida

Sub Order: Rosidae

Order: Fabales

Family: Caesalpiniaceae

Genus: From Kassía/Kasía/Kásia, which are Ancient Greek for the Cinnamon tree, cinnamon flavour or cinnamon colour. It refers to plants, which are releated to the exotic spice Cinnamon. Most Cassia species have been transferred to the Senna genus like Cassia acclinis, which is now known as Senna acclinis and this may eventuate in the future.

Specie: Is probably named in honour of Sarah Agnes Angus Brewster; 1874-1957, who was a headmistress and naturalist, who later accepted the post of demonstrator in nature studies and elementary science at Sydney Technical College; for her original work.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Leichardt Bean.

Distribution:

Cassia brewsteri is found south from the Atherton Tablelands in far northeast Queensland to the Brunswick River in northern New South Wales. It is found on the Western Slopes on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cassia+brewsteri#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cassia brewsteri prefer full sun to dappled shade. It grows in riverine and littoral rainforests. Between Marybough and Gympie the trees remain as remnant rainforests. The altitude ranges from 20 meters ASL to 700 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 1 degree in August to 38 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 600mm to an average of 2400mm annually. In lower rainfall areas it favours dry creek beds and banks.

Soil Requirements:

Cassia brewsteri prefer light red clays, gravelly sandy clays to heavy clays. The soils are derived from decomposed basalts, metamorphic rocks, better quality sandstones or shale. The soils pH ranges from 4.5pH to 6pH are preferred. It isn’t tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 15m to 20m by 10m to 16m.

Characteristics:

Cassia brewsteri’s bark on mature trees is deep brown with deep longitudinal fissures to the larger branches. The branches are a dull pale grey to a mid grey-brown, scabrous only becoming glabrous as they approach the juvenile branchlets which are deep sea green and glabrous.

Cassia brewsteri’s pinnate leaves have a rachis that measures 150 to 230mm in length. There are 4 to 10 opposite pairs of leaflets. The narrow ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets measure 32mm to 65mm in length by 15mm to 30mm in width. The petiolules and rachis swell at the junction where they connect to the rachis and stem. The petioles measure 50mm to 65mm while the petiolules measure 3mm to 4mm long. The bases are rounded to broad cuneate while the apexes are retuse. The discolourous lamina is deep sea green and semi glossy to glossy on the upper lamina while the lower lamina is deep glaucous sea green and dull. The margins are entire. The mid vein is prominent on the lower lamina and is sparsely covered in brown tomentose hairs. The mid vein is distinctly visible on the upper lamina surfaces. The new growth is a bright pale glossy green.

The inflorescence of Cassia brewsteri are pendulant terminal racemes measuring 150mm to 230mm in length by 80mm to 135mm in width. There are 15 to 60 flowers on a raceme which measure 10mm to 18mm in length by 12mm to 24mm in width. The sepals are yellow while the petals are orange–red and measure 12mm to 22mm in length by 15mm to 26mm in width. Both the sepals and petals are yellow. The 5 glabrous retrorse, oblong sepals are bright yellow and measure 6mm to 7mm in length. The 5 ovate petals apexes are obtuse to mucronate. They measure 8mm to 11mm in length by 5mm to 6mm in width. The pedicel measures 15mm to 25mm in length.

Stamens in Cassia brewsteri are rather complex. There are 10 stamens in one group of plants or 7 stamens and 3 staminodes in the other group. The 5 white stamens measure 8mm to 18mm in length while the yellow anthers measures 1.5mm to 3mm in length.

Peak flowering occurs in December but trees will commence flowering in late September. Even trees within the same locality vary considerably.

Cassia brewsteri fruits are long cylindrical woody-coriaceous pods. They measure 100mm to 300mm in length by 10mm to 15mm in diameter. The green pods turn reddish-brown on ripening and are slightly constricted between the seeds.

The 20 to 50 flattened, ovoidal discoid seeds are deep reddish brown almost black and measure 5mm to 6mm in length by 3mm to 4mm in width.

Wildlife:

Native bees have been observed feeding from the flowers as have many small native beetles. In Nana Glen which is south of the trees natural range it is rare to get any viable seeds as the seed pods are always full of weevils or web spinning larvae which are unknown to the author.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant medium tree in most situations.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Cassia brewsteri are magnificent small trees for the small suburban garden or large properties. It is moderately fast growing in most gardens. It is frost sensitive but can withstand temperatures as low as minus 3 degrees. Garden subjects will grow into dense small shade trees to 10 meters to 15 meters in height by 8 meters to 12 meters in diameter. In Native gardens they can be used to protect more delicate plants giving good shade.

Cassia brewsteri is a beautiful spreading tree that looks great in the garden where a formal look is required or placed in the center of a driveway. It can be used very effectively on heavier soils provided drainage is good. This Cassia should be more widely grown on light to heavy clay soils and poor decomposed shale in semi-arid, tropical, semi tropical and warm temperate areas of Australia. They are also drought resistant once established.

The trees can be used to highlight architectural lines on low set long buildings to great effect because of the trees excellent umbrella shape especially in semi-arid areas of Australia.

Cassia brewsteri would make very good accent trees in front of low set commercial or industrial sheds where they will break up hard rigid architectural lines and give warmth and breadth to a building. In front of high rise buildings they give balance especially where they could be grown in curves meandering to the entry doors or for something different used from the front of the path and meander back to the far corners with shrubs or flowers planted between the trees and the building and the trees and the nature strip.

Try using it in large court yards where the ground is covered in rocks, ferns, Peperomia or just Asplenium australis for something very different. Next to such features their small leaves, small flowers and small fruit are never overpowering but certainly noticed.

It certainly could replace many of the exotic Cassia specie presently being grown in the sub tropics which are deciduous.

Placed in a formal garden bed they can be surrounded by ground covers that prefer rich composted soils as the fallen leaves will help balance soils and add nitrogen at the same time. Most Grevillea specie are compatible and prefer similar soils. Use Grevillea specie with finer, pale green or glaucous leaves for contrast. Avoid plants with yellow flowers and deep green foliage.

It is an excellent tree for hosting epiphytic orchids and ferns with older trees hosting many different species of lichens. Trees at Nana Glen started flowering from 4 years to 7 years of age and at 12 years lichens had totally covered the outer limbs.

It makes ideal avenue trees in parks because of their size and dense canopy. The beauty is further enhanced by the strong contrast in the colour of the upper and lower laminas. The flowers are prolific and will carpet the ground for many weeks in red and gold.

Another strong character of the plant is that it can be planted in or adjacent to rainforests or used to start a small rainforest garden. Here the flowers form a wonderful carpet of colour amidst the dark surroundings within the forest. Try using Cassia brewsteri especially sub sp. marksiana mixed with Brachychiton acerifolium for something really spectacular. As the red fades the yellows would spring into life.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cassia brewsteri seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix without treatment. Place the tray in partial shade and water. When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 200mm to 250mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings, plant the trees at 10 meter to 12 meter centers for a rainforest or 16 meter to 20 meters for a park scenario.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cassia marksiana

Classification

Unranked: Tracheobionta

Division: Magnoliophyta

Class: Magnoliopisida

Sub Class: Rosidae

Order: Fabales

Family: Caesalpiniaceae

Genus: From Kassía/Kasía/Kásia, which are Ancient Greek for the Cinnamon tree, cinnamon flavour or cinnamon colour. It refers to plants, which are releated to the exotic spice Cinnamon. Most Cassia species have been transferred to the Senna genus like Cassia acclinis, which is now known as Senna acclinis.

Species: Is named in honour of Dr. Charles F. Marks who was an Australian collector of plants.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Leichardt Bean.

Distribution:

Cassia marksiana is found near Marlborough, in the Carnarvon National Park and from the upper Brisbane River in Southern Queensland to the Brunswick River in northern New South.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cassia+marksiana#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cassia marksiana prefer full sun to light shade. It grows in riverine rainforests, moist schlerophyll forests adjacent to Rainforests and littoral rainforests often as remnant trees. The altitude ranges from 20 meters ASL to 200 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 3 degrees in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 900mm to an average of 1600mm annually. In lower rainfall areas it favours dry creek beds and banks.

Soil Requirements:

Cassia marksiana prefer light red clays, gravelly sandy clays to medium clays derived from decomposed black basalt, metamorphic rocks or shale. The soils pH ranges from 6pH to 7pH are preferred. They are not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 15m to 20m by 10m to 20m.

Characteristics:

Cassia marksiana’s bark on mature trees is deep brown with deep longitudinal fissures to the larger branches. The branches are a dull pale grey to a mid grey-brown, scabrous only becoming glabrous as they approach the juvenile branchlets which are deep sea green and glabrous.

Cassia marksiana’s pinnate leaves have a rachis that measures 150 to 230mm in length. There are 5 to 8 opposite pairs of leaflets. The lanceolate to oblong-ovate leaflets measure 20mm to 90mm in length by 15mm to 40mm in width. The base is broad cuneate while the apex is retuse. The margins are entire. The concolourous laminas are deep sea green and semi glossy to glossy. The mid vein is prominent on the lower lamina and is distinctly visible on the upper laminas. The petiolules and rachis swell at the junction where they connect to the rachis and stem. The petioles measure 50mm to 65mm while the petiolules measure 3mm to 4mm long. The new growth is a bright pale glossy green.

The inflorescence of Cassia marksiana are erect terminal racemes measuring 70mm to 90mm in length by 60mm to 75mm in diameter. There are 12 to 40 flowers on a raceme which measure 10mm to 18mm in length by 12mm to 24mm in width. Both the sepals and petals are yellow. The 5 glabrous retrorse, oblong sepals are bright yellow and measure 6mm to 8mm in length. The apexes of the petals are obtuse to mucronate. The petals measure 8mm to 11mm in length by 5mm to 6mm in width. The pedicel measures 15mm to 20mm in length.

Stamens in Cassia marksiana are rather complex. There are 7 stamens and 3 staminodes in the other group. The stamens and staminodes measure 8mm to 18mm in length while the yellow anthers measures 1.5mm to 3mm in length.

Peak flowering occurs in December but trees will commence flowering in early September and finish in late January. Even trees within the same locality vary considerably.

Cassia marksiana fruits are long cylindrical woody-coriaceous pods. They measure 100mm to 300mm in length by 10mm to 15mm in diameter. The green pods turn reddish-brown on ripening and are slightly constricted between the seeds. The 20 to 50 flattened ovoidal, deep brown-black discoid seeds measure 5mm to 6mm in length by 3mm to 4mm in width.

Wildlife:

Native bees have been observed feeding from the flowers as have many small native beetles.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant small tree in most situations.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Cassia marksiana are magnificent small trees for the small suburban garden or large properties. It is moderately fast growing in most gardens. It is frost sensitive but can withstand temperatures as low as minus 3 degrees. Garden subjects will grow into dense small shade trees to 10 meters to 15 meters in height by 8 meters to 12 meters in diameter. In Native gardens it can be used to protect more delicate plants giving good shade.

Cassia marksiana is a beautiful spreading tree that looks great in the garden where a formal look is required or placed in the center of a driveway. It can be used very effectively on heavier soils provided the drainage is good. Cassia marksiana should be more widely grown on light to heavy clay soils and poor decomposed shale in semi-arid, tropical, semi tropical and warm temperate areas of Australia. They are drought resistant once established.

The trees can be used to highlight architectural lines on low set long buildings to great effect because of the trees excellent umbrella shape especially in semi-arid areas of Australia.

Cassia marksiana would make very good accent trees in front of low set commercial or industrial sheds where they will break up hard rigid architectural lines and give warmth and breadth to a building. In front of high rise buildings they give balance especially where they could be grown in curves meandering to the entry doors or for something different used from the front of the path and meander back to the far corners with shrubs or flowers planted between the trees and the building and the trees and the nature strip.

Placed in a formal garden bed they can be surrounded by ground covers that prefer rich composted soils as the fallen leaves will help balance soils and add nitrogen at the same time. Most Grevillea are compatible and prefer similar soils. Use Grevillea specie with finer, pale green or glaucous leaves for contrast. Avoid plants with yellow flowers and deep green foliage.

It is an excellent tree for hosting epiphytic orchids and ferns with older trees hosting many different species of lichens.

It makes ideal avenue trees in parks because of their size and dense canopy. The beauty is further enhanced by the strong contrast in the colour of the upper and lower laminas. The flowers are prolific and will carpet the ground for many weeks in gold.

Another strong character of the plant is that they can be planted in or adjacent to rainforests or used to start a small rainforest garden. Here the flowers form a wonderful carpet of colour amidst the dark surroundings within the forest. Try using Cassia marksiana mixed with Brachychiton acerifolium for something really spectacular. As the red fades the yellows would spring into life.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cassia marksiana seeds can be sown into a seed raising mix. When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 200mm to 250mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings, plant the trees at 10 meter to 12 meter centers for a rainforest or 16 meter to 20 meters for a park scenario.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cassia tomentella

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Division: Rosids

Order: Fabales

Family: Fabaceae

Genus: From Kassía/Kasía/Kásia, which are Ancient Greek for the Cinnamon tree, cinnamon flavour or cinnamon colour. It refers to plants, which are releated to the exotic spice Cinnamon. Most Cassia species have been transferred to the Senna genus like Cassia acclinis, which is now known as Senna acclinis.

Specie: From Tōmentōsum, which is Latin for to be covered in long down. It refers to hairs which are long, soft and wavy or matted similar to a duck’s down.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Hairy Bean.

Distribution:

Cassia tomentella is found south from Dingo National Park north of Proserpine to the Macpherson Ranges on the Queensland New South Wales border. It is found as far inland as the Warrego and headwaters of the Dawson River.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cassia+tomentella#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cassia tomentella prefer full sun to light dappled shade. It grows in dry riverine rain forests, dry rainforests and Eucalyptus forests. It is particularly prevalent east of Emerald to Rockhampton. The altitude ranges from 20 meters ASL to 500 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 2 degrees in August to 39 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 700mm to an average of 1200mm annually. In lower rainfall areas it favours dry creek beds and banks.

Soil Requirements:

Cassia tomentella prefers light reddish clays to gravelly or gritty medium clays mainly derived from decomposed sandstones or at times basalts, metamorphic rocks or shale. The soils pH ranges from 4.5pH to 6pH are preferred. They are not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 6m to 10m by 6m to 8m.

Characteristics:

Cassia tomentella’s bark on mature trees is deep brown with deep longitudinal fissures to the larger branches. The branches are a dull pale grey to a mid grey-brown and scabrous. The new growth and juvenile branchlets are covered in fawn to rusty-brown tomentose hairs.

Cassia tomentella’s pinnate leaves have a rachis that measures 150 to 230mm in length. There are 4 to 10 opposite pairs of leaflets. The oblong to oblong-ovate leaflets measure 20mm to 50mm in length by 15mm to 30mm in width. The base is cuneate to broad cuneate while the apex is retuse. The discolourous laminas are deep sea green and semi glossy to glossy and covered in rusty–brown, caduceus, short, tomentose hairs on the upper lamina while the lower lamina is paler, dull and covered in rusty-brown tomentose hairs. The margins are entire. The mid vein is prominent on the lower lamina and is distinctly visible on the upper lamina surfaces. The petiolules and rachis swell at the junction where they connect to the rachis and stem. The petioles measure 50mm to 65mm while the petiolules measure 1mm to 2mm long. The new growth is a bright pale glossy green.

The inflorescence of Cassia tomentella are erect terminal racemes measuring 70mm to 90mm in length by 60mm to 75mm in diameter. There are 10 to 24 individual flowers on a raceme which measure 10mm to 18mm in length by 12mm to 24mm in width. Both the sepals and petals are yellow. The 5 glabrous retrorse, oblong sepals are bright yellow and measure 6mm to 8mm in length. The apexes of the ovate petals are obtuse to mucronate. The 5 petals measure 8mm to 12mm in length by 5mm to 8mm in width. The pedicel measures 15mm to 20mm in length.

Stamens in Cassia tomentella’s are rather complex. There are 7 stamens and 3 staminodes in the other group. The green stamens and staminodes measure 8mm to 18mm in length while the yellow-brown anthers measures 1.5mm to 3mm in length.

Peak flowering occurs in December but trees will commence flowering in early September and finish in late January. Even trees within the same locality vary considerably.

Cassia tomentella fruits are long cylindrical woody-coriaceous pods. They measure 100mm to 250mm in length by 10mm to 15mm in diameter. The green pods turn reddish-brown on ripening and are slightly constricted between the seeds. The 20 to 40 flattened ovoidal, deep brown-black discoid seeds measure 5mm to 6mm in length by 3mm to 4mm in width.

Wildlife:

Native bees have been observed feeding from the flowers as have many small native beetles.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant large shrub in most garden situations.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Cassia tomentella make magnificent small to medium park trees for the small suburban garden or large properties. They are moderately fast growing in most gardens. They are less frost sensitive than other tree cassias and can withstand temperatures as low as minus 5 degrees. Garden subjects will grow into dense small shade trees to 8 meters to 10 meters in height by 7 meters to 10 meters in diameter. In Native gardens it can be used to protect more delicate plants giving good shade.

Cassia tomentella is a beautiful spreading tree that looks great in the garden where a formal look is required or placed in the center of a driveway. It can be used very effectively on heavier soils provided the drainage is good. Cassia tomentella should be more widely grown on light to heavy clay soils and poor decomposed shale in semi-arid, tropical, semi tropical and warm temperate areas of Australia. They are drought resistant once established.

The trees can be used to highlight architectural lines on low set long buildings to great effect because of the trees excellent umbrella shape especially in semi-arid areas of Australia.

Cassia tomentella would make very good accent trees in front of low set commercial or industrial sheds where they will break up hard rigid architectural lines and give warmth and breadth to a building. In front of high rise buildings they give balance especially where they could be grown in curves meandering to the entry doors or for something different used from the front of the path and meander back to the far corners with shrubs or flowers planted between the trees and the building and the trees and the nature strip.

Placed in a formal garden bed they can be surrounded by ground covers that prefer rich composted soils as the fallen leaves will help balance soils and add nitrogen at the same time. Most red flowering Grevillea specie are compatible and prefer similar soils. Use Greville specie with finer, pale green or glaucous leaves for contrast. Avoid plants with yellow flowers and deep green foliage.

It is an excellent tree for hosting epiphytic orchids and ferns with older trees hosting many different species of lichens.

It makes ideal avenue trees in parks because of their size and dense canopy. The beauty is further enhanced by the strong contrast in the colour of the upper and lower laminas. The flowers are prolific and will carpet the ground for many weeks in red and gold.

Another strong character of the plant is that it can be planted in or adjacent to rainforests or used to start a small rainforest garden. Here the flowers form a wonderful carpet of colour amidst the dark surroundings within the forest. Try using Cassia tomentella as the shorter tree mixed with Brachychiton acerifolium for something really spectacular. As the red fades the yellows would spring into life.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cassia tomentella seeds can be sown into a seed raising mix. Place the trays in a warm position under 30% shades or dappled sunlight. Keep the seeds moist not wet. When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 200mm to 250mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings, plant the trees at 10 meter to 12 meter centers for a rainforest or 16 meter to 20 meters for a park scenario.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

.Cassinia aureonitens

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Order: Asterids

Family: Asteraceae

Genus: Is named in honour of Alexandre Henri Gabriel Comte de Cassini; 1781-1832, who was a French botanist and naturalist.

Specie: From Aureum which is Latin for gold and Nitēns, which is Latin for bright, shinny or glistening. It refers to flowers which have a bright golden colour.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Cassine aureonitens is found south from Lismore to Bega in New South Wales with its greatest concentration west of Sydney. It is found on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cassinia+aureonitens#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cassinia aureonitens prefers full sun to dappled shade. It grows in open moist woodlandsand heaths. The altitude ranges from 20 meters ASL to 900 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 5 degrees in August to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 850mm to 1300mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Cassinia aureonitens prefers sandy loams to medium clays and light gravelly clays. The soils are mainly derived from decomposed sandstone, or alluvial deposits. The soil’s pH ranges from 4.5pH to 6.5pH. It is not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:12m to 3m by 1.5m to 2m.

Characteristics:

Cassiniae aureonitens stems are reddish-brown and are sparsely covered in short glandular hairs.

The somewhat stem clasping petioles measure 4mm to 7mm in length. The narrow-elliptic to linear-elliptic leaves measure 30mm to 70mm in length by 2mm to 5mm in width. The bases narrowly taper or are slightly decurrent, while the apexes are narrow acute. The margins are entire, while the upper lamina is dark green and glabrous or very sparsely covered in minute glandular hairs and the lower lamina is paler is very sparsely covered in white, minute hairs.

The inflorescence are dense corymbs that measure 120mm in diameter. The individual heads measure 1mm to 3mm in length by 1mm to 1.5mm in diameter. The involucral bracts are in 4 or 5 imbricate rows with obtuse to broad-acute apexes. The inner bracts are bright yellow with opaque tips, while the 5 or 6 florets are brilliant yellow.

The pubescent achenes measure 0.5mm length and are covered in 2mm long, white pappus.

Wildlife:

Cassinia aureonitens supports numerous beetles, native flies, midget wasps, butterflies and native bees when in flower.

Cultivation:

Cassine aureonitens is a beautiful small shrub when in flower for the small or large gardens as a feature plant or in the center of a bush garden. The shrubs grow much smaller in cultivation growing from 1.5 meters to 2.5 meters in height by 1.5 meters to 2 meters in diameter when grown in an open situation.

The shrub is an excellent park and garden specimens fast growing especially in the early years, copes with heavier soils, is drought resistant or prolonged wets and can handle heavy frosts. Flowering usually commences in the second year even from seed.

Cassinia aureonitens has one drawback in that it does become very open in habit as it ages. If a trunk look is required for example in a small court yard or a formal Japanese Garden then they are most suitable. They can be used as the main plant beside the water feature or the lone solitary boulder. Imagine a small pond with fish swimming. It can partially surround such a scene and still look effective. The stems can be coaxed to growing horizontal or angled to make the reflection even stronger and the linear leaves near the apex will create a larger looking pond. This type of scene is very thought provoking.

Alternatively Cassinia aureonitens can be used at the center of a native shrub garden or make outstanding contribution to a dry heath garden. When planted at the center the bare basal stems are hidden from view yet the exceptional beauty of the masses of flowers produced are eye catching for several months of the year. When you design a flat heath garden which Cassinia aureonitens is well suited don’t use contours to display the plants as heath lands are almost always flat or have a slight rise. Make the path narrow so you have to feel the plants as you walk through the garden bed. This gives an extra dimension which many people forget about when designing heath gardens. Plants must be planted close together and be short so you can see over the tallest ones with the exception of one or two plants at the most. With Cassinia aureonitens I would have a tendency to mass plant them in an almost formal curving row through the center if the garden bed is large. The idea would be to give great power to draw attention to the center of the bed during the flowering season. Mass plantings of smaller red and pink flowers would not only compliment the scene but make it more powerful. Use a lot of procumbent plants like Melaleuca thymifolia or Melaleuca pearsonii. To draw attention to a bush setting Melaleuca citrinus would make good companion plants.

Cassinia aureonitens make outstanding cut flowers and last for a long time indoors. The flowers can be dyed and used in dried flower arrangements.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cassinia aureonitens seeds require no treatment before sowing. Collect the seeds from flowers that have begun to disperse their seeds for best results.

It is best to plant the seeds out in early spring. Sow the seeds into a tray and cover them with a fine potting mix to 2 mm. Place the trays in a warm sheltered position under 30% shade or dappled sunlight. Keep the seeds moist not wet.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height nip the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings, plant the shrubs at 3 meter to 4 meter centers for a forest garden or 1.5 meter to 2 meter centers for a windbreak or hedge row that is several meters wide. For a wind break they would need to be planted in the center row not on the outside due to the sparseness of foliage near the base. Here they can be planted 1.5 meters apart and within 200mm of the plants on the outside rows.

Cuttings: Use 70mm to 100mm long semi hardwood cuttings prepared from partially mature wood of the current season’s growth, just after a flush of growth. Take the cuttings from January to early April. The wood is reasonably firm and the leaves of mature size.

1 Prepare the cutting mix by adding one third sharp clean river sand, one third peat and one third perlite. These ingredients are sterilize,

2 Select good material from non diseased plants,

3 Select semi green stems for cuttings. Look for a stem with two or three nodes,

4 Place the cutting on a flat, hard surface, and make a clean slice through the middle of the lower node on an angle towards the base, with a sterilized sharp knife or razor blade or take a 10mm slice off one side of the cutting. – This scarification of the node will increase the chances of roots emerging from this spot. Now remove all but one or two the leaves, leaving the apex leaves in tact. If the leaves are very large in proportion to the stem, cut off the apical halves.

5 Some plants root easily, but a rooting hormone can help others by stimulating the cutting into sending out new roots. Fill a saucer with water, and place some rooting hormone into another container like a bottle top. Dip the node end of the cutting into the water and then into the rooting hormone. Tap off any excess hormone,

6 Use a small dipple stick or old pencil to poke a hole into the soilless potting mix. Ensure the hole is slightly larger than the stem diameter and be careful not to wipe the rooting hormone off the cuttings base, place the cuttings in a pattern ensuring the cuttings are not touching each other,

7 I like to place the pots in Plastic bags to help maintain temperature and moisture. Place in a semi shaded place like under 50% shade cloth.

8 When the cuttings have struck, open the bag to allow air circulation for a few days to a week,

9 Once hardened off remove the cuttings from the bag and allow to further hardening for a few more days,

10 Transplant into a good potting mix to grow on.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cassinia australis

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Order: Asterids

Family: Asteraceae

Genus: Is named in honour of Alexandre Henri Gabriel Comte de Cassini; 1781-1832, who was a French botanist and naturalist.

Specie: From Terra Australis, which is Latin for land of the south. It refers to plants, which were first discovered from the land down under.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Cassinia australis is found south from the Macpherson ranges in southern Queensland to the Fitzroy Falls north west of Nowra in central coastal New South Wales.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cassine+australis#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cassinia australis prefers full sun to dappled shade. It grows in schlerophyll forests, open woodlands, littoral forests, or adjacent to moist well developed rainforests, along dry riverine banks at higher altitudes, exposed situations particularly on rocky escarpments. The altitude ranges from 20 meters ASL to 900 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in August to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 850mm to 1800mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Cassinia australis prefers sandy loams to medium clays, gravelly clays. The soils are mainly derived from decomposed sandstone, shales, brown basalts or black basalts. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. It is not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:1.8m to 3m by 1.5m to 2m

Characteristics:

Cassinia australis grows as a multi stemmed woody shrub. The grey to silver-grey or grey-brown bark is finely longitudinally furrowed becoming coarser near the base on older plants. The new growth and juvenile plants branchlets are grey-green to pale sea-green, glabrous and densely covered in white glandular hairs.

The crowded linear leaves of Cassiia australis measure 20mm to 70mm in length by 1mm to 3.5mm in width. The bases do not taper and are sessile while the apex is mucronate. The discolourous laminas are sea-green, semi glossy, scabrous or finely tuberculate and sparsely covered in white glandular hairs on the upper lamina while the lower surface is glabrous and densely covered in white glandular hairs. The laminas are convex from the mid vein to the margins and are revolute. The leaf margins are entire. The mid vein is broadly, obtusely prominent on the lower laminas and are distinctly visible as a channel on the upper laminas. Young leaves are more lime green than mature leaves.

The inflorescences of Cassinia australis are dense terminal corymbs and measure 80mm to 120mm in diameter. The pale yellow-green to pale lime-green rachis, peduncules, pedunculates and pedicels are densely covered in white glandular hairs. The rachises measure 30mm to 40mm in length while the peduncules measure 15mm to 25mm in length, the pedunculates measure 15mm to 20mm in length and the pedicels measure 0mm to 3mm in length.

The individual flower buds measure 4mm to 6mm in length by 2mm to 5mm in diameter. The involucral bracts are in 4 or 5 imbricate rows with wrinkled obtuse apexes. The hyaline, golden-brown bracts are strongly membranous on the margins. The 5 or 6 florets are white or yellow.

The stamens are white or yellow.

The white pistil extends past the anthers. The flower buds appear over a long period before opening giving the appearance that they are in flower from October to February.

The fruits of Cassinia australis are small achenes. The achenes measure 0.5mm to 0.1mm in length and are covered in white glandular to pulverulent hairs. The achenes white pappus’ measure 2mm to 2.5mm in length.

Wildlife:

Cassinia australis supports numerous beetles, native flies, midget wasps, butterflies and native bees when in flower.

Cultivation:

Cassinia australis is a beautiful small shrub when in flower for the small or large gardens as a feature plant or in the center of a bush garden. The shrubs grow much smaller in cultivation growing from 1.5 meters to 2.5 meters in height by 1.5 meters to 2 meters in diameter when grown in an open situation.

The shrub is an excellent park and garden specimens fast growing especially in the early years, copes with heavier soils, is drought resistant or prolonged wets and can handle heavy frosts. Flowering usually commences in the second year even from seed.

Cassinia australis has one drawback in that it does become very open in habit as it ages. If a trunk look is required for example in a small court yard or a formal Japanese Garden then they are most suitable. They can be used as the main plant beside the water feature or the lone solitary boulder. Imagine a small pond with fish swimming. Beside it is a single Cassinia compacta with its rough trunk reflected on the water and above it, is water, cascading down over small rocks. This is very powerful yet formal and relaxing. They can partially surround such a scene and still look effective. The stems can be coaxed to growing horizontal or angled to make the reflection even stronger and the linear leaves near the apex will create a larger looking pond. This type of scene is very thought provoking.

Alternatively Cassinia australis can be used at the center of a bush garden or make outstanding contribution to a dry heath garden. When planted at the center the bare basal stems are hidden from view yet the exceptional beauty of the masses of flowers produced are eye catching for several months of the year. When you design a flat heath garden which Cassinia australis is well suited don’t use contours to display the plants as heath lands are almost always flat or have a slight rise. Make the path narrow so you have to feel the plants as you walk through the garden bed. This gives an extra dimension which many people forget about when designing heath gardens. Plants must be planted close together and be short so you can see over the tallest ones with the exception of one or two plants at the most. With Cassinia australis I would have a tendency to mass plant them in an almost formal curving row through the center if the garden bed is large. The idea would be to give great power to draw attention to the center of the bed during the flowering season. Mass plantings of smaller red and pink flowers would not only compliment the scene but make it more powerful. Use a lot of procumbent plants like Melaleuca thymifolia or Melaleuca pearsonii. To draw attention to a bush setting Melaleuca citrinus would make good companion plants.

Cassinia australis make outstanding cut flowers and last for a long time indoors. The flowers can be dyed and used in dried flower arrangements.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cassinia australis seeds require no treatment before sowing.

Collect the seeds from flowers that have begun to disperse their seeds for best results.

It is best to plant the seeds out in early spring. Sow the seeds into a tray and cover them with a fine potting mix to 2 mm. Place the trays in a warm sheltered position under 30% shade or dappled sunlight. Keep the seeds moist not wet.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height nip the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings, plant the shrubs at 3 meter to 4 meter centers for a forest garden or 1.5 meter to 2 meter centers for a windbreak or hedge row that is several meters wide. For a wind break they would need to be planted in the center row not on the outside due to the sparseness of foliage near the base. Here they can be planted 1.5 meters apart and within 200mm of the plants on the outside rows.

Cuttings: Use 70mm to 100mm long semi hardwood cuttings prepared from partially mature wood of the current season’s growth, just after a flush of growth. Take the cuttings from January to early April. The wood is reasonably firm and the leaves of mature size.

1 Prepare the cutting mix by adding one third sharp clean river sand, one third peat and one third perlite. These ingredients are sterilize,

2 Select good material from non diseased plants,

3 Select semi green stems for cuttings. Look for a stem with two or three nodes,

4 Place the cutting on a flat, hard surface, and make a clean slice through the middle of the lower node on an angle towards the base, with a sterilized sharp knife or razor blade or take a 10mm slice off one side of the cutting. – This scarification of the node will increase the chances of roots emerging from this spot. Now remove all but one or two the leaves, leaving the apex leaves in tact. If the leaves are very large in proportion to the stem, cut off the apical halves.

5 Some plants root easily, but a rooting hormone can help others by stimulating the cutting into sending out new roots. Fill a saucer with water, and place some rooting hormone into another container like a bottle top. Dip the node end of the cutting into the water and then into the rooting hormone. Tap off any excess hormone,

6 Use a small dipple stick or old pencil to poke a hole into the soilless potting mix. Ensure the hole is slightly larger than the stem diameter and be careful not to wipe the rooting hormone off the cuttings base, place the cuttings in a pattern ensuring the cuttings are not touching each other,

7 I like to place the pots in Plastic bags to help maintain temperature and moisture. Place in a semi shaded place like under 50% shade cloth.

8 When the cuttings have struck, open the bag to allow air circulation for a few days to a week,

9 Once hardened off remove the cuttings from the bag and allow to further hardening for a few more days,

10 Transplant into a good potting mix to grow on.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cassinia compacta

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Order: Asterids

Family: Asteraceae

Genus: Is named in honour of Alexandre Henri Gabriel Comte de Cassini; 1781-1832, who was a French botanist and naturalist.

Specie: From Com/Con, which are Latin for to come together and Pacta, which is Latin for to put away or bind together. It refers to the flowers being tightly packed together.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Cassinia compacta is found south from the Macpherson ranges in southern Queensland to the Fitzroy Falls north west of Nowra in central coastal New South Wales.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cassinia+compacta#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cassinia compacta prefers full sun to dappled shade. It grows in schlerophyll forests, open woodlands, littoral forests, or adjacent to moist well developed rainforests, along dry riverine banks at higher altitudes, exposed situations particularly on rocky escarpments. The altitude ranges from 20 meters ASL to 900 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in August to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 850mm to 1800mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Cassinia compacta prefers sandy loams to medium clays, gravelly clays. The soils are mainly derived from decomposed sandstone, shales, brown basalts or black basalts. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. It is not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:1.8m to 3m by 1.5m to 2m

Characteristics:

Cassinia compacta grows as a multi stemmed woody shrub. The grey to silver-grey or grey-brown bark is finely longitudinally furrowed becoming coarser near the base on older plants. The new growth and juvenile plants branchlets are grey-green to pale sea-green, glabrous and densely covered in white glandular hairs.

The crowded linear leaves of Cassinia compacta measure 20mm to 70mm in length by 1mm to 3.5mm in width. The bases do not taper and are sessile while the apex is mucronate. The discolourous laminas are sea-green, semi glossy, scabrous or finely tuberculate and sparsely covered in white glandular hairs on the upper lamina while the lower surface is glabrous and densely covered in white glandular hairs. The laminas are convex from the mid vein to the margins and are revolute. The leaf margins are entire. The mid vein is broadly, obtusely prominent on the lower laminas and are distinctly visible as a channel on the upper laminas. Young leaves are more lime green than mature leaves.

The inflorescences of Cassinia compactaare dense terminal corymbs and measure 80mm to 120mm in diameter. The pale yellow-green to pale lime-green rachis, peduncules, pedunculates and pedicels are densely covered in white glandular hairs. The rachises measure 30mm to 40mm in length while the peduncules measure 15mm to 25mm in length, the pedunculates measure 15mm to 20mm in length and the pedicels measure 0mm to 3mm in length.

The individual flower buds measure 4mm to 6mm in length by 2mm to 5mm in diameter. The involucral bracts are in 4 or 5 imbricate rows with wrinkled obtuse apexes. The hyaline, golden-brown bracts are strongly membranous on the margins. The 5 or 6 florets are white or yellow.

The stamens are white or yellow.

The white pistil extends past the anthers. The flower buds appear over a long period before opening giving the appearance that they are in flower from October to February.

The fruits of Cassinia compactaare small achenes. The achenes measure 0.5mm to 0.1mm in length and are covered in white glandular to pulverulent hairs. The achenes white pappus’ measure 2mm to 2.5mm in length.

Wildlife:

Cassinia compacta supports numerous beetles, native flies, midget wasps, butterflies and native bees when in flower.

Cultivation:

Cassinia compacta is a beautiful small shrub when in flower for the small or large gardens as a feature plant or in the center of a bush garden. The shrubs grow much smaller in cultivation growing from 1.5 meters to 2.5 meters in height by 1.5 meters to 2 meters in diameter when grown in an open situation.

The shrub is an excellent park and garden specimens fast growing especially in the early years, copes with heavier soils, is drought resistant or prolonged wets and can handle heavy frosts. Flowering usually commences in the second year even from seed.

Cassinia compacta has one drawback in that it does become very open in habit as it ages. If a trunk look is required for example in a small court yard or a formal Japanese Garden then they are most suitable. They can be used as the main plant beside the water feature or the lone solitary boulder. Imagine a small pond with fish swimming. Beside it is a single Cassinia compacta with its rough trunk reflected on the water and above it, is water, cascading down over small rocks. This is very powerful yet formal and relaxing. They can partially surround such a scene and still look effective. The stems can be coaxed to growing horizontal or angled to make the reflection even stronger and the linear leaves near the apex will create a larger looking pond. This type of scene is very thought provoking.

Alternatively Cassinia compacta can be used at the center of a bush garden or make outstanding contribution to a dry heath garden. When planted at the center the bare basal stems are hidden from view yet the exceptional beauty of the masses of flowers produced are eye catching for several months of the year. When you design a flat heath garden which Cassinia compacta is well suited don’t use contours to display the plants as heath lands are almost always flat or have a slight rise. Make the path narrow so you have to feel the plants as you walk through the garden bed. This gives an extra dimension which many people forget about when designing heath gardens. Plants must be planted close together and be short so you can see over the tallest ones with the exception of one or two plants at the most. With Cassinia compacta I would have a tendency to mass plant them in an almost formal curving row through the center if the garden bed is large. The idea would be to give great power to draw attention to the center of the bed during the flowering season. Mass plantings of smaller red and pink flowers would not only compliment the scene but make it more powerful. Use a lot of procumbent plants like Melaleuca thymifolia or Melaleuca pearsonii. To draw attention to a bush setting Melaleuca citrinus would make good companion plants.

Cassinia compacta make outstanding cut flowers and last for a long time indoors. The flowers can be dyed and used in dried flower arrangements.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cassinia compacta seeds require no treatment before sowing.

Collect the seeds from flowers that have begun to disperse their seeds for best results.

It is best to plant the seeds out in early spring. Sow the seeds into a tray and cover them with a fine potting mix to 2 mm. Place the trays in a warm sheltered position under 30% shade or dappled sunlight. Keep the seeds moist not wet.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height nip the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings, plant the shrubs at 3 meter to 4 meter centers for a forest garden or 1.5 meter to 2 meter centers for a windbreak or hedge row that is several meters wide. For a wind break they would need to be planted in the center row not on the outside due to the sparseness of foliage near the base. Here they can be planted 1.5 meters apart and within 200mm of the plants on the outside rows.

Cuttings: Use 70mm to 100mm long semi hardwood cuttings prepared from partially mature wood of the current season’s growth, just after a flush of growth. Take the cuttings from January to early April. The wood is reasonably firm and the leaves of mature size.

1 Prepare the cutting mix by adding one third sharp clean river sand, one third peat and one third perlite. These ingredients are sterilize,

2 Select good material from non diseased plants,

3 Select semi green stems for cuttings. Look for a stem with two or three nodes,

4 Place the cutting on a flat, hard surface, and make a clean slice through the middle of the lower node on an angle towards the base, with a sterilized sharp knife or razor blade or take a 10mm slice off one side of the cutting. – This scarification of the node will increase the chances of roots emerging from this spot. Now remove all but one or two the leaves, leaving the apex leaves in tact. If the leaves are very large in proportion to the stem, cut off the apical halves.

5 Some plants root easily, but a rooting hormone can help others by stimulating the cutting into sending out new roots. Fill a saucer with water, and place some rooting hormone into another container like a bottle top. Dip the node end of the cutting into the water and then into the rooting hormone. Tap off any excess hormone,

6 Use a small dipple stick or old pencil to poke a hole into the soilless potting mix. Ensure the hole is slightly larger than the stem diameter and be careful not to wipe the rooting hormone off the cuttings base, place the cuttings in a pattern ensuring the cuttings are not touching each other,

7 I like to place the pots in Plastic bags to help maintain temperature and moisture. Place in a semi shaded place like under 50% shade cloth.

8 When the cuttings have struck, open the bag to allow air circulation for a few days to a week,

9 Once hardened off remove the cuttings from the bag and allow to further hardening for a few more days,

10 Transplant into a good potting mix to grow on.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cassinia macrocephala

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Order: Asterids

Family: Asteraceae

Genus: Is named in honour of Alexandre Henri Gabriel Comte de Cassini; 1781-1832, who was a French botanist and naturalist.

Specie: From Makros which is Ancient Greek for large and Kephalḗ, which is Ancient Greek for a head. It refers to flower heads, which are much larger than other species in the genus.

Sub species: Cassinia macrocephala subsp. macrocephala. From Makros which is Ancient Greek for large and Kephalḗ, which is Ancient Greek for a head. It refers to flower heads, which are much larger when compared to other species in the genus.

Sub species: Cassinia macrocephala subsp. petrapendula. From Petraîos, which is Ancient Greek or Petraeum, which is Latin for a rock or a rocky place and Pendula, which is Latin for I hang down. It refers to the sub species preferring habits and environments associated with large basalt boulders on slopes and can be seen hanging down over cliffs and the on rock shelves.

Sub species: Cassinia macrocephala subsp. storyi, is probably named in honour Robert Story; 1913-1999 who was a South African botanist, ecologist and strong believer in organic agriculture.

Sub species: Cassinia macrocephala subsp. tenuis. From Tanu, which is Ancient Greek or later Tenue, which is Latin for slender and fine. It refers to articles on the stem sections which are slender and look rather fine and delicate.

Common Name:

Distribution:

Cassinia macrocephala subsp. macrocephala has a restricted distribution in two disjunct populations north and north west of Tamworth.

Cassinia macrocephala subsp. petrapendula has a restricted distribution south east of Tamworth.

Cassinia macrocephala subsp. storyi has a restricted distribution south west of Tamworth.

Cassinia macrocephala subsp. tenuis has a restricted distribution south of Inverell.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cassinia+macrocephala#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cassinia macrocephala prefer partial shade to dappled sunlight. It grows in moist schlerophyll forests open woodlands particularly on rocky escarpments and ridges. The altitude ranges from 500 meters ASL to 1300 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in August to 38 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 500mm to 900mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Cassinia macrocephala prefer soils that are course sands, sandy loams, light gravelly clays and screes. The soils are usually derived from decomposed granites. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. It is not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 1m to 2.5m by 1m to 2m

Characteristics:

Cassinia macrocephala grows as an open shrub with long ascending stems. The pale brown stems are sparsely covered in tuberculate lumps. The new growth and juvenile plants stems are reddish-brown turning paler then a pale green near the apexes. They are densely covered in white pubescent hairs.

The crowded long, narrow linear leaves of Cassinia macrocephala measure 20mm to 80mm in length by 0.7mm to 3.5mm in width. The bases are sessile while the apexes are acute or obtuse with a small mucronate tip. The discolourous laminas are mid grass-green to mid blue-green, dull and moderately to densely covered in white pubescent hairs on the upper lamina while the lower lamina is paler and densely covered in white pubescent hairs. The laminas decurve strongly downwards in an arch and decurve strongly downwards from the base to the apex. The leaf margins are entire. The mid vein is prominent on the lower lamina and is strongly depressed on the upper lamina.

The inflorescences of Cassinia macrocephala are dense terminal broad globose panicles that measure 50mm to 80mm in length by 80mm to 120mm in diameter. The pale to pastel green to yellow-green pedicel, rachis, peduncules and pedunculates are densely covered in soft, white, canescent hairs.

The individual linear to narrow campanulate flowers measure 4mm to 5mm in length by 1mm to 1.5mm in diameter. The ovate white, involucral bracts are in 3 or 4 imbricate rows and have acute-obtuse, becoming more hyaline as they age. There are 10 to 17 cream florets per head.

The inserted stamens are cream. The cream style and bright yellow stigma is exserted. The flowers appear from early September to February.

The fruits of Cassinia macrocephala are small deep purple-brown, cylindrical achenes. The achenes measure 1mm to 1.1mm in length. The achenes are densely covered with long white bimerous hairs. The pappi are in a single row and are slightly fused at the base. The 20 to 27 deciduous barbellate bristles measure 2mm in length. At maturity the involucral bracts spread to release achenes. The dried palea and inner involucral bracts, with the remaining parts of flower head persist on the plant for up to 12 months.

Subspecie Differences:

Cassinia macrocephala subsp. macrocephala: Confined to the northern tablelands of NSW on the Nandewar/Moonbi Ranges. Robust shrubs grow 0.3meters to 2meters in height. Young stems densely covered in soft acicular gland tipped hairs.

The mature leaves measure 30mm to 70mm in length by 1mm to 3.5mm in width and are densely covered in soft, white acicular and gland tipped hairs on the upper lamina while the lower lamina is similar but less dense and more floccose.

The flower heads have 15 to 17 florets. The achenes are red-purple and measure 1mm to 1.2mm in length and are moderately to densely covered in soft white pubescent hairs.

Cassinia macrocephala subsp. petrapendula: Restricted to a very small area near Hanging Rock, Nundle, and on the road to Barry Robust shrubs grow 1meter to 2meters in height. Young stems are densely covered in soft acicular, gland tipped hairs under a layer of sparse to moderately dense cottony floccose hairs with occasional subsessile globular hairs.

The mature leaves measure 25mm to 55mm in length by 0.7mm to 0.8mm with hairs on upper lamina moderately dense, coarse, conical and usually not gland tipped while the lower lamina is similar but less dense with sparse cottony floccose hairs and long fine gland tipped hairs and subsessile globular hairs.

The flower heads have 5 to 7 florets. Achene deep purple and measure 0.9mm in length and are sparsely covered in soft white pubescent hairs. Flowers appear from December and in January and fruits from January to March.


Cassinia macrocephala subsp. storyi: Only known from the type collection from the Coolah Tops. Open shrubs grow to 1.7meters in height. Young stems are very densely covered in soft acicular, gland tipped hairs with very sparse under-layer of cottony hairs.

Mature leaves measure 60mm to 70mm in length by 1.3mm to 1.5mm in width with hairs on upper lamina moderately dense, coarse, conical and some gland tipped hairs while the lower lamina is similar but less dense, with a sparse cover of cottony floccose hairs and frequent long fine gland tipped hairs and some subsessile globular hairs.

The flower heads have 8 florets while the achenes have not been recorded. The flowers appeared in December.


Cassinia macrocephala subsp. tenuis: Only known from the Goonoowigal Bushland Reserve. Robust shrubs grow 1meter to 4meters in height. Young stems are densely covered in soft acicular, hairs and are very sparsely covered in gland tipped hairs.

Mature leaves measure 20mm to 35mm in length by 0.7mm to 1mm in width with hairs on upper lamina moderately dense, coarse, conical and some gland tipped hairs while the lower lamina is similar but less dense, with a sparse cover of cottony floccose hairs and subsessile globular hairs and very occasional long fine gland-tipped hairs.

The flower heads have 9 or 10 florets while the achenes have not been recorded. The flowers appear from December to February.

Confusing Species:

Vegetatively Cassinia macrocephala very closely resembles Cassinia leptocephala. Sterile plants are virtually indistinguishable. Species found in the wild that are growing further west or further east of the naturally occurring distribution range are most likely to be Cassinia leptocephala.

Wildlife:

Cassinia macrocephala supports numerous beetles, native flies, midget wasps, butterflies and native bees when in flower.

Cultivation:

Cassinia macrocephala is a beautiful large shrub with delicate bright grass-green foliage and large creamy yellow flower heads. It is at its best when growing in a larger mixed woodland type garden. The shrubs grow more variable in cultivation growing from 1.5 meters to probably around 3 meters in height by 1.5 meters to 2.5 meters in diameter when grown in an open situation.

The shrubs are excellent park and garden specimens being fast growing especially in the early years, can cope with heavier soils, are drought resistant and can handle heavy frosts. Flowering usually commences in the second year even from seed.

Cassinia macrocephala can be used at the center of a bush garden or make an outstanding contribution to a dry heath garden. When planted at the center the bare basal stems are hidden from view yet the exceptional beauty of the masses of flowers produced are eye catching for several months of the year. When you design a flat heath garden which Cassinia macrocephala is well suited don’t use contours to display the plants as heath lands are almost always flat or have a slight rise. Make the path narrow so you have to feel the plants as you walk through the garden bed. This gives an extra dimension which many people forget about when designing heath gardens. Plants must be planted close together and be short so you can see over the tallest ones with the exception of one or two plants at the most. With Cassinia macrocephala I would have a tendency to mass plant them in an almost formal curving row through the back of the garden bed in a large bed. The idea would be to give great power to draw attention to the back of the bed during the flowering season. Mass plantings of smaller red and pink flowers would not only compliment the scene but make it more powerful. Use a lot of procumbent plants like Melaleuca thymifolia or Melaleuca pearsonii. To draw attention to a bush setting Melaleuca citrinus would make good companion plants.

Cassinia macrocephala makes an outstanding cut flower and last for a long time indoors. The flowers can be dyed and used in dried flower arrangements.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cassine macrocephala seeds require no treatment before sowing. Collect the seeds from flowers that have begun to disperse their seeds for best results.

It is best to plant the seeds out in early spring or early autumn Sow the seeds into a tray and cover them with a fine potting mix to 2 mm. Place the trays in a warm sheltered position under 30% shade or dappled sunlight. Keep the seeds moist not wet.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height nip the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings, plant the shrubs at 3 meter to 5 meter centers for a forest garden or 1 meter to 1.5 meter centers for a windbreak or hedge row that is several meters wide. For a wind break they would need to be planted in the center row not on the outside due to the sparseness of foliage near the base. Here they can be planted 1.5 meters apart and within 200mm of the plants on the outside rows.

Cuttings: Use 70mm to 100mm long semi hardwood cuttings prepared from partially mature wood of the current season’s growth, just after a flush of growth. Take the cuttings from January to early April or later if you are in a frost free area. Use 70mm to 100mm long semi hardwood cuttings prepared from partially mature wood of the current season’s growth, just after a flush of growth. Take the cuttings from January to early April. The wood is reasonably firm and the leaves of mature size.

1 Prepare the cutting mix by adding one third sharp clean river sand, one third peat and one third perlite. These ingredients are sterilize,

2 Select good material from non diseased plants,

3 Select semi green stems for cuttings. Look for a stem with two or three nodes,

4 Place the cutting on a flat, hard surface, and make a clean slice through the middle of the lower node on an angle towards the base, with a sterilized sharp knife or razor blade or take a 10mm slice off one side of the cutting. – This scarification of the node will increase the chances of roots emerging from this spot. Now remove all but one or two the leaves, leaving the apex leaves in tact. If the leaves are very large in proportion to the stem, cut off the apical halves.

5 Some plants root easily, but a rooting hormone can help others by stimulating the cutting into sending out new roots. Fill a saucer with water, and place some rooting hormone into another container like a bottle top. Dip the node end of the cutting into the water and then into the rooting hormone. Tap off any excess hormone,

6 Use a small dipple stick or old pencil to poke a hole into the soilless potting mix. Ensure the hole is slightly larger than the stem diameter and be careful not to wipe the rooting hormone off the cuttings base, place the cuttings in a pattern ensuring the cuttings are not touching each other,

7 I like to place the pots in Plastic bags to help maintain temperature and moisture. Place in a semi shaded place like under 50% shade cloth.

8 When the cuttings have struck, open the bag to allow air circulation for a few days to a week,

9 Once hardened off remove the cuttings from the bag and allow to further hardening for a few more days,

10 Transplant into a good potting mix to grow on.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.  

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cassinia quinquefaria

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Order: Asterids

Family: Asteraceae

Genus: Is named in honour of Alexandre Henri Gabriel Comte de Cassini; 1781-1832, who was a French botanist and naturalist.

Specie: From Quin which is Latin for five Que which is Latin for times and Faria which is Latin for ranking. It refers to flower or leaf structures which have a ratio of five/eight ranking.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Cassinia quinquefaria is found in several disjunct populations south from Homehill and Walshes River, near the Statton River National Park in far north Queensland to the Lachlan River and the Murrumbidgee River in the west to the coast in southern New South Wales. It is mainly found on the Western Slopes and on the Great Dividing Range.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cassine+quinquefaria#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cassinia quinquefaria prefer full sun to dappled shade. It grows in schlerophyll forests open woodlands and littoral forests, along dry riverine riparian zones at higher altitudes, escarpments and ridges or adjacent to rain forests. The altitude ranges from 20 meters ASL to 850 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in August to 39 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 250mm to 1800mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Cassinia quinquefaria prefer soils that are sandy loams to medium clays, gravelly clays in exposed situations particularly rocky sandstone escarpments closer to the coast. The soils are mainly derived from decomposed sandstone, shale and brown basalt or black basalt and metamorphic rocks. The soil’s pH ranges from 4.5pH to 6pH. It is not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 1m to 3m by 1m to 2m

Characteristics:

Cassinia quinquefaria grows as a multi stemmed woody shrub. The grey to silver-grey or grey-brown bark is finely longitudinally furrowed becoming coarser near the base on older plants. The new growth and juvenile plants branchlets are olive-green or reddish-green, resinous and covered in white spreading glandular hairs.

The crowded linear leaves of Cassinia quinquefariameasure 20mm to 40mm in length by 1mm to 1.5mm in width. The bases do not taper and are sessile while the apex is acute. The discolourous laminas are sea-green, semi glossy, scabrous or finely tuberculate and resinous on the upper lamina while the lower surface is paler glabrous and covered in white pulverulent hairs. The laminas are flat to round from the mid vein to the margins and are revolute. The leaf margins are entire. The mid veins are prominent on the lower laminas and are distinctly visible as a channel on the upper laminas. Young leaves are more grass-green than the mature leaves.

The inflorescences of Cassinia quinquefaria are dense terminal pyramid panicles and measure 50mm to 100mm in length by 40mm to 60mm in diameter. The pale grey-green to pale grey olive-green rachis, peduncules, pedunculates and pedicels are densely covered in white glandular hairs. The rachises measure 30mm to 40mm in length while the peduncules measure 15mm to 25mm in length, the pedunculates measure 5mm to 10mm in length and the pedicels measure 0mm to 2mm in length.

The individual campanulate flower buds measure 2.5mm to 3mm in length by 1.5mm to 3mm in diameter. The ovate involucral bracts are in 4 or 5 longitudinal rows with wrinkled acute-obtuse apexes. The hyaline, creamy yellow bracts are glabrous. The 5 or 6 florets are creamy yellow.

The inserted stamens are cream.

The cream style and bright yellow stigma is exserted. The flower buds appear over a long period before opening giving the appearance that they are in flower for long periods. The flowers appear throughout the year with a peak from early January to late April.

The fruits of Cassinia quinquefaria are small glabrous achenes. The achenes measure 0.8mm to 1.4mm in length. The achenes’ white pappus measure 2mm to 2.5mm in length.

Wildlife:

Cassinia quinquefaria supports numerous beetles, native flies, midget wasps, butterflies and native bees when in flower.

Cultivation:

Cassinia quinquefaria is a beautiful small shrub when in flower for the small or large gardens as a feature plant or in the center of a bush garden. The shrubs grow much smaller in cultivation growing from 1.5 meters to 2.5 meters in height by 1.5 meters to 2 meters in diameter when grown in an open situation.

The shrubs are excellent park and garden specimens fast growing especially in the early years, cope with heavier soils, are drought resistant or prolonged wets and can handle heavy frosts. Flowering usually commences in the second year even from seed.

Cassinia quinquefaria has one drawback in that it does become very open in habit as it ages. If a trunk look is required for example in a small court yard or a formal Japanese Garden then they are most suitable. They can be used as the main plant beside the water feature or the lone solitary boulder. Imagine a small pond with fish swimming. Beside it is a single Cassinia quinquefaria with its rough trunk reflected on the water and above it, is water, cascading down over small rocks. This is very powerful yet formal and relaxing. They can partially surround such a scene and still look effective. The stems can be coaxed to growing horizontal or angled to make the reflection even stronger and the linear leaves near the apex will create a larger looking pond. This type of scene is very thought provoking.

Alternatively Cassinia quinquefaria can be used at the center of a bush garden or make outstanding contribution to a dry heath garden. When planted at the center the bare basal stems are hidden from view yet the exceptional beauty of the masses of flowers produced are eye catching for several months of the year. When you design a flat heath garden which Cassinia quinquefaria is well suited don’t use contours to display the plants as heath lands are almost always flat or have a slight rise. Make the path narrow so you have to feel the plants as you walk through the garden bed. This gives an extra dimension which many people forget about when designing heath gardens. Plants must be planted close together and be short so you can see over the tallest ones with the exception of one or two plants at the most. With Cassinia quinquefaria I would have a tendency to mass plant them in an almost formal curving row through the center if the garden bed is large. The idea would be to give great power to draw attention to the center of the bed during the flowering season. Mass plantings of smaller red and pink flowers would not only compliment the scene but make it more powerful. Use a lot of procumbent plants like Melaleuca thymifolia or Melaleuca pearsonii. To draw attention to a bush setting Melaleuca citrinus would make good companion plants.

Cassinia quinquefaria make outstanding cut flowers and last for a long time indoors. The flowers can be dyed and used in dried flower arrangements.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cassinia quinquefaria seeds require no treatment before sowing. Collect the seeds from flowers that have begun to disperse their seeds for best results.

It is best to plant the seeds out in early spring or early autumn Sow the seeds into a tray and cover them with a fine potting mix to 2 mm. Place the trays in a warm sheltered position under 30% shade or dappled sunlight. Keep the seeds moist not wet.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height nip the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings, plant the shrubs at 3 meter to 4 meter centers for a forest garden or 1.5 meter to 2 meter centers for a windbreak or hedge row that is several meters wide. For a wind break they would need to be planted in the center row not on the outside due to the sparseness of foliage near the base. Here they can be planted 1.5 meters apart and within 200mm of the plants on the outside rows.

Cuttings: Use 70mm to 100mm long semi hardwood cuttings prepared from partially mature wood of the current season’s growth, just after a flush of growth. Take the cuttings from January to early April or later if you are in a frost free area. The wood is reasonably firm and the leaves of mature size. Use 70mm to 100mm long semi hardwood cuttings prepared from partially mature wood of the current season’s growth, just after a flush of growth. Take the cuttings from January to early April or later if you are in a frost free area. Use 70mm to 100mm long semi hardwood cuttings prepared from partially mature wood of the current season’s growth, just after a flush of growth. Take the cuttings from January to early April. The wood is reasonably firm and the leaves of mature size.

1 Prepare the cutting mix by adding one third sharp clean river sand, one third peat and one third perlite. These ingredients are sterilize,

2 Select good material from non diseased plants,

3 Select semi green stems for cuttings. Look for a stem with two or three nodes,

4 Place the cutting on a flat, hard surface, and make a clean slice through the middle of the lower node on an angle towards the base, with a sterilized sharp knife or razor blade or take a 10mm slice off one side of the cutting. – This scarification of the node will increase the chances of roots emerging from this spot. Now remove all but one or two the leaves, leaving the apex leaves in tact. If the leaves are very large in proportion to the stem, cut off the apical halves.

5 Some plants root easily, but a rooting hormone can help others by stimulating the cutting into sending out new roots. Fill a saucer with water, and place some rooting hormone into another container like a bottle top. Dip the node end of the cutting into the water and then into the rooting hormone. Tap off any excess hormone,

6 Use a small dipple stick or old pencil to poke a hole into the soilless potting mix. Ensure the hole is slightly larger than the stem diameter and be careful not to wipe the rooting hormone off the cuttings base, place the cuttings in a pattern ensuring the cuttings are not touching each other,

7 I like to place the pots in Plastic bags to help maintain temperature and moisture. Place in a semi shaded place like under 50% shade cloth.

8 When the cuttings have struck, open the bag to allow air circulation for a few days to a week,

9 Once hardened off remove the cuttings from the bag and allow to further hardening for a few more days,

10 Transplant into a good potting mix to grow on.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering. 

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cassinia subtropica

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Order: Asterids

Family: Asteraceae

Genus: Is named in honour of Alexandre Henri Gabriel Comte de Cassini; 1781-1832, who was a French botanist and naturalist.

Specie: From Sub, which is Ancient Greek/Latin for below or lower and Tropḗ, which is Ancient Greek for solstice. It refers to plants, which grow in areas between the tropics and the temperate regions within a country.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Cassinia subtropica is found from Tulley falls in far north Queensland to Walters Creek Glenreagh in north eastern New South Wales. It is mainly found on the Great Dividing Range to the coast.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cassine+subtropica#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cassinia subtropica prefer partial shade to dappled sunlight. It grows in moist schlerophyll forests open woodlands and adjacent to rainforests cool and warm sub-tropical rainforests, particularly rocky sandstone escarpments closer to the coast provided they are sheltered situations. The altitude ranges from 300 meters ASL to 1000 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in August to 39 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 850mm to 2500mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Cassinia subtropica prefer soils that are sandy loams to medium clays, gravelly clays and conglomerates. The soils are usually derived from decomposed sandstone, shale, brown basalt, black basalt or metamorphic rocks. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 7pH. It is not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 1.5m to 2.5m by 1m to 2m

Characteristics:

Cassinia subtropica grows as a multi stemmed bushy shrub. The grey to silver-grey or grey-brown bark is finely longitudinally furrowed becoming coarser near the base on older plants. The new growth and juvenile plants branchlets are pale green and densely covered in white to fawnish-brown spreading stellate hairs.

The alternate lanceolate to ovate leaves of Cassinia subtropica measure 10mm to 33mm in length by 4mm to 9mm in width. The bases are tapering while the apexes are obtuse or acute and mucronate. The petioles are densely covered in white to fawnish-brown spreading stellate hairs. The discolourous laminas are deep grass-green to sea-green, semi glossy and glabrous on the upper lamina while the lower lamina is densely covered in white to fawnish-brown spreading stellate hairs. The laminas recurve upwards in an arch and decurve strongly downwards on the apical quarter. The leaf margins are entire. The mid vein is prominent on the lower lamina and is distinctly visible as a channel on the upper lamina. Young leaves are grass-green and glossy.

The inflorescences of Cassinia subtropica are dense terminal pyramid panicles that measure 50mm to 100mm in length by 40mm to 60mm in diameter. The pale green rachis, peduncules, pedunculates and pedicels are densely covered in white to fawnish-brown spreading stellate hairs.

The individual linear to narrow campanulate flowers measure 4mm to 5mm in length by 1mm to 1.5mm in diameter. The ovate hyaline, involucral bracts are in 3 or 4 imbricate rows and have acute-obtuse, opaque apexes. The 1 to 2 florets are cream or pale brown.

The inserted stamens are cream. The cream style and bright yellow stigma is exserted. The flower buds appear over a long period before opening giving the appearance that they are in flower for long periods. The flowers appear from mid-March to July.

The fruits of Cassinia subtropica are small achenes. The achenes measure 0.6mm to 0.8mm in length. The achenes are covered in white puberulent hairs while the white pappus measure 2mm to 2.5mm in length.

Wildlife:

Cassinia subtropica supports numerous beetles, native flies, midget wasps, butterflies and native bees when in flower.

Cultivation:

Cassinia subtropica is a beautiful small shrub when in flower for the small or large heath garden when used as a feature plant or in the center of a bush garden with low spreading perennials or annuals spurring them. The shrubs grow much smaller in cultivation growing from 1.5 meters to 2 meters in height by 1.5 meters to 2 meters in diameter when grown in an open situation.

The shrubs are excellent park and garden specimens being fast growing especially in the early years, can cope with heavier soils, are drought resistant, accept prolonged wet periods and can handle heavy frosts. Flowering usually commences in the second year even from seed.

Cassinia subtropica has one drawback in that it does become very open in habit as it ages so needs a little pruning from time to time to maintain its health and vigour. If a crooked trunk look is required for example in a small court yard or a formal Japanese Garden then it is most suitable. It can be used as the main plant beside a water feature or a lone solitary boulder. Imagine a small pond with fish swimming. Beside it is a single Cassinia subtropica with its rough trunk reflected on the water and above it, is water, cascading down over small rocks. This is very powerful yet formal and relaxing scene. It can partially surround such a scene and still look effective. The stems can be coaxed to growing horizontal or angled to make the reflection even stronger and the linear leaves near the apex will create a larger looking pond. This type of scene is very thought provoking.

Alternatively Cassinia subtropica can be used at the center of a bush garden or make an outstanding contribution to a dry heath garden. When planted at the center the bare basal stems are hidden from view yet the exceptional beauty of the masses of flowers produced are eye catching for several months of the year. When you design a flat heath garden which Cassinia subtropica is well suited don’t use contours to display the plants as heath lands are almost always flat or have a slight rise. Make the path narrow so you have to feel the plants as you walk through the garden bed. This gives an extra dimension which many people forget about when designing heath gardens. Plants must be planted close together and be short so you can see over the tallest ones with the exception of one or two plants at the most. With Cassinia subtropica I would have a tendency to mass plant them in an almost formal curving row through the back of the garden bed in a large bed. The idea would be to give great power to draw attention to the back of the bed during the flowering season. Mass plantings of smaller red and pink flowers would not only compliment the scene but make it more powerful. Use a lot of procumbent plants like Melaleuca thymifolia or Melaleuca pearsonii. To draw attention to a bush setting Melaleuca citrinus would make good companion plants.

Cassinia subtropica make outstanding cut flowers and last for a long time indoors. The flowers can be dyed and used in dried flower arrangements.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cassinia subtropica seeds require no treatment before sowing. Collect the seeds from flowers that have begun to disperse their seeds for best results.

It is best to plant the seeds out in early spring or early autumn Sow the seeds into a tray and cover them with a fine potting mix to 2 mm. Place the trays in a warm sheltered position under 30% shade or dappled sunlight. Keep the seeds moist not wet.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height nip the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings, plant the shrubs at 3 meter to 5 meter centers for a forest garden or 1 meter to 1.5 meter centers for a windbreak or hedge row that is several meters wide. For a wind break they would need to be planted in the center row not on the outside due to the sparseness of foliage near the base. Here they can be planted 1.5 meters apart and within 200mm of the plants on the outside rows.

Cuttings: Use 70mm to 100mm long semi hardwood cuttings prepared from partially mature wood of the current season’s growth, just after a flush of growth. Take the cuttings from January to early April or later if you are in a frost free area. The wood is reasonably firm and the leaves of mature size. Use 70mm to 100mm long semi hardwood cuttings prepared from partially mature wood of the current season’s growth, just after a flush of growth. Take the cuttings from January to early April or later if you are in a frost free area. Use 70mm to 100mm long semi hardwood cuttings prepared from partially mature wood of the current season’s growth, just after a flush of growth. Take the cuttings from January to early April. The wood is reasonably firm and the leaves of mature size.

1 Prepare the cutting mix by adding one third sharp clean river sand, one third peat and one third perlite. These ingredients are sterilize,

2 Select good material from non diseased plants,

3 Select semi green stems for cuttings. Look for a stem with two or three nodes,

4 Place the cutting on a flat, hard surface, and make a clean slice through the middle of the lower node on an angle towards the base, with a sterilized sharp knife or razor blade or take a 10mm slice off one side of the cutting. – This scarification of the node will increase the chances of roots emerging from this spot. Now remove all but one or two the leaves, leaving the apex leaves in tact. If the leaves are very large in proportion to the stem, cut off the apical halves.

5 Some plants root easily, but a rooting hormone can help others by stimulating the cutting into sending out new roots. Fill a saucer with water, and place some rooting hormone into another container like a bottle top. Dip the node end of the cutting into the water and then into the rooting hormone. Tap off any excess hormone,

6 Use a small dipple stick or old pencil to poke a hole into the soilless potting mix. Ensure the hole is slightly larger than the stem diameter and be careful not to wipe the rooting hormone off the cuttings base, place the cuttings in a pattern ensuring the cuttings are not touching each other,

7 I like to place the pots in Plastic bags to help maintain temperature and moisture. Place in a semi shaded place like under 50% shade cloth.

8 When the cuttings have struck, open the bag to allow air circulation for a few days to a week,

9 Once hardened off remove the cuttings from the bag and allow to further hardening for a few more days,

10 Transplant into a good potting mix to grow on.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering. 

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cassytha glabella

Classification

Unranked: Magnoliids

Order: Laurales

Family: Lauraceae

Genus: From Kassyo, which is Ancient Greek for to sow or stitched up. It refers to the stems twinning tightly around its host.

Specie: From Pūbēscēns, which is Latin for short, very soft hairs. It refers to structures or organs, which are covered in soft, white or pale grey hairs.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Cassytha glabella is found south from Bushy Island east of Mackay in central coastal Queensland, around the coast to Mount Hall in South Australia.

In Western Australia it is found west of a line from the Murchison River

to the Kalgorlie, boulder district and south to Cape Arid national Park.

There are two disjunct populations at Kununrra in far north east of Western Australia and at Mica Creek near Mount Isa in far north western Queensland.

It circumnavigates the coast line of Tasmania.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cassytha+glabella#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cassytha glabella prefer full sun to dappled shade. It grows in open schlerophyll forests, open woodlands and littoral forests growing along dry riverine riparian zones at higher altitudes, escarpments and ridges or adjacent to rain forests. The altitude ranges from 1 meter ASL to 1500 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 1 degree in July to 43 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 350mm to 3200mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Cassytha glabella host plants prefer soils all types of soils. The soil’s pH ranges 4.5pH to 7.5pH. The host plants can tolerate droughts to water logged soils. Non saline soils to extremely saline soils are tolerated as are salt laden winds.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 10m to 15m by 2m to 12m

Characteristics:

Cassytha glabella grows as a twinning parasitic plant with thin wiry stems to 0.5mm in diameter. The stems are pale yellow-green, brownish-green to sea-green and measure 0.5mm to 2.5mm in diameter. The new growth and juvenile growth is glabrous. The haustorium measure less than 1mm in length.

The inflorescences of Cassytha glabella are simple to branched racemes or loose clustered heads born along the stems. The appressed stipules are ovate to lanceolate with acute to caudate apexes and measure 2mm to 5mm in length. The rachises peduncles and pedicels are pale yellow-green, brownish-green to reddish-green and glabrous. The rachises measure 50mm to 110mm in length while the peduncules on the panicles measure 40mm to 90mm in length and the pedicels measure 0mm to 1.5mm in length.

The 8 to 11 individual flowers on a raceme measure 4mm to 7mm in diameter. The 3 yellow-green to reddish–green calyxes are glabrous externally and internally. The calyxes measure 1mm to 1.4mm in length including the lobes. The 6 oblong, white petals have obtuse apexes. The petals measure 5mm to 7mm in length.

The 12 white stamens are attached to the petals.

The lime-green trilobed styles are glabrous. The stigmas are white and extend beyond the petals after anthesis. The flowers appear throughout the year when conditions are favourable.

The fruits of Cassytha glabella are glabrous, obovoidal berries that measure 3mm to 6mm in length by 3mm to 5mm in diameter. The pale grass green berries are glabrous and turn red when ripe.

Wildlife:

Cassytha glabella fruits are eaten by most small honeyeaters and fruit eating birds. The fruits were a favourite food source of the aborigines. They have a sweet honey flavour.

Cultivation:

Cassytha glabella is not really worthy of cultivation and may be problem some once established in the garden.

Cassytha glabella is not really worthy of cultivation and may be problemsome once established in the garden. It is easy to control by pulling it from the host plant. Once removed from the host it dies very quickly. Pieces still attached will re develop very quickly but are usually weakened and a second or third foray on the plants will usually see any resistance succumb. A single plant in the garden may be a great conversation piece or educational tool. The plants do however offer a variety of birds and small native animals a consistent supply of food.

Casdsytha glabella is easy to control by pulling it from the host plant. Once removed from the host it dies very quickly. Pieces still attached will re develop very quickly but are usually weakened and a second or third foray on the plants will usually see any resistance succumb. A single plant in the garden may be a great conversation piece or educational tool. The plants do however offer a variety of birds and small native animals a consistent supply of food.

Despite the superficial appearance of Cassytha glabella and Cuscuta specie the two genres and are not related at all. Biologically they are known as convergent evolution specie. Cassytha glabella is difficult to identify from Cuscuta species. Positive identification is only possible when it is in flower or fruit. The flowers of Cuscuta australis are in clusters with globose fruit where as those of Cassytha glabella are in simple racemes or branched racemes. The flowers have 3 or 6 petals and the fruits are ovoidal and hairy. The flowers of Cuscuta species are 5 merous.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cassytha glabella can be cultivated by taking the fruits and squeezing the seeds out onto the branch of a shrub that is not particularly wanted. Some of the common Acacias will provide good host material.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cassytha pubescens

Classification

Unranked: Magnoliids

Order: Laurales

Family: Lauraceae

Genus: From Kassyo, which is Ancient Greek for to sow or stitched up. It refers to the stems twinning tightly around its host.

Specie: From Pūbēscēns, which is Latin for short, very soft hairs. It refers to structures or organs, which are covered in soft, white or pale grey hairs.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Cassytha pubescens is found east from the Nullarbor National Park in the western South Australia along the coast to Albury in Victoria. It is found south from Townsville in several disjunct populations to southern Victoria. There is an isolated population near Cloncurry, the Daintree National Park and in The Iron range National Park in far north Queensland.

It circumnavigates the coast line of Tasmania.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cassytha+pubescens#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cassytha pubescens prefer full sun to dappled shade. It grows in open schlerophyll forests, open woodlands and littoral forests growing along dry riverine riparian zones at higher altitudes, escarpments and ridges or adjacent to rain forests. The altitude ranges from 120 meters ASL to 800 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 1 degree in July to 39 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 250mm to 1600mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Cassytha pubescens host plants prefer soils all types of soils. The soil’s pH ranges 4.5pH to 7.5pH. The host plants can tolerate droughts to water logged soils. Non saline soils to extremely saline soils are tolerated as are salt laden winds.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 10m to 15m by 2m to 12m

Characteristics:

Cassytha pubescens grows as a twinning parasitic plant with thin wiry stems. The stems are pale yellow-green, brownish-green to sea-green and measure 0.5mm to 2.5mm in diameter. The new growth and juvenile growth is glabrous to densely covered white to rusty-red pubescent hairs. The haustorium measure 2mm to3mm in length.

The inflorescences of Cassytha pubescens are simple to branched racemes or loose clustered heads born along the stems. The appressed stipules are ovate to lanceolate with acute to caudate apexes and measure 2mm to 5mm in length. The rachises peduncles and pedicels are pale yellow-green, brownish-green to reddish-green and glabrous to densely covered in white to rusty-brown or both pubescent hairs. The rachises measure 50mm to 110mm in length while the peduncules on the panicles measure 40mm to 90mm in length and the pedicels measure 0mm to 1.5mm in length.

The 8 to 11 individual flowers on a raceme measure 4mm to 7mm in diameter. The 3 yellow-green to reddish–green calyxes are densely covered in white to rusty-brown pubescent hairs externally and are lime green and glabrous internally. The calyxes measure 1mm to 1.4mm in length including the lobes. The 6 oblong, white petals have obtuse apexes. The petals measure 5mm to 7mm in length.

The 12 white stamens are attached to the petals.

The lime-green trilobed styles are glabrous. The stigmas are white and extend beyond the petals after anthesis. The flowers appear throughout the year when conditions are favourable.

The fruits of Cassytha pubescens are flattened obovoidal berries. The berries measure 8mm to 10mm in length by 10.5mm to 13mm in diameter. The yellow-green berries which are covered in white pubescent hairs turn deep grey when ripe.

Wildlife:

Cassytha pubescens fruits are eaten by most small honeyeaters and fruit eating birds. The fruits were a favourite food source of the aborigines. They have a sweet honey flavour.

Cultivation:

Cassytha pubescens is not really worthy of cultivation and may be problem some once established in the garden. Cassytha pubescens is easy to control by pulling it from the host plant. Once removed from the host it dies very quickly. Pieces still attached will re develop very quickly but are usually weakened and a second or third foray on the plants will usually see any resistance succumb. A single plant in the garden may be a great conversation piece or educational tool. The plants do however offer a variety of birds and small native animals a consistent supply of food.

Despite the superficial appearance of Cassytha pubescens and Cuscuta specie the two genres and are not related at all. Biologically they are known as convergent evolution specie. Cassytha pubescens is difficult to identify from Cuscuta species. Positive identification is only possible when it is in flower or fruit. The flowers of Cuscuta australis are in clusters with globose fruit where as those of Cassytha pubescens are in simple racemes or branched racemes. The flowers have 3 or 6 petals and the fruits are ovoidal and hairy. The flowers of Cuscuta species are 5 merous.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cassytha pubescens can be cultivated by taking the fruits and squeezing the seeds out onto the branch of a shrub that is not particularly wanted. Some of the common Acacias will provide good host material.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cassytha racemosa

Classification

Unranked: Magnoliids

Order: Laurales

Family: Lauraceae

Genus: From Kassyo, which is Ancient Greek for to sow or stitched up. It refers to the stems twinning tightly around its host.

Specie: From Racēmōsa, which is Latin for a cluster. It refers to flowers, which are born on short densely packed racemes.

Sub specie: The eastern forms may be reclassified into a new sub species or variety at a later date when it is reviewed.

Common Name:

Distribution:

Cassytha racemosa is found in a few disjunct populations between North Stradbroke Island west to near Towoomba in far south eastern Queensland across to near North of Coonabarabran and east to Grafton in northern New South Wales.

In the west it is found south of Cape Range to Point Dover on the western side of the Great Australian Bite.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cassytha+racemosa#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cassytha racemosa prefer full sun to dappled shade. It grows in open schlerophyll forests and open woodlands. The altitude ranges from 20 meters ASL to 250 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 1 degree in July to 39 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 250mm to 1600mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Cassytha racemosa host plants prefer soils all types of soils. The soil’s pH ranges 4.5pH to 7.5pH. The host plants tolerate droughts to water logged soils. Non saline soils to extremely saline soils are tolerated as are salt laden winds.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 10m to 15m by 2m to 12m

Characteristics:

Cassytha racemosa grow as twiners with thin wiry stems. The stems are pale yellow-green, brownish-green to sea-green and measure 1mm to 3mm in diameter. The new growth and juvenile growth is glabrous to densely covered white to rusty-red pulverulent hairs. The haustorium measure 1mm to2mm in length.

The inflorescences of Cassytha racemosa are simple to branched racemes or rarely loose clustered heads born along the stems. The rachises peduncles and pedicels are pale yellow-green, brownish-green to sea-green and glabrous to densely covered in white to rusty-brown pubescent hairs. The peduncules measure 40mm to 90mm in length while the rachises measure 50mm to 110mm in length and the pedicels measure 0mm to 3mm in length. The stipules are ovate to lanceolate with acute to caudate apexes and measure 2mm to 5mm in length.

The 8 to 11 individual flowers on a raceme measure 4mm to 7mm in diameter. The yellow-green to yellow-red calyxes are glabrous to densely covered in white to rusty-brown pubescent hairs externally and are glabrous internally. The calyxes measure 1mm to 1.4mm in length including the lobes. The 3 oblong, white petals have obtuse apexes. The petals measure 5mm to 7mm in length.

The 12 dimorphic stamens have 9 shorter thin filaments and ovoid anthers and 3 longer with much thicker with larger anthers. The stamens are pale yellow-green with reddish-yellow anthers and are inserted or level with the apexes of the petals.

The reddish green styles are covered in long white hirsute hairs. The stigmas are reddish green and extend beyond the petals after anthesis. The flowers appear throughout the year when conditions are favourable.

The fruits of Cassytha racemosa are obovoidal berries. The berries measure 8mm to 9mm in length by 6mm to 7mm in diameter. The yellow-green berries turn pale green-brown when ripe.

Wildlife:

Cassytha racemosa fruits are eaten by most small honeyeaters and fruit eating birds. The fruits were a favourite food source of the aborigines. They have a sweet honey flavour.

Cultivation:

Cassytha racemosa is not really worthy of cultivation and may be problem some once established. Cassytha racemosais easy to control by pulling it from the host plant. Once removed from the host it dies very quickly. Pieces still attached can re develop but are usually weakened and a second or third foray on the plants will usually see any resistance succumb. A single plant in the garden may be great conversation piece or educational tool. The plants do however offer a variety of birds and small native animals a consistent supply of food

Despite the superficial appearance of Cassytha racemosa and Cuscuta specie the two genres are not related at all. Biologically they are known as convergent evolution specie. Cassytha racemosa are difficult to identify from Cucuta species. Positive identification is only possible when it is in flower or fruit. The flowers of Cuscuta australis are in clusters with globose fruit where as those of Cassytha racemosa are in simple racemes or branched racemes. The flowers have 3 or 6 petals and the fruits are ovoidal and hairy. The flowers of Cuscuta are 5 merous.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cassytha racemosa can be cultivated by taking the fruits and squeezing the seeds out onto the branch of a shrub that is not particularly wanted. Some of the common Acacias will provide good host material.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Castanospermum australe

Classification

Class: Eudicots

Order: Fabales

Family: Fabaceae

Subfamily: Faboideae

Tribe: Sophoreae

Genus: From Castanea, which is Latin for the chestnut and Spérma which is Ancient Greek or Sporá which is Ancient Greek or Spora which is Latin for a seed. It refers to the large size and shape of the seeds which resemble those of the chestnuts.

Specie: From Terra Australis, which is Latin for land of the south. It refers to plants, which were first discovered from the land down under.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Black Bean or Moreton Bay Chestnut.

In the Aboriginal language it is known as Bogum or Binyjaalga in the Gumbaynggirr language.

Distribution:

Castanospermum australe is found south from the Iron Range National Park on Cape York Peninsular in far north Queensland to the Orara River West of Coffs Harbour in New South Wales. It is listed as rare in the south mainly because of past logging operations.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Castanospermum+australe#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Castanospermum australe prefer full sun to dappled shade. It grows in open schlerophyll forests, well developed rainforests, better quality littoral rainforests and in riparian zones. It is nearly always associated with clean water. The altitude ranges from 10 meters ASL to 800 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 1 degree in July to 37 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 850mm to 3200mm average per annum though this is not an important trait as the trees are usually associated with rivers, streams and creeks.

Soil Requirements:

Castanospermum australe prefers soils that have are sandy loams to medium clays or gravelly clays along or very close to rivers streams or other permanent water. They are also found on alluvial flats where high water tables are prevalent. The soil’s pH ranges from 5.9pH to 6.5pH. It tolerates water logged soils provided the water is not stagnant. Non saline to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:30m to 40m by 10m to 15m

Characteristics:

Castanospermum australe grows as a single trunked or multi trunked tree. The bole measures up to 1.5 meters in diameter on very large trees. The grey to silvery-grey, scabrous bark is often marked with lichens and mosses on older trees. Young branchlets are grey, glabrous and lack the silvery markings. New growth and juvenile branchlets with leaves are grass-green, glabrous and sparsely covered in white or pale green lenticels.

The opposite odd pinnate leaves of Castanospermum australe measure 300mm to 500mm in length by 160mm to 260mm in width. There are 9 to 17 oblong to elliptical leaflets on a rachis. The pinnae measure 80mm to 180mm in length by 30mm to 50mm in width. The base is oblique while the apex is acuminate. The discolourous laminas are sea-green, semi glossy and glabrous on the upper lamina while the lower surface is paler and dull. The leaf margins are entire, slightly undulating and curve upwards from the mid vein. The mid vein is prominent below and distinctly visible from above. Young leaves are a lime green and very glossy. The petiolules measure 3mm to 6mm in length.

The inflorescences of Castanospermum australe are dense racemes 50mm to 150mm in length. The cauliferous flowers can extend to the green sections on the branches. The yellow rachis and pedicels are glabrous. The rachises measure 25mm to 45mm in length while the pedicels measure 12mm to 16mm in length. The calyx is a yellow and measures 9 to 12mm in length by 9mm to 12mm in diameter at the apex. The lobes are broad oval to broad acute and measure 1.5mm to 2mm in length. The standard measures 30mm to 35mm in length by 20mm to 25mm in width. The yellow keel turns red or red-orange after anthesis and measures 20mm to 22mm in length.

The 10 exserted stamens are red with deep yellow anthers extend well beyond the keel. The stamens measure 30mm to 35mm in length. The red exserted pistil extends past the anthers and measures 40mm to 50mm in length. The trees appear to be a biannual in flowering producing heavy flowering every second year at least amongst southern plants. Flowering occurs over a long period from October to December.

The fruits of Castanospermum australe are woody pods. The pods are large for the pea family and poisonous. They measure 100mm to 200mm in length by 40mm to 60mm in diameter are brown resinous to glabrous when ripe externally. The pods split to reveal 2 to 5 seeds packed in soft white canescent wool.

The seeds have a chartaceous rusty-brown shell covering the grass-green fleshy embryo. The seeds are flattened ovoidal, at the apexes and bases and measure 10mm to 28mm in length by 15mm to 40mm in diameter.

Wildlife:

Castanospermum australe supports numerous beetles, native flies, midget wasps, butterflies and native bees when in flower. Larger honeyeaters and lorikeets find the trees very attractive when in flower due to the large amount of nectar produced.

The seeds are poisonous yet the aborigines crushed, washed and drained the paste several times to remove the toxins prior to eating. I have not eaten the seeds so cannot comment on the taste.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant medium tree in moist situations though slow growing it can nform a dense canopy close to the ground if pruned in the early stages of growth.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Castanospermum australe is a beautiful tree for the small or large garden as a feature plant or in the center of a rainforest garden. Trees grow much smaller in cultivation. Trees in Melbourne and Adelaide rarely grow more than 6 meters with a similar spread. In the tropics trees will grow 12 meters to 15 meters in height by 10 meters to 12 meters in diameter when grown in the open.

The trees are excellent park specimens but are slow in growth especially in the early years, on heavier soils and where water is limited. Flowering won’t commence until the seventh year or in some cases as late as the twelfth year.

These trees are excellent for epiphytic orchids and ferns which prefer a tree with a larger canopy providing darker conditions below.

Be careful not to plant Castanospermum australe within 8 meters of drains, sewers or water pipes. Like all water loving plants their roots are vigorous and will seek out and take advantage of any small leak or crack to enter the pipe. They however are excellent subjects to plant below septic trenches where they will absorb a lot of the water and nutrients.

Castanospermum australe is a great plant for indoor use. Use a good potting mix, place 3 to 5 of the seeds in a large container, spacing them evenly around the pot. (300mm pot is ideal) Treat as below for seedlings and fertilize every month with one of the organic fertilizers suggested on a rotating basis. Trees will grow to 2 meters to 3 meters. Indoors the plants should be rotated on at least a twice a month basis. (That is, turn the pot around so that the same side of the tree is not always facing the corner or wall. )

Castanospermum australe also makes a fine bonsai specimen when grown in a bonsai pot.

Propagation:

Seeds: Castonospermum australe seeds require no treatment before sowing. It is best to plant the seeds out individually into 75mm native tubes. Sow into a seed raising mix so that the seeds are half buried and the root tip is facing downwards.

When the seedlings reach the two seed leaf stage plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved with spacing of 8 meters to 12 meters.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering. Castanospermum australe responds very well to the use of most native fertilizers.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Castanospora alphandii

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Rosids

Order: Sapindales

Family: Sapindaceae

Genus: From Castanea, which is Latin for the chestnut and Sporá which is Ancient Greek or Spora which is Latin for a seed.

Specie: Is named after M. Alphandi who was a French botanical author on the Paris Botanic Gardens.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Brown Tamarind or Native Chestnut.

Distribution:

Castanospora alphandii is found south from the Daintree National Park in far north Queensland to the Bellinger River south west of Coffs Harbour in New South Wales.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Castanospora+alphandii#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Castanospora alphandii prefer full sun to dappled shade. It grows in well-developed moist rain forests, moist gallery rainforests and moist riparian zones. The altitude ranges from 20 meters ASL to 1100 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 1 degree in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 900mm to 3200mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Castanospora alphandii prefers light clays to heavier loams to medium clays or gravelly clays derived from brown basalt and black basalt or basaltic alluvial flats. The soil’s pH ranges from 5.5pH to 6pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils though moisture is usually continually available in the soil. Non saline to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 30m to 40m by 10m to 12m.

Characteristics:

Castanospora alphandii grows as a single trunked. The bole measures up to 1 meter in diameter on very large trees. The grey to silvery-grey, scabrous bark is finely tessellated and gives the appearance of being flaky. It is often marked with lichens and mosses on older trees and is slightly fluted at the base. New growth and juvenile branchlets are grass-green to tawny-brown, glabrous and moderately to densely covered in rusty-brown tomentose hairs.

The alternate even pinnate leaves of Castanospora alphandii measure 100mm to 300mm in length by 120mm to 320mm in width. There are 6 to 13 sub opposite, narrow oblong to narrow elliptical leaflets on a rachis. The leaflets measure 50mm to 150mm in length by 20mm to 40mm in width. The base is tapering to cuneate while the apex is broadly acuminate with an obtuse tip. The discolourous laminas are deep grass-green to sea-green, glabrous and glossy on the upper lamina while the lower surface is pale grey to pale grey-green, papillose and sparsely to moderately covered in fine, white pubescent hairs. The laminas are flat and undulating. The leaf margins are entire. The mid vein is prominent on the lower lamina and distinctly visible from the upper lamina. The lateral veins are finely but strongly reticulated forming loops inside the margins. Young leaves are a lime green and very glossy. Pit domatia are numerous on the upper laminas. The petiolules measure 5mm to 12mm long.

The inflorescences of Castanospora alphandiiare panicles born from the terminals and measure 100mm to 260mm in length. The pale olive-green rachis, peduncles and pedicels are covered in rusty-brown pulverulent hairs. The rachises measure 100mm to 220mm in length while the peduncles measure 50mm to 100mm in length and the pedicels measure 2.5mm to 3.5mm in length. The calyxes and 5 calyx lobes are olive-green and measures 2mm to 4mm in length including the lobes. The broad triangular lobes have apiculate apexes. The 5 white petals are densely covered in white villous hairs and measure 2mm to 4mm in length.

The 8 white, stout, tapering filaments are densely covered in white villous hairs and measure 3mm to 5mm in length.

The rusty-red pistil is broadly globose at the base and is sparsely covered in pale rusty-brown to cream hirsute hairs. The pistils measure 4.5mm to 9mm in length. There is 1 ovule per locule. The flowers appear from January to March.

The fruits of Castanospora alphandiiare ovoidal to depressed globose berries. The berries measure 25mm to 5mm in length by 30mm to 55mm in diameter. The green berries are covered in white puberulent hairs and turn pink, pinkish-red or pinkish-brown when ripe. The berries split to reveal 2 deep brown glossy seeds. The berries ripen from May to June.

Wildlife:

Castanospora alphandii supports numerous beetles, native flies, midget wasps, butterflies and native bees when in flower.

Cultivation:

Castanospora alphandii is a beautiful tree for the large gardens as a feature plant or in the center of a rainforest garden. Trees grow much smaller in cultivation when grown in the open. Trees in Melbourne and Adelaide rarely grow more than 8 meters with a similar spread. In the tropics trees will grow from 15 meters to 20 meters in height by 10 meters to 12 meters in diameter.

The trees are excellent park specimens and are fast in growth especially in the early years even on heavier soils especially where soil moisture is consistent and organic native fertilizer regime is in place.

These trees are excellent for epiphytic orchids and ferns which prefer a tree with a larger canopy providing darker conditions below.

Be careful not to plant Castanospora alphandii within 8 meters of drains, sewers or water pipes. Like all water loving plants their roots are vigorous and will seek out and take advantage of any small leak or crack to enter the pipe. They however are excellent subjects to plant below septic trenches where they will absorb a lot of the water and nutrients.

Castanospora alphandii is a great plant for indoor use. Use a good potting mix, place 3 to 5 of the seeds in a large container, spacing them evenly around the pot. (300mm pot is ideal) Treat as below for seedlings and fertilize every month with one of the organic fertilizers suggested on a rotating basis. Trees will grow to 2 meters to 3 meters. Indoors the plants should be rotated on at least a twice a month basis. (That is turn the pot around so that the same side of the tree is not always facing the corner or wall. )

Castanospora alphandii make very good accent trees in front of low set or 2 story commercial, industrial sheds or school class rooms where they will break up hard rigid architectural lines and give warmth and breadth to a building. In front of high rise buildings they give balance especially where they could be grown in curves meandering to the entry doors or in a formal street pattern.

Try using them in a court yard where the only other feature is a large rock, stump or formal or informal frog or fish pond. Next to such features their small leaves, small flowers and small fruit are never overpowering but certainly noticed. I am surprised that they have never been used in commercial entrances and foyers to break the ice and give a feeling of business as usual but somehow make the business more relaxing.

Propagation:

Seeds: Castanospora alphandii seeds require no treatment before sowing. It is best to plant the seeds out individually into 75mm native tubes. Sow into a seed raising mix so that the seeds are half buried and the root tip is facing downwards.

When the seedlings reach the two seed leaf stage plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved with spacing of 6 meters to 10 meters centers for a rainforest garden or 12 meters to 20 meters for a park like scene.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering. Castanospora alphandii respond very well to the use of most native fertilizers.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Casuarina cunninghamiana

Classification

Class: Magnoliophyta

Order: Magnoliopsisida

Suborder: Fagales

Family: Casuarinaceae

Genus: From Cassuarius, which is Latinized from the Malay word for a Cassowary. It refers to the branchlets which have the appearance of the feathers on the Cassowary.

Specie: Is named in honour of Allan Cunningham; 1791-1839, who was an Australian explorer, botanist and collector of plants.

Sub species: Casuarina cuninghamiana subsp. cuninghamiana is named in honour of Allan Cunningham; 1791-1839, who was an Australian explorer, botanist and collector of plants.

Sub species: Casuarina cuninghamiana subsp. miodon From Mi, which is Ancient Greek for less than or smaller than and Odon, which is Ancient Greek for a tooth. It refers to structures or organs, which have very small teeth.

Common Name: River Oak.

In the Aboriginal language it is known as Billar.

Distribution:

Casuarina cuninghamiana subsp. cunninghamiana is found south from Cooktown to the Victorian, New South Wales border. It grows on the Western Plains, Western Slopes, on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast.

Casuarina cunninghamiana subsp. miodondistribution is along permanent rivers in far north Western areas of the Northern Territory east to the western flowing rivers on Cape York Peninsular in far north Queensland.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Casuarina+cunninghamiana#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Casuarina cunninghamiana prefers full sun. Its normal habitat varies greatly from tall open Eucalyptus forests to medium trees which inhabit stream and river banks. It can be found adjacent to rainforests as an upright tree, leaning out towards the middle of the river searching for light or handsome pyramidal trees along creeks in dry woodland forests. The altitude ranges from 15 meters ASL to 1350 meters ASL.

The temperature ranges from minus 3 degrees in July to 42 degrees in January for Casuarina cunninghamiana sub sp. cunninghamiana while Casuarina cunninghamiana sub sp. miodon prefer warmer conditions with minimum temperatures of 10 degrees in July to 42 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 350mm to 3000mm annually. The rainfall is not that important for the tree as most of its moisture is obtained from the streams or rivers where it grows.

Soil Requirements:

Casuarina cunninghamiana prefer soils that vary from pure river sands through to medium clays. The soils are usually derived from decomposed sandstones, granites, brown basalts, black basalts, metamorphic rocks, shales or alluvial deposits. The soil’s pH ranges from 6.5pH to 7.2pH. It tolerates clean water logged soils. Periodic flooding of creeks and river flats is a normal part of the trees habitat and the trees are often found with adventitious roots far out into streams as they start to dry up. None saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.  

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: Casuarina cunninghamiana subsp. cunninghamiana 25 meters to 35 meters by 10 meters to 12 meters. A tall pyramidal shaped tree.

Casuarina cunninghamiana subsp. miodon 12 meters to 15 meters by 5 meters to 6 meters. A more open and far less shapely tree.

Characteristics:

Casuarina cuninghamiana has a lightly fissured grey bark at the base of the tree. The resinous trunk is a dark greenish-grey extending to the smaller branches. The branchlets are a deep sea-green up to 140mm long and are minutely furrowed. The juvenile growth is sparsely covered in pale grey puberulent hairs. The branchlets give the trees an appearance of a conifer.

The leaves or teeth of Casuarina cunninghamiana are in whirls at the apex of each article. The leaves are reduced to small teeth at each article. The articles measure 6mm to 9mm in length by 2mm to 3mm in diameter. Teeth number 6 to 9 and measure 0.3mm to 0.5mm. The leaves and articles on some eastern species are marcescent.

Casuarina cunninghamiana are dioecious meaning the male and female flowers are produced on different trees. The male flowers are born as terminal spikes which measure 60mm to 80mm in length.

Male trees can be very beautiful when in full flower. The male flowers are a red to purplish with the stamens measuring 0.4mm to 0.7mm in length.

Female flowers are produce singularly along the branchlets. The female flowers are red and measure 9mm to 10mm in diameter. The trees flower mainly in March to May.

The fruits of Casuarina cuninghamiana are small woody cones which may last for years on the trees before the seeds are dispersed. The cones are 20mm to 25mm in length by 15mm to 18mm in diameter. The acute to broadly acute scales open to 4.5mm to 5mm in width by 3mm in height. The samaras measure 3mm to 4mm in length while the seeds measure 1.5mm to 2mm in diameter.

Wildlife:

This is an ideal plant forthe control of soil erosion and nitrogen fixation along creeks, streams and rivers. Black cockatoos feed on the seeds and any borers which may attack weak trees.

Cultivation:

Casuarina cuninghamiana is a beautiful large tree suitable only for large gardens where it can be grown well away from structures and public utilities. They will grow 15 meters to 18 meters in height by 7 meters to 8 meters in diameter when grown in the open. They live for 80 years or more when conditions are good after which they become susceptible to borer. Isolated trees are particularly susceptible to attack. They are ideal for medium to large gardens in semi-arid, temperate, sub-tropical and tropical gardens.

Trees planted in a row downhill of septic trenches which were overloaded due to being in heavy clay saw the problem solved after three years as the trees soaked up a lot of the extra moisture. It is fast growing given water and makes an excellent wind break or screen. Casuarina cunninghamiana makes an excellent host for all epiphytic plants but regular cleaning of stags (Platycerium) and birds’ nests (Asplenium) are required as the trees drop a lot of needles. These needles will, after 10 years; cover the ground making a carpet of solitude and silence while eliminating all weed competition. They are shapely and have a solid look about them.

They are excellent for wind breaks on exposed flats that are moisture retentive. Mature trees make a pleasant whispering sound even on the slightest of breezes passing through the branchlets. They create a soft peaceful zone beneath the plants especially when mass planted or group plantings are incorporated into the land scape.

In my humble opinion Casuarina cuninghamiana is probably the best accent tree anywhere in the world in front of low set to 4 story commercial, industrial sheds or school buildings. They will break up hard rigid architectural lines and give warmth and breadth to any building. In front of high rise buildings they give balance especially when lining the nature strip.

The trees are excellent for all epiphytic ferns and orchids though they need cleaning out at times due to the large number of articles they drop. This habit will also ensure a great weed free ground covering mulch in around 15 years after planting.

Another great advantage of growing Allocasuarina and Casuarina is that they are great plants for suppressing other plant growth especially weeds. Allelopathy is a biological phenomenon where one plant inhibits the growth of another, through the release of allele chemicals. Certain plants can greatly affect the growth of other plants either in a good or bad way by leaching, decomposition, etc. In essence, plant allelopathy is used as a means of survival in nature, reducing competition from plants nearby.

Propagation:

Seeds: Sow fresh Casuarina cuninghamiana seeds into a seed raising mix. When the seedlings are 40mm to 50mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good organic mix.

Once the seedlings reach 200mm to 250mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Trees planted for shelter belts should be planted at 3 meter centers and thinned out once the foliage makes contact with adjacent trees.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

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Casuarina equisetifolia sub sp. incana

Classification

Class: Magnoliophyta

Order: Magnoliopsisida

Suborder: Fagales

Family: Casuarinaceae

Genus: From Cassuarius, which is Latinized from the Malay word for a Cassowary. It refers to the branchlets which have the appearance of the feathers on the Cassowary.

Specie: From Equus, which is Latin for a horse and Folium, which is Latin for foliage. It refers to leaves and branchlets looking like a horse’s tail.

Sub specie: From Incāna, which is Latin for to grow grey or hoary. It refers to organs usually the leaves, which are covered in grey hairs. This is the only sub species found in Australia.

Common Name: Fine leaf Sheoak or Horse Tail Sheoak.

Distribution:

Casuarina equisetifolia sub sp. incana is found south of Darwin, north and east across the top end of the Northern Territory to Queensland then south to Laurieton in central coastal New South Wales. It is the only sub specie found in Australia.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Casuarina+equisetifolia#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Casuarina equisetifolia sub sp. incana prefers full sun. It grows in more exposed positions along the coast on the frontal dunes, along estuaries, brackish creeks and streams. The altitude ranges from 1 meter ASL to 30 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 1 degrees in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall is from lows of 850mm to averages of 3000mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Casuarina equisetifolia sub sp. incana grows on accumulated sands along the frontal dunes, back dunes and estuaries of creeks and streams along the coast. The soil’s pH ranges from 6.5pH to 7.5pH. It does tolerate water logged soils and accept periodical tidal surges. Non saline soils to extremely saline soils are tolerated as are salt laden winds.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 6m to 12m by 3m to 6m.

Characteristics:

Casuarina equisetifolia has a lightly fissured grey bark at the base of the tree. The resinous trunk is a dark greenish grey extending to the smaller branches. The branchlets are a grey-green up to 140mm long and are minutely furrowed. The juvenile growth is densely covered in pale grey puberulent hairs. The branchlets give the trees an appearance of a conifer.

The leaves or teeth of Casuarina equisetifolia are in whirls at the apex of each article. The leaves are reduced to small teeth at each article. The articles measure 7mm to 13mm in length by 1.5mm to 3mm in diameter. The teeth number 8 to 10 and measure 0.6mm to 0.7mm. The leaves are not marcescent on this specie.

Casuarina equistifolia are dioecious or monoecious meaning the male and female flowers are produced on different trees or separately on the same trees. The male flowers are born as terminal spikes which measure 550mm to 70mm. Male trees can be very beautiful when in full flower. The male flowers are a red to purplish with the anthers measuring 0.6mm to 0.8mm in length.

Female flowers are produce singularly along the branchlets. The female flowers are red and measure 9mm to 10mm in diameter. The flowers appear throughout the year.

The fruits of Casuarina equisetifolia are small woody cones which may last for years on the trees before the seeds are dispersed. The cones measure 10mm to 20mm in length by 11mm to 15mm in diameter. The acute scales open to 4.5mm to 5mm in width by 3mm in height. The samaras measure 6mm to 8mm in length while the seeds measure 2mm in diameter.

Wildlife:

Casuarina equistifolia is an ideal plant forthe control of soil erosion because of its aggressive root system and nitrogen fixation particularly on sandy soils. It is adaptable to sandy situations away from the coast.

Glossy Black Cockatoos, King parrots and Crimson rosellas eat the seeds. Black Cockatoos may damage trees that have borers attack to get to the larvae. Trees very rarely fully recover from bad infestations or at least never look good.

When trees are protected from the elements on the back dunes they may have lichens or even elkhorns growing on them.

Cultivation:

Casuarina equisetifolia sub sp. incana is a beautiful small open wispy tree for beach side gardens and gardens in exposed positions on headlands and even in semi-arid areas. Good specimens in cultivation will grow 5 meters to 10 meters tall by 5 meters to 6 meters in diameter in full sun. Plants grown in partial shade tend to spread out more and become very leggy. They are drought resistant once established.

Specimens growing naturally at Laurieton, are often covered in tidal surges and temperatures of 1 degree.

This tree can form the basis of a very unusual rockery or heathland setting. Trees can be regularly tip pruned to form very interesting features on a large dry bank to great effect. To add further they could be trained to grow in one direction so that a strong wind swept heathland is created. If this is the theme then the windward side effect should be trimmed very low and allow it to grow out the leeward side to a height of 1.5 meters. On the windward side use fine leaf plants smaller or equal in height to the low side of Casuarina equistifolia. On the leeward side plants can be arranged so they become taller as they progress further away from the Casuarina equistifolia. Again start with finer leaf plants but broader than the Casuarina and progressively make the leaves broader and with deeper colours as you move further away. This would mean planting Casuarina equistifolia to the far left or right of the bed or bank.

The trees can be used to highlight and soften architectural lines on buildings to great effect because of the trees open wispy shape especially in semi-arid areas and on the coast of Australia.

Placed in a formal garden bed they can be surrounded by ground covers that prefer acid soils as the fallen leaves will acidify the soil. Most Grevillea specie are compatible and prefer acid soils. Use Grevillea specie with larger deep green leaves for contrast. Avoid plants with yellow flowers and blue or grey foliage.

The trees are good hosts for those epiphytic ferns and orchids that prefer open positions and more sunlight. Platycerium bifurcatum were once commonly seen growing on the trees along the east coast.

They also make excellent bonsai plants and are easy to work.

Another great advantage of growing Allocasuarina and Casuarina is that they are great plants for suppressing other plant growth especially weeds. Allelopathy is a biological phenomenon where one plant inhibits the growth of another, through the release of allele chemicals. Certain plants can greatly affect the growth of other plants either in a good or bad way by leaching, decomposition, etc. In essence, plant allelopathy is used as a means of survival in nature, reducing competition from plants nearby.

Propagation:

Seeds: Sow Casuarina equisetifolia sub sp. incana seeds directly into a seed raising mix and cover to a depth of 5mm.

When the seedlings are 50mm to 75mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good organic mix.

Once the seedlings reach 200mm to 250mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Where mass plantings of Casuarina specie are required, as a feature; plant at 3 meters to 5 meters centers or where they are needed for a wind break plant them at 2 meters and thin every second tree out when they start to touch each other.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Casuarina glauca

Classification

Class: Magnoliophyta

Order: Magnoliopsisida

Suborder: Fagales

Family: Casuarinaceae

Genus: From Cassuarius, which is Latinized from the Malay word for a Cassowary. It refers to the branchlets which have the appearance of the feathers on the Cassowary.

Specie: From Glaucous which is Latin for a filmy blueish or greyish white powdery covering. It refers to the stems leaves or fruits, which have a blueish to greyish powdered layer over the surface.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Swamp Sheoak.

Distribution:

Casuarina glauca is found close to the coast south from Gladstone to Bega on the southern Coast of New South Wales. It extends inland a little on the Clarence River and the Hawksbury River systems.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Casuarina+glauca#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Casuarina glauca prefers full sun to light dappled shade. It grows along the estuaries and waterways close to the coast. It often forms large stands in flat brackish swamps behind the frontal dunes especially where the salinity varies greatly. The altitude ranges from 1 meter ASL to 30 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 0 degrees in July to 34 degrees in January.

The rainfall averages 850mm to 1800mm annually but rainfall is not the main contributor to its existence as the tree is always found close to the coast with subterranean water always available.

Soil Requirements:

Casuarina glauca prefers medium to heavy clays or light silts to heavy silts. The soils are derived from alluvial deposits, accumulated sands or at times decomposed sandstones. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 8pH. It tolerates water logged soils, periodical tidal surges, seasonal high water tables and stagnating flood waters. Non saline soils to extremely saline soils are tolerated as are salt laden winds.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:15m to 20m by 5m to 7m

Characteristics:

Casuarina glauca large trees are most suitable for regeneration projects along estuaries and other difficult sites that are continually being inundated with brackish water. Casuarina glauca also develops a strong lateral root growth, suckering where ever it has been damaged or the opportunity arises, often many meters away from the parent plant. This is most noticeable where there is no competition from other Casuarina specie. Suckering is more evident as a means of reproduction in very poorly drained soils which make it ideal for erosion control.

The tree develops aerial roots above the ground from the lower trunk during long periods of inundation or growing close to estuaries where permanent water is experienced.

The scaly dark deep grey bark extends from the base of the tree through to the large branches. Small branches are glabrous while the juvenile branchlets are deep green.

The leaves of Casuarina glauca are reduced to small teeth at the apex of the articles and circle the branchlets giving it the appearance of a conifer. The articles are swollen at the apex and measure 8mm to 20mm in length by 1.5mm to 2mm in diameter. The 16 to 20 teeth are erect and measure 0.6mm to 0.9mm in length.

Like all members of this genus the trees are dioecious meaning that the male and female flowers appear on different trees. The male flowers are born as terminal spikes which measure 550mm to 70mm. Male trees can be very beautiful when in full flower. The male flowers are a red to orange with the anthers measuring 0.7mm to 0.9mm in length.

Female flowers are produce singularly along the branchlets. The female flowers are red and measure 9mm to 18mm in diameter. The flowers appear throughout the year with a peak from October to November.

The fruits of Casuarina glauca are small woody cones which may last for years on the trees before the seeds are dispersed. The cylindrical cones measure 10mm to 18mm in length by 10mm to 12mm in diameter. The acute scales open to 4.5mm to 5mm in width by 3mm in height. The pale khaki to pale yellow–brown samaras measure 6mm to 8mm in length while the seeds measure 2mm in diameter.

Wildlife:

Casuarina glauca is an ideal plant for the control of soil erosion in estuarine zones and nitrogen fixation. The trees make good shelter belts for both birds and ground animals. Seeds are eaten by sulphur crested cockatoos and probably the Black cockatoos as well.

Cultivation:

Casuarina glauca is a tree suitable only for large gardens where it must be grown well away from structures and public utilities because of its aggressive root system which will seek out water blocking drains taking advantage of any leak or fractured pipe. Planted on the downhill side of septic drains they will assist in removing excess water and take up excess nutrient. It is fast growing given water and makes an excellent wind break or screens on waterlogged land. The tree makes an excellent host for all epiphytic plants but regular cleaning of stags (Platycerium specie) and birds’ nests (Asplenium nidus or Asplenium australisica) are required as the trees drop a lot of needles. These needles will cover the ground making a carpet of solitude and silence while eliminating all weed competition after about 12 years. The lateral root growth and suckering make it ideal for screens and wind breaks on water logged ground. Grazing animals will eat any root suckers that will appear and foliage within their reach.

Casuarina glauca make very good accent trees in front of low set to 3 story commercial, industrial sheds and school buildings where water logged or poor drainage is a feature of the land. They will break up hard rigid architectural lines and give warmth and breadth to a building. In front of high rise buildings they give balance especially where they could be grown in curves meandering to the entry doors or for something different used from the front of the path and meander back to the far corners with shrubs or flowers planted between the trees and the building and the trees and the nature strip.

Another great advantage of growing Allocasuarina and Casuarina is that they are great plants for suppressing other plant growth especially weeds. Allelopathy is a biological phenomenon where one plant inhibits the growth of another, through the release of allele chemicals. Certain plants can greatly affect the growth of other plants either in a good or bad way by leaching, decomposition, etc. In essence, plant allelopathy is used as a means of survival in nature, reducing competition from plants nearby.

Propagation:

Seeds: Sow fresh Casuarina glauca seeds into a seed raising mix and cover to 5mm with the mix. When the seedlings are 40mm to 50 mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good organic mix.

Once the seedlings reach 200mm to 250mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Root cuttings developed very quickly and is a good alternative to produce small number of advanced trees quickly. Take a spade and sever the root 100mm from the sucker on the far side away from the parent tree. The roots on the side of the tree away from the parent will developed a lot of new adventitious roots. Two weeks later return and sever the root 50mm from the sucker on the side of the parent tree. Dig the sucker out retaining soil if possible and place in a 200mm container water in with the above fertilizer mix. The tree will develop new growth in two to four weeks. Once the new roots appear at the bottom of the container the new tree can be planted out into its new position. Keep moist to wet. A 200mm container will accept saplings to 1500mm without any problem.

Mass plantings can be achieved by planting at 5 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Catalepidia heyana

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Order: Proteales

Family: Casuarinaceae

Subfamily: Grevilleoideae

Tribe: Macadamieae

Subtribe: Malagasiinae

Genus: Maybe from katá, which is Ancient Greek or Cata, which is Latin for clear, and Lepídion, which is Ancient Greek for a small scale. It may refer to scales, which are translucent to clear.

Specie: Is named in honour of Hey.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Hey’s Nut or Hey’s Oak.

Distribution:

Catalepidia heyana is restricted to a small area between the Windsor Tableland, the Mt Spurgeon to Mt Lewis area and Mt Isley and the Boonjee area.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Catalepidia+heyana#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Catalepidia heyana prefers full shade to light dappled shade. It grows as an understory small tree in upland and mountain rain forests. The altitude ranges from 700 meter ASL to 1000 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 4 degrees in July to 34 degrees in January.

The rainfall averages 1850mm to 3200mm annually but rainfall is only a contributing factor as orographic precipitation adds considerably to soil moisture and restricts evaporation.

Soil Requirements:

Catalepidia heyana prefers medium clays with copious quantities of leaf litter. The soils are derived from decomposed black basalts. The soil’s pH ranges from 6pH to 7pH. It tolerates water logged soils, periodical tidal surges, seasonal high water tables and stagnating flood waters. Non saline soils to lightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 6m to 18m by 5m to 9m.

Characteristics:

Catalepidia heyana isa large shrub or small tree. The mid grey-brown bark extends from the base of the tree through to the large branches and is somewhat finely tesselated. The brown stems turn mid green where the leaves are and are sparsely covered in ovoid lenticinels.

The alternate, oblanceolate to spathulate leaves measure 80mm to 33mm in length by 15mm to 65mm in width. The terete petiole measures 6mm to 15mm in length. The base tapers to the petiole, while the apex is usually acuminate, or at times is acute or obtuse. The discolourous leaves are deep green, glabrous and glossy on the upper lamina, while the lower lamina is paler and dull. The laminas arch upwards then downwards from the mid vein to the undulating, entire margins. The main vein and lateral veins are raised on both laminas.

The pendulant conflorescence measure 60mm to in length. The triangular bracts measure 1.1mm to 1.5mmin length. The terete rachis is orange to deep red. The terete, orange to deep red peduncles measure 2.5mm to 5.5mm in length. The triangular floral bracts measure 0.5mm to 1mm in length and are located 0mm to 1.5mm above pedicel base. The tertete, orange to deep red pedicels measure 2mm to 3mm in length. The tepals are orange to deep red externally and cream internally and measure 22mm to 30mm in length. The tepals are strongly revolute through 1.5 to 2.5 in length. The flowers appear from June to October with September being the most common month for flowers to appear.

The fruits of Catalepidia heyana are sherical nuts, which measure 20mm to 32mm in diameter. The pericarp is 1.2mm to 1.8mm thick.

Wildlife:

Catalepidia heyana wildlife is unknown to the author.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant medium shrub for moderate to high altitudes.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Catalepidia heyana is a small tree suitable for small gardens. The tree makes an excellent host for all epiphytic plants like stagshorns Platycerium superbum and Platycerium bifurcatum and birds’ nests Asplenium nidus in the north or Asplenium australisica further south.

Catalepidia heyana make very good accent trees in front of low set homes. It will break up hard rigid architectural lines and give warmth and breadth to a building.

In residential rainforest gardens it will give balance especially where it could be grown in curves meandering to the entry doors or for something different used from the front of the path and meander back to the far corners with shrubs or flowers planted beneath.

Propagation:

Seeds: Sow fresh Catalepidia heyana seeds into a seed raising mix into 75mm native tubes and cover to 5mm with the mix.

Once the seedlings reach 200mm to 250mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Mass plantings can be achieved by planting at 6 meter to 8 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Caustis blakei

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Class: Commelinidis

Order: Poales

Family: Cyperaceae

Genus: From Kaustos, which is Ancient Greek for scorched or burnt. It refers to the leaf bases or leaf sheaths which are decidedly deeper in colour or deep reddish-brown.

Specie: Is named in honour of Stanley Blake; 1911-1973, who was an Australian botanist who dedicated his life to botany especially the grasses and reeds.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Caustis blakei is found south from the Fitzroy River in Queensland to Crowdy Bay in central coastal New South Wales.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Caustis+blakei#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Caustis blakei prefer full sun to dappled shade. It grows in coastal, drier, wallum heaths behind the frontal dunes. The altitude ranges from 1 meter ASL to 30 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 2 degrees in August to 38 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 1000mm to 2000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Caustis blakei prefer deep coarse sands to fine sands. The soils are usually derived from accumulated beach sands or at times decomposed sandstone. The soil’s pH ranges from 4.5pH to 5.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.5m to 0.7m by 0.8m to 1m

Characteristics:

Caustis blakei is a tufted perennial grass with short rhizomes. The tall straight, erect culms are mid grass-green to bright deep grass-green and glabrous. The culms measure 200mm to 600mm in length by 2.3mm to 3.5mm in diameter.

The leaves of Caustis blakei are more stem like and form part of a complex panicle. The concolourous deep red-brown appressed sheaths measure 10mm to 17mm in length. The bases are clasping while the apexes are narrow acuminate. The sheath margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Caustis blakei are 10 to 20 distant clusters of branchlets. The ultimate branchlets are straight or pendulant and born in dense clusters from the sheaths. The ultimate branchlets measure 25mm to 95mm in length. Most the branchlets are sterile. The spikelets have 1 or 2 flowers and measure 6mm to 8mm in length. The 3 to 5 glumes are narrow, long with acute or long mucronate apexes are deep brown and glabrous. The margins are glabrous or covered in white puberulent hairs. The spikes measure 5mm to 7.5mm in length.

The 3 or 4 white anthers measure 3mm to 5mm in length excluding the white twisted appendage which measures 0.7mm to 1.5mm in length.

The yellow-brown trifid styles and stigmas measure 1mm to 2.5mm length. The flowers appear from mid-September to late November.

The fruits of Caustis blakei are ellipsoid to narrow-obovoid nuts. The nuts measure 4.5mm to 6.5mm in length by 2.3mm to 2.8mm in diameter. The yellow-brown nuts turn whitish to pale creamy-yellow and finely punctulata and irregularly reticulate. The styles are persistent on the nuts.

Wildlife:

Caustis blakei is suitable for erosion control on back dunes and mountain heaths where the soils comprise of pure sand.

Cultivation:

Caustis blakei is a tall tufted clump grass which is very suitable for large landscaping projects. In cultivation they will grow 0.6 meters to 0.8 meters in height by 0.9mm to 1.4 meters in diameter when grown in the open. They must be grown in full sun or bright dappled light to maintain dense healthy plants.

They are most suitable for use around sunny swimming pools, in the corner of sunny courtyards, and rockeries or adjacent to natural sandy bush. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Large fish or frog ponds will benefit from Caustis blakei vertical growth.

If they are placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look. Place them closer to the walls so the walls give them some support for additional height or in the open to gain the beautiful pendant habit of growth. Using rocks and large boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis and look much larger with this species but keep its size in mind when landscaping. The vertical habit and fast growth can make a great start around buildings.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use is limited only by size of the area to be landscaped, your imagination and the size of the other plants. Companion plants should be no more than 500mm in height to draw attention to Caustis blakei and the horizontal effect of the companion plants or use them between plants with a slim upright growth. These taller plants are best if they grow from 1.5 meters to 2 meters in height. Many of the Boronia specie like Boronia rosmarinifolia and Boronia ledifolia are 2 plants that look great next to Caustis blakei.

Caustis blakei would make outstanding contribution to an open tall mallee garden. Here they can be used as the vertical growth, scattered throughout the scene. Mixed, contrasting foliage plants with bright red, blue and yellow flowers like those on Dampier ovalifolia, Dampier stricta, Isotoma axillaris, Leischenalta Formosa, Hibertia linearis, Hibbertia ovalifolia with some of the dwarf forms of Helichrysum will be dynamic and spectacular.

Caustis blakei is an attractive cut foliage plant presently harvested from the wild in and marketed under the name of koala fern. It is best to avoid buying wild harvested plant material so ask before buying whether the foliage is cultivated or wild harvested. The plants regenerate well after harvesting but decline in vigor with each successive harvest. Additional fertilizing regime in place would go a long way in reversing this decline.

Propagation:

Seeds: Previous attempts to propagate large numbers of Caustis blakei have been unsuccessful and our experience is no different. Collecting seeds from mature plants of Caustis blakei is not easy as the plants do not set a lot of seed and germination is very erratic. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix. Cover them to a depth of 5mm with a fine mix. Water and place the trays in full sun and keep the tray moist at all times.

When the seedlings are 20mm to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good quality mix.

Fertilize using Seaweed or fish emulsion and apply the liquid on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months. Do not use fertilizers containing phosphorous as the plants are extremely phosphorous sensitive.

Once the seedlings reach 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Wild Plant Removal: When growing Caustis blakei from plants removed from the wild ensure the plants have been gained from accredited sources. Remove unwanted dead material and any old small culms that look weak. Replant the stocks ensuring the soil is at the same level as before. Cut back the tops so that the stubs are around 50mm in height. Water the new plants thoroughly using a half strength organic fertilizer. New shoots will appear within 10 days.

If Caustis blakei are being mass planted for a feature garden, use 1.5 meter to 3 meters.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Caustis flexuosa

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Class: Commelinidis

Order: Poales

Family: Cyperaceae

Genus: From Kaustos, which is Ancient Greek for scorched or burnt. It refers to the leaf bases or leaf sheaths which are decidedly deeper in colour or deep reddish-brown.

Specie: From Flexus, which is Latin for bent, torturous, winding. It refers to branches or more often the stems, which are twisted or weeping and bend even further in the wind.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Curly Wig.

Distribution:

Caustis flexuosa is found south from the Carnarvon Gorge and the Fitzroy River in central Queensland to the Grampians in south western Victoria.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Caustis+flexuosa#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Caustis flexuosa prefers full sun. It is restricted to dry schlerophyll forest and woodlands behind the frontal dunes and nearby ranges. It is found further inland than the other Caustis specie. The altitude ranges from 2 meters ASL to 750 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 4 degrees in August to 40 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 400mm to 2000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Caustis flexuosa prefer deep coarse sands to fine sands or light fatty clays. The soils are derived from accumulated peaty beach sands or decomposed sandstone or granites. The soil’s pH ranges from 4.5pH to 5.5pH. It tolerates seasonal water logged soils and seasonal high water tables or soils where capillary action keeps the soils constantly moist. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.2m to 1m by 0.8m to 1m

Characteristics:

Caustis flexuosa is a tufted perennial grass with short rhizomes. The tall straight, erect culms are mid grass-green to bright deep grass-green and glabrous to scabrous. The culms measure 150mm to 900mm in length by 1.5mm to 2.5mm in diameter.

The leaves of Caustis flexuosa are more stem like and form part of a complex panicle. The concolourous deep red-brown to deep grey-brown appressed sheaths measure 7mm to 11mm in length. The bases are clasping while the apexes are narrow acuminate. The sheath margins are entire.

The inflorescences ofCaustis flexuosa are 7 to 14 distant clusters of branchlets that measure 20mm to 80mm in length. The ultimate branchlets are straight or pendulant and are strongly curled to flexuous. Most the branchlets are sterile. The spikelets have 2 or rarely 1 flower is often falcate and measure 6mm to 10mm in length. The 4 or 5 or rarely 6 or 7 glumes are narrow, long with acute or long mucronate apexes. The deep red-brown hyaline glumes are glabrous or sparsely covered in rusty-brown puberulent hairs and measure 6mm to 12mm. The margins are glabrous or covered in white puberulent hairs. The spikes measure 5mm to 7.5mm in length.

The 3 or 4 white anthers measure 3.7mm to 5mm in length excluding the white twisted appendage which measures 0.3mm to 0.5mm in length.

The deep purplish-red trifid styles and stigmas measure 3mm to 5mm length. The flowers appear from mid-September to late April.

The fruits of Caustis flexuosa are narrow ellipsoid to ellipsoidal nuts. The nuts measure 3.5mm to 5mm in length by 1.8mm to 2.5mm in diameter. The yellow-brown nuts turn whitish to pale creamy-yellow and finely puncticulate and irregularly reticulate. The styles are persistent on the nuts.

Wildlife:

Caustis flexuosa is suitable for erosion control on back dunes and mountain heaths where the soils comprise of course or fine sand.

Cultivation:

Caustis flexuosa is a tall tufted clump grass which is very suitable for large landscaping projects. In cultivation they will grow 0.6 meters to 1 meter in height by 0.9mm to 1.2 meters in diameter when grown in the open. They must be grown in full sun or bright dappled light to maintain dense healthy plants.

They are most suitable for use around sunny swimming pools, in the corner of sunny courtyards, and rockeries or adjacent to natural sandy bush. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Large fish or frog ponds will benefit from Caustis flexuosa vertical growth.

If they are placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look. Place them closer to the walls so the walls give them some support for additional height or in the open to gain the beautiful pendant habit of growth. Using rocks and large boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis and look much larger with this species but keep its size in mind when landscaping. The vertical habit and fast growth can make a great start around buildings.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use is limited only by size of the area to be landscaped, your imagination and the size of the other plants. Companion plants should be no more than 500mm in height to draw attention to Caustis blakei and the horizontal effect of the companion plants or use them between plants with a slim upright growth. These taller plants are best if they grow from 1.5 meters to 2 meters in height. Many of the Boronias like Boronia rosmarinifolia and Boronia ledifolia are 2 plants that look good next to Caustis flexuosa.

Caustis flexuosa would make outstanding contribution to an open tall mallee garden. Here they can be used as the vertical growth, scattered throughout the scene. Mixed, contrasting foliage plants with bright red, blue and yellow flowers like those on Dampier ovalifolia, Dampier stricta, Isotoma axillaris, Leschenaultia Formosa, Hibertia linearis, Hibbertia ovalifolia with some of the dwarf forms of Helichrysum will be dynamic and spectacular.

Caustis flexuosa is an attractive cut foliage plant presently harvested from the wild in and marketed under the name of koala fern. It is best to avoid buying wild harvested plant material so ask before buying whether the foliage is cultivated or wild harvested. The plants regenerate well after harvesting but decline in vigor with each successive harvest. Additional fertilizing regime in place would go a long way in reversing this decline.

Propagation:

Seeds: Previous attempts to propagate Caustis flexuosa in large numbers have been unsuccessful and our experience is no different. Collecting seeds from mature plants of Caustis flexuosa is not easy as the plants do not set a lot of seed and germination is very erratic. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix. Cover them to a depth of 5mm with a fine mix. Water and place the trays in full sun and keep the tray moist at all times.

When the seedlings are 20mm to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good quality mix.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering. Do not use fertilizers containing phosphorous as the plants are extremely phosphorous sensitive.

Once the seedlings reach 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Wild Plant Removal: When growing Caustis flexuosa from plants removed from the wild ensure the plants have been gained from accredited sources. Remove unwanted dead material and any old small culms that look weak. Replant the stocks ensuring the soil is at the same level as before. Cut back the tops so that the stubs are around 50mm in height. Water the new plants thoroughly using a half strength organic fertilizer. New shoots will appear within 10 days.

If Caustis flexuosa are being mass planted for a feature garden, use 1.5 meter to 3 meters.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Caustis pentandra

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Class: Commelinidis

Order: Poales

Family: Cyperaceae

Genus: From Kaustos, which is Ancient Greek for scorched or burnt. It refers to the leaf bases or leaf sheaths which are decidedly deeper in colour or deep reddish-brown.

Specie: From Pénte, which is Ancient Greek for five and Androus, which is Ancient Greek for a man. It refers to the stamens or anthers numbering five.

Common Name: Thick Rush, Twisted Rush or Thick Twist Rush.

Distribution:

Caustis pentandra is found in the south western corner of Western Australia.

It is also foud south from Rockland Spring central eastern Queensland through eastern New South Wales through to the Grampians in south western Victoria and Managlow and Kangaroo Island in southern central South Australia.

It is rare and only found in two isolated populations on the east coast of Tasmania.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Caustis+pentandra#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Caustis pentandra prefers full sun to light partial shade. It prefers dry schlerophyll forest open woodlands on seasonally wet ground. The altitude ranges from 2 meters ASL to 950 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in August to 42 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 200mm to 1600mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Caustis pentandra prefer skeletal to deep coarse sands to fine sands or light fatty clays. The soils are derived from accumulated peaty beach sands or decomposed sandstone or granites. The soil’s pH ranges from 4.5pH to 5.5pH. It tolerates seasonal water logged soils and seasonal high water tables or soils where capillary action keeps the soils constantly moist. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.5m to 1.5m by 0.8m to 2m

Characteristics:

Caustis pentandra is a tufted perennial rush with short, stout rhizomes. The tall straight, erect culms are mid grass-green to bright deep grass-green and glabrous to scabrous. The culms measure 500mm to 1500mm in length by 3mm to 8mm in diameter.

The leaf sheaths of Caustis pentandra are concolourous, very deep reddish-brown to almost black and slightly to very wrinkled near the middle section. They measure 30mm to 60mm in length. The bases are clasping while the apexes are narrow acuminate. The sheath margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Caustis pentandra are 5 to 12 distant clusters of branchlets that measure 200mm to 1200mm in length. The ultimate branchlets are straight and somewhat spreading. Most the branchlets are sterile. The spikelets 1 or 2 flowered is often falcate and measure 10mm to 15mm in length. The 4 to 6 acute glumes are long accuminate, while the lower glumes are short accuminate. The red-brown to deep grey-brown glumes are puberulous, with a hyaline margin, which are sparsely to moderately covered in white ciliate hairs and measure 9mm to 13mm in length.

The 5 white anthers measure 5mm to 6mm in length excluding the appendage which measures 0.5mm to 1.1mm in length.

The straw coloured styles have a 4 or 5 fid stigma and measure 2.5mm to 3.5mm in length. The flowers appear from September to February.

The fruits of Caustis pentandra are narrow ellipsoid to narrow ovoidal nuts, which measure 4.5mm to 8mm in length by 2mm to 2.4mm in diameter. The yellow-brown nuts turn whitish to pale creamy-yellow when mature. The style is persistent on the nuts.

Wildlife:

Caustis pentandra is suitable for erosion control on back dunes and hilly heaths where the soils comprise of course or fine sand.

Cultivation:

Caustis pentandra is a tall tufted clump grass which is very suitable for large landscaping projects. In cultivation they will grow 0.6 meters to 1 meter in height by 0.9mm to 1.2 meters in diameter when grown in the open. They must be grown in full sun or bright dappled light to maintain dense healthy plants.

They are most suitable for use around sunny swimming pools, in the corner of sunny courtyards, and rockeries or adjacent to natural sandy bush. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Large fish or frog ponds will benefit from Caustis flexuosa vertical growth.

If they are placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look. Place them closer to the walls so the walls give them some support for additional height or in the open to gain the beautiful pendant habit of growth. Using rocks and large boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis and look much larger with this species but keep its size in mind when landscaping. The vertical habit and fast growth can make a great start around buildings.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use is limited only by size of the area to be landscaped, your imagination and the size of the other plants. Companion plants should be no more than 500mm in height to draw attention to Caustis blakei and the horizontal effect of the companion plants or use them between plants with a slim upright growth. These taller plants are best if they grow from 1.5 meters to 2 meters in height. Many of the Boronias like Boronia rosmarinifolia and Boronia ledifolia are 2 plants that look good next to Caustis flexuosa.

Caustis pentandra would make outstanding contribution to an open tall mallee garden. Here they can be used as the vertical growth, scattered throughout the scene. Mixed, contrasting foliage plants with bright red, blue and yellow flowers like those on Dampier ovalifolia, Dampier stricta, Isotoma axillaris, Leschenaultia Formosa, Hibertia linearis, Hibbertia ovalifolia with some of the dwarf forms of Helichrysum will be dynamic and spectacular.

Caustis flexuosa is an attractive cut foliage plant presently harvested from the wild in and marketed under the name of koala fern. It is best to avoid buying wild harvested plant material so ask before buying whether the foliage is cultivated or wild harvested. The plants regenerate well after harvesting but decline in vigor with each successive harvest. Additional fertilizing regime in place would go a long way in reversing this decline.

Propagation:

Seeds: Previous attempts to propagate Caustis pentandra in large numbers have been unsuccessful and our experience is no different. Collecting seeds from mature plants of Caustis pentandra is not easy as the plants do not set a lot of seed and germination is very erratic. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix. Cover them to a depth of 5mm with a fine mix. Water and place the trays in full sun and keep the tray moist at all times.

When the seedlings are 20mm to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good quality mix.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering. Do not use fertilizers containing phosphorous as the plants are extremely phosphorous sensitive.

Once the seedlings reach 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Wild Plant Removal: When growing Caustis pentandra from plants removed from the wild ensure the plants have been gained from accredited sources. Remove unwanted dead material and any old small culms that look weak. Replant the stocks ensuring the soil is at the same level as before. Cut back the tops so that the stubs are around 50mm in height. Water the new plants thoroughly using a half strength organic fertilizer. New shoots will appear within 10 days.

If Caustis flexuosa are being mass planted for a feature garden, use 1.5 meter to 3 meters.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Caustis recurvata

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Class: Equisetopsida

Subclass: Magnoliidae

Order: Poales

Family: Cyperaceae

Genus: From Kaustos, which is Ancient Greek for scorched or burnt. It refers to the leaf bases or leaf sheaths which are decidedly deeper in colour or deep reddish-brown.

Specie: From Re, which is Latin for again and Curvare, which is Latin for to bend backwards. It refers to structures or organs, which strongly bend backwards.

Variety: Caustis recurvata var. foliosa. From Hirsutus, which is Latin, for a hairy and shaggy. It refers to structures or organs, which have long, shaggy often coarse looking hairs.

Variety: Caustis recurvata var. hirsuta. From Hirsutus, which is Latin, for a hairy and shaggy. It refers to structures or organs, which have long, shaggy often coarse looking hairs.

Variety: Caustis recurvata var. recurvata. From Re, which is Latin for again and Curvare, which is Latin for to bend backwards. It refers to structures or organs, which strongly bend backwards.

Common Name:

Distribution:

Caustis recurvata var. foliosa is found south from Rockhampton in central coastal Queensland to Palarang in central southern coastal New South Wales.

Caustis recurvata var. hirsuta is restricted to an small area mainly between Southerland to Helensberrg in central coastal New South Wales.

Caustis recurvata var. recurvata is found south from Rockhampton in central coastal Queensland to Palarang in central southern coastal New South Wales.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Caustis+recurvata#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Caustis recurvata prefer full sun. It is restricted to open, dry schlerophyll forest and open, woodland heaths along or behind the frontal dunes and nearby ranges. The altitude ranges from 1 meter ASL to 100 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 2 degrees in August to 40 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 600mm to 2000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Caustis recurvata prefer skeletal to deep sands often with peat. The soils are derived from accumulated sands or decomposed sandstone. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. It tolerates season water logged soils for short periods. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.2m to 0.7m by 0.5m to 0.8m

Characteristics:

Caustis recurvata is a tufted perennial grass with short rhizomes. The tall straight, erect culms are mid grass-green to bright deep grass-green and glabrous. The culms measure 150mm to 700mm in length by 1.5mm to 5mm in diameter.

The culms of Caustis recurvata var. recurvata are scabrous with all other parts usually glabrous. The culms measure 1mm to 2.5mm diam.

The culms of Caustis recurvata var. hirsuta are glabrous or covered in white hirtellous hairs. The culms measure 2mm to 5mm in diameter

The leaves of Caustis recurvataare more stem like and form part of a complex panicle. The concolourous deep red-brown to almost black appressed sheath measures 7mm to 11mm in length. The bases are clasping while the apexes are narrow acuminate. The sheath margins are entire. The leaves of Caustis recurvata are mainly found on juvenile plants or damaged plants recovering. The linear and measure 60mm to 120mm in length by 3mm to 4mm in width. The concolourous laminas are mid green to deep grass-green and glabrous. The margins are entire.

The monoecious inflorescences of Caustis recurvata are 7 to 12 distant clusters of branchlets that measure 20mm to 60mm in length.

The ultimate branchlets of the male inflorescences are short and somewhat flexuous or straight.

The ultimate branchlets of the female inflorescences are long and strongly curled with numerous dense leaf-like sterile branches that hide the main axis.

The spikelets have 1 or 2 flowers are often falcate and measure 5mm to 13mm in length usually 9mm to 12mm in length.

There are 2 to 4 glumes on a spike. The glumes on Caustis recurvata var. recurvataare covered in white puberulent hairs.

There are 4 or 5 glumes on a spike. The glumes on Caustis recurvata var. hirsuta are covered in white hirsute hairs.

The long acute or mucronate glumes are deep purplish-red measure 4mm to 12mm in length. The margins are covered in white ciliate hairs. The spikes measure 5mm to 7.5mm in length.

The 5 or 6 white anthers measure 2.7mm to 5.2mm in length excluding the white twisted appendage which measures 0.3mm to 1mm in length.

The rusty-orange to deep rusty–brown trifid to 5 fid styles and stigmas measure 3.5mm to 6mm length. The flowers appear from mid-September to late April.

The fruits of Caustis recurvata are ovoid to ellipsoidal nuts. The nuts measure 4mm to 5.5mm in length by 2.2mm to 2.5mm in diameter. The green nuts turn pale creamy-yellow and are finely irregularly reticulate and wrinkled. The styles are persistent on the nuts.

Wildlife:

Caustis flexuosa is suitable for erosion control on back dunes and mountain heaths where the soils comprise of pure sand.

Cultivation:

Caustis recurvata is a tall tufted clump grass which is very suitable for large landscaping projects. In cultivation they will grow 0.2 meters to 0.7 meter in height by 0.4mm to 0.7 meters in diameter when grown in the open. They must be grown in full sun or bright dappled light to maintain dense healthy plants.

They are most suitable for use around sunny swimming pools, in the corner of sunny courtyards, and rockeries or adjacent to natural sandy bush. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Large fish or frog ponds will benefit from Caustis flexuosa vertical growth.

If they are placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look. Place them closer to the walls so the walls give them some support for additional height or in the open to gain the beautiful pendant habit of growth. Using rocks and large boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis and look much larger with this species but keep its size in mind when landscaping. The vertical habit and fast growth can make a great start around buildings.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use is limited only by size of the area to be landscaped, your imagination and the size of the other plants. Companion plants should be no more than 500mm in height to draw attention to Caustis blakei and the horizontal effect of the companion plants or use them between plants with a slim upright growth. These taller plants are best if they grow from 1.5 meters to 2 meters in height. Many of the Boronias like Boronia rosmarinifolia and Boronia ledifolia are 2 plants that look good next to Caustis recurvata.

Caustis recurvata would make outstanding contribution to an open tall mallee garden. Here they can be used as the vertical growth, scattered throughout the scene. Mixed, contrasting foliage plants with bright red, blue and yellow flowers like those on Dampier ovalifolia, Dampier stricta, Isotoma axillaris, Leschenaultia Formosa, Hibertia linearis, Hibbertia ovalifolia with some of the dwarf forms of Helichrysum will be dynamic and spectacular.

Caustis recurvata is an attractive cut foliage plant presently harvested from the wild. It is best to avoid buying wild harvested plant material so ask before buying whether the foliage is cultivated or wild harvested. The plants regenerate well after harvesting but decline in vigor with each successive harvest. Additional fertilizing regime in place would go a long way in reversing this decline.

Propagation:

Seeds: Previous attempts to propagate Caustis recurvata in large numbers have been unsuccessful and our experience is no different. Collecting seeds from mature plants of Caustis recurvata is not easy as the plants do not set a lot of seed and germination is very erratic. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix. Cover them to a depth of 5mm with a fine mix. Water and place the trays in full sun and keep the tray moist at all times.

When the seedlings are 20mm to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good quality mix.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering. Do not use fertilizers containing phosphorous as the plants are extremely phosphorous sensitive.

Once the seedlings reach 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Wild Plant Removal: When growing Caustis recurvata from plants removed from the wild ensure the plants have been gained from accredited sources. Remove unwanted dead material and any old small culms that look weak. Replant the stocks ensuring the soil is at the same level as before. Cut back the tops so that the stubs are around 50mm in height. Water the new plants thoroughly using a half strength organic fertilizer. New shoots will appear within 10 days.

If Caustis flexuosa are being mass planted for a feature garden, use 1.5 meter to 3 meters.

1. Water with a deep soaking the day before you start.

2. Cut back foliage to around 70mm to 100mm in length,

3. Use a garden fork or shovel to dig around the clump you want to divide (about 100mm to 150mm greater circumference than the bulbs),

4. Lift the whole of the root ball out of the ground,

5. Remove the soil by shaking. If the soil is hard allow to sit in a container of water for 15 minutes to half an hour. repeat the shaking in the water and hose off excess soil,

6. Once the bulbs can be seen clearly it is easier to pry and split the clump apart.

7. Leave a small number of bulbs in each new clump,

8. Replant in the prepared bed using half a hand full of blood and bone in the hole and mix,

9. Level off at the same level the bulbs were at the start.

10. Water regularly and feed fortnightly until the plants have re-established themselves.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.


Cayratia clematidea

Classification

Class: Magnoliopsida

Sub Class: Rosidae

Order: Vitales

Family: Vitacea

Genus: May be from Cayratia, which maybe Latin for a draped female figure supporting a frieze or cornice. It therefore may refer to the way the plants drape over surrounding shrubs and small trees, which is particularly noticeable when in flower.

Specie: From Klematis, which is Greek/Latin for any woody climbing plants. It refers to plants, which have stems or leaves which resemble those of a typical vine.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Slender Grape or Native Grape.

Distribution:

Cayratia clematidea is found south from Weipa in far north Queensland Shoal Haven Gorge in southern New South Wales. It is found on the Western Slopes, on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cayratia+clematidea#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cayratia clematidea prefers full sun, light dappled shade or dense shade. It grows in or on the edge of all types of rainforests and wet Eucalyptus forests. The altitude ranges from 10 meter ASL to 900 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in August to 37 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 500mm to 3200mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Cayratia clematidea prefers light gravelly clays to medium clays. The soils are usually derived from decomposed shales or brown basalts. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6.5pH. Soils are usually poorer quality soils adjacent to all types of rainforests or moist Eucalyptus forests. It is intolerant of water logged soils. Saline soils are not tolerated at all.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:1.5m to 3m by 1.5m to 3m

Characteristics:

Cayratia clematidea grows as a weak scrambling tendril climber or a very compact vigorous climber where permanent moisture and good filtered light are available. The bark is a brownish grey green on older creepers. Young stems are striated, green and sparsely covered in white puberulent hairs or glabrous for a considerable distance. The main roots underground form small tubers.

The tendrils are at least twice branched and are coiling or twinning. The leaves are pedately compound with the central leaflet being the largest. Pedately compound meaning the base pair share a common petiole. The ovate to elliptical leaves measure 10mm to 80mm in length by 10mm to 30mm in width. The triangular stipules measure 1.2mm to 1.5mm in length. The petiole measure 10mm to 80mm in length while the petiolules measure 4mm to 30mm in length. The bases are obtuse to cuneate while the apexes are acute to acuminate. The concolourous laminas are a dull pale green. The leaf margins are deeply toothed to having small lobes. The mid vein is prominent on the lower lamina and is distinctly visible from above.

Inflorescences of Cayratia clematidea are opposite the leaf axis. The dense umbels are on 80mm to 100mm peduncles. They comprise of 60 to 99 flowers on each umbel. The branched peduncles measures 10mm to 15mm in length while the individual peduncles measure 1mm to 3mm in length. The pale green calyx is a broad cup shaped vessel with minute lobes. The pale dull green-yellow sepals peel back to reveal the 1.5mm to 2.2mm petals.

The filaments measure 0.7mm to 0.8mm in length while the bright yellow anthers measure 0.5mm in length. The pistil has a 2 locule stout, tapering stigma, arises from the center of the pale lime green disc and measures 1mm in length. Flowers appear from late November through to early February.

Cayratia clematidea fruits are globose to ovoid berries. The berries measure 5mm to 9mm in diameter. The green berries turn deep purplish black in colour when ripe. They ripen at different times even on the same umbel. The thin skinned fleshy fruits contain 1 to 4 seeds and can be very prolific in good seasons. The fawn to pale brown seeds is triangular and measure 3mm in length by 3mm in width. Fruits ripen from mid-November to the end of February.  

Wildlife:

Cayratia clematidea is the host to a number of small butterflies and native bees when in flower. Fruits are eaten by Bower Birds, Cat Birds, Honey Eaters, Native Bush Rats, Native Mice, Possums and small wallabies. The leaves are also eaten by Wallabies and are host to the harlequin moth (Agarista agricola). The moth has a wing span of 50mm to 53mm across is black and adorned with yellow and red spots. The larvae are black and white striped with an orange stripe near the head and abdomen. They are strikingly beautiful but are generating a bad name for themselves since also taking a liking to the introduced table and wine grapes. They are now considered a pest in the viticulture industry.

The fruits were eaten by aborigines. They have a sweet, pleasant taste similar to grapes. Some plants produce more silicon rods than other which can cause irritation to the tongue and throat after eating large numbers. If this occurs there are three things you can do. You need to learn how to eat the fruits without breaking the silicon rods and I can assure you this is an art that takes some time to perfect. Two select forms that do not contain the silicon rods and select cuttings for propagating purposes. Three don’t eat the fruit which is difficult to pass up when you see a plant covered in fruit and you love grapes.

Jams and conserves can be made from the fruits. The fruits contain good quantities of pectin so a thick jam or jelly can be made easily. The silicon rods are not a problem as these are broken and destroyed during the boiling process. In my opinion the jam is of excellent quality rich dark and pleasant to the palate. The main problem we had in the past with making the jam was hiding it from our daughters.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant creeper which is ideal when used as a ground cover on better quality soils.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

This is a beautiful small ground cover or creeper for small areas, fences, in court yards, near water features, trellises or hanging baskets. If used in hanging baskets ensure moisture is maintained or leaf drop will occur very quickly. It needs some shade a cool root run and even moisture to look its best and to maintain a dense look. In the garden they can fill that difficult spot in the shade, heavy soil or where there is hot sun and dense shade variation over the different seasons.

They are particularly useful scrambling over mounds or over small retaining walls, where they can attract and feed the birds. If used in this manner be aware of cats as low lying plants will attract the birds but leave them vulnerable and exposed to cat attack.

They often reach their full potential of 3 meters by 3 meters in just 3 years and flower from the second year. It flowers best following a dryer winter. They are ideal for warm temperate, sub-tropical and tropical gardens and could also be tried in semi-arid areas of Australia where water is not a problem.

The fruits were eaten by aborigines. They have a sweet, pleasant taste similar to grapes. Some plants produce silicon rods which can cause irritation to the tongue and throat after eating large numbers. If this occurs there are three things you can do. One is to learn how to eat the fruits without breaking the silicon rods and I can assure you this is an art that takes some time to perfect. Two select forms that do not contain the silicon rods and select cuttings for propagating purposes. Three don’t eat the fruit which is difficult to pass up when you see a plant covered in fruit and you love grapes.

Jams and conserves can be made from the fruits. The fruits contain good quantities of pectin so a thick jam or jelly can be made easily. The silicon rods are not a problem as these are broken and destroyed during the boiling process. In my opinion the jam is of excellent quality rich dark and pleasant to the palate.

Cayratia clematidea responds very quickly to regular tip pruning or aggressive pruning on an annual basis which is best carried out immediately after any late frosts or in mid-September.

These plants can be attacked on a regular basis by the beautiful Harlequin moth. If and when this occurs wait until the larvae pupate then prune back to about 50% of the stems, water well and fertilize two or three days later and give another soaking. This will rejuvenate the plants very quickly. This is always going to be a dilemma as the plants are beautiful when in full fruit yet the moth is native and is also very attractive. I prefer to let nature work things out.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cayratia clematidea seeds require no treatment before sowing. Sow into a seed raising mix and cover the fresh seeds with 5mm of the mix. Water in well and keep moist. Place the tray where some sun light is available.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 40mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved with plantings of 2.5 meters centers. For trellis or low fence planting plant them at 2 meter to 3 meter centers.

Cuttings: Use 70mm to 100mm long semi hardwood cuttings prepared from partially mature wood of the current season’s growth, just after a flush of growth. Take the cuttings from January to early April or later if you are in a frost free area. The wood is reasonably firm and the leaves of mature size.

1 Prepare the cutting mix by adding one third sharp clean river sand, one third peat and one third perlite. These ingredients are sterilize,

2 Select good material from non diseased plants,

3 Select semi green stems for cuttings. Look for a stem with two or three nodes,

4 Place the cutting on a flat, hard surface, and make a clean slice 10mm long on one side near the base, with a sterilized sharp knife or razor blade. – This scarification of the node will increase the chances of roots emerging from this spot. Now remove all but one or two the leaves, leaving the apex leaves in tact. If the leaves are very large in proportion to the stem, cut off the apical halves.

5 Some plants root easily, but a rooting hormone can help others by stimulating the cutting into sending out new roots. Fill a saucer with water, and place some rooting hormone into another container like a bottle top. Dip the node end of the cutting into the water and then into the rooting hormone. Tap off any excess hormone,

6 Use a small dipple stick or old pencil to poke a hole into the soilless potting mix. Ensure the hole is slightly larger than the stem diameter and be careful not to wipe the rooting hormone off the cuttings base, place the cuttings in a pattern ensuring the cuttings are not touching each other,

7 I like to place the pots in Plastic bags to help maintain temperature and moisture. Place in a semi shaded place like under 50% shade cloth.

8 When the cuttings have struck, open the bag to allow air circulation for a few days to a week,

9 Once hardened off remove the cuttings from the bag and allow to further hardening for a few more days,

10 Transplant into a good potting mix to grow on.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering and fruiting.

INDOORS OR POTTED ON:

Sawdust or sand mixes are too well draining unless the sawdust has completely composted down where it exhibits a texture like plastacine to the touch. Moisture can be squeezed out between the fingers yet it remains moist. I find this a great basis to start with.

Mix equal parts of the well decomposed saw dust with the above feel with perlite and vermiculite. To this add two parts sharp clean sand, one part compost and one part good crusher dust from a basalt rock quarry. Preferably black basalt but both are good. Make sure the sand comes from a source that does not have salt.

The decomposed Sawdust in this condition creates the moisture retention and holds nutrient in. The perlite and vermiculite make the mix neutral and both have great water holding capacity without shrinkage with age. The sand creates good drainage and is good for good healthy root development. The crusher dust adds vital minerals which the plants need.

Indoor plants need good light and ventilation without drying breezes or wind.

Again fertilize the plants on a monthly basis with the above formula on a rotation basis.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cayratia eurynema

Classification

Class:  Magnoliopsida

Sub Class: Rosidae

Order: Vitales

Family: Vitacea

Genus: May be fromCayratia, which maybe Latin for a draped female figure supporting a frieze or cornice. It therefore may refer to the way the plants drape over surrounding shrubs and small trees when in flower.

Specie: From Eurys, which is Ancient Greek for broad and Nêma, which is Ancient Greek or Nēma, which is Latin for a thread. It refers to structures or organs, which have fine flattened threads.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Slender Grape or Native Grape.

Distribution:

Cayratia eurynema is found south of from the Sunshine Coast hinterland in southern coastal Queensland in several disjunct populations along and east of the Great Dividing Range to the Barrington Tops in central New South Wales.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cayratia+eurynema#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cayratia eurynema prefer full shade to light dappled shade. It grows in or on the edge of all types of rainforests and wet Eucalyptus forests. The altitude ranges from 5 meter ASL to 880 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in July to 37 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 900mm to 2000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Cayratia eurynema prefer better quality light clays to medium clays. The soils are derived from decomposed shales, brown basalt or black basalt. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 3m to 6m by 3m to 5m.

Characteristics:

Cayratia eurynema grows as a strong scrambling tendril climber or a very compact vigorous climber where permanent moisture and good filtered light are available. The bark is a grey-brownish on older creepers. Young stems are olive-green and finely scabrous or covered in white pulverulent hairs.

The tendrils are usually several-branched with adhesive discs at their apexes and are opposite the leaf axils. The alternate leaves are pedately compound with the central leaflet being the largest. Pedately compound meaning the base pair share a common petiole. The 5 obovate to oblong-elliptical leaves measure 50mm to 120mm in length by 30mm to 60mm in width. The bases are broad cuneate to rounded and slightly oblique to oblique while the apexes are acuminate to caudate. The discolourous laminas are mid green and glabrous on the upper laminas while the lower laminas are paler to subglaucus. The leaves have an almost succulent feel. The leaf margins are shallowly and bluntly toothed. The mid vein and lateral veins is prominent on the lower lamina and is distinctly visible from above. The glabrous petioles and petiolules are glabrous. The petioles measure 50mm to 100mm in length while the petiolules measure 3mm to 500mm in length.

The inflorescences of Cayratia eurynema are loose panicles born from the leaf axis. They comprise of 60 to 100 flowers on each umbel. The peduncles are longer than the leaves and are very sparsely covered in white puberulent hairs. The pale green cupular calyxes have minute lobes. The 4 pale grass-green petals measure 3mm to 4mm in length.

The 8 filaments measure 0.7mm to 0.8mm in length while the bright yellow anthers measure 0.5mm in length.

The pale pink to cream pistil arises from the center of a pale pink or cream disc and measures 3.5mm to 7mm in length. The flowers appear from late November through to February.

Cayratia eurynema fruits are flattened globose to flattened ovoidal berries. The berries measure 5mm to 7mm in diameter. The green berries turn deep purplish black in colour when ripe. They ripen at different times even on the same umbel. The thin skinned fleshy fruits contain 1 to 4 seeds and can be very prolific in good seasons. The fawn to pale brown seeds is triangular and measure 2.5mm in length by 2.5mm in width. The fruits ripen from mid-November to the end of February.

Wildlife:

Cayratia eurynema is the host to a number of small butterflies and native bees when in flower. The fruits are eaten by Bower Birds, Cat Birds, Honey Eaters, Native Bush Rats, Native Mice, Possums and small wallabies. The leaves are also eaten by Wallabies and are host to the harlequin moth (Agarista agricola). The moth has a wing span of 50mm to 53mm across is black and adorned with yellow and red spots. The larvae are black and white striped with an orange stripe near the head and abdomen. They are strikingly beautiful but are generating a bad name for themselves since they also have a liking to the introduced table and wine grapes. They are now considered a pest in the viticulture industry.

The fruits were eaten by aborigines. They have a sweet, pleasant taste similar to grapes. Some plants produce silicon rods which can cause irritation to the tongue and throat after eating large numbers. If this occurs there are three things you can do. You need to learn how to eat the fruits without breaking the silicon rods and I can assure you this is an art that takes some time to perfect. Two select forms that do not contain the silicon rods and select cuttings for propagating purposes. Three don’t eat the fruit which is difficult to pass up when you see a plant covered in fruit and you love grapes.

Jams and conserves can be made from the fruits. The fruits contain good quantities of pectin so a thick jam or jelly can be made easily. The silicon rods are not a problem as these are broken and destroyed during the boiling process. In my opinion the jam is of excellent quality rich dark and pleasant to the palate.

Cultivation:

Cayratia eurynema is a beautiful medium ground cover or creeper for small areas, fences, in court yards, near water features, trellises or hanging baskets. If used in hanging baskets ensure moisture is maintained or leaf drop will occur very quickly. It needs some shade a cool root run and even moisture to look its best and to maintain dense foliage. In the garden they can fill that difficult spot in the shade on heavy soil or where there is hot sun and dense shade variation over the different seasons.

They are particularly useful scrambling over mounds or over small retaining walls, where they can attract and feed the birds. If used in this manner be aware of cats as low lying plants will attract the birds but leave them vulnerable and exposed to cat attack.

They often reach their full potential of 3 meters to 4 meters in height by 3 meters in width in just 3 years and flower from the second year. It flowers best following a dryer winter. They are ideal for warm temperate, sub-tropical and tropical gardens and could also be tried in semi-arid areas of Australia where water is not a problem.

Cayratia eurynema responds very quickly to regular tip pruning or aggressive pruning on an annual basis which is best carried out immediately after any late frosts or in mid-September.

These plants can be attacked on a regular basis by the beautiful Harlequin moth. If and when this occurs wait until the larvae pupate then prune back to about 50% of the stems, water well and fertilize two or three days later and give another soaking. This will rejuvenate the plants very quickly. This is always going to be a dilemma as the plants are beautiful when in full fruit yet the moth is native and is also very attractive. I prefer to let nature work things out.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cayratia eurynema seeds require no treatment before sowing.

Sow into a seed raising mix and cover the fresh seeds with 5mm of the mix. Water in well and keep moist. Place the tray where some sun light is available.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 40mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved with plantings of 2.5 meters centers. For trellis or low fence planting plant them at 2 meter to 3 meter centers.

Cuttings: Use 70mm to 100mm long semi hardwood cuttings prepared from partially mature wood of the current season’s growth, just after a flush of growth. Take the cuttings from January to early April or later if you are in a frost free area. The wood is reasonably firm and the leaves of mature size.

1 Prepare the cutting mix by adding one third sharp clean river sand, one third peat and one third perlite. These ingredients are sterilize,

2 Select good material from non diseased plants,

3 Select semi green stems for cuttings. Look for a stem with two or three nodes,

4 Place the cutting on a flat, hard surface, and make a clean slice 10mm long on one side near the base, with a sterilized sharp knife or razor blade. – This scarification of the node will increase the chances of roots emerging from this spot. Now remove all but one or two the leaves, leaving the apex leaves in tact. If the leaves are very large in proportion to the stem, cut off the apical halves.

5 Some plants root easily, but a rooting hormone can help others by stimulating the cutting into sending out new roots. Fill a saucer with water, and place some rooting hormone into another container like a bottle top. Dip the node end of the cutting into the water and then into the rooting hormone. Tap off any excess hormone,

6 Use a small dipple stick or old pencil to poke a hole into the soilless potting mix. Ensure the hole is slightly larger than the stem diameter and be careful not to wipe the rooting hormone off the cuttings base, place the cuttings in a pattern ensuring the cuttings are not touching each other,

7 I like to place the pots in Plastic bags to help maintain temperature and moisture. Place in a semi shaded place like under 50% shade cloth.

8 When the cuttings have struck, open the bag to allow air circulation for a few days to a week,

9 Once hardened off remove the cuttings from the bag and allow to further hardening for a few more days,

10 Transplant into a good potting mix to grow on.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering and fruiting.

INDOORS OR POTTED ON:

Sawdust or sand mixes are too well draining unless the sawdust has completely composted down where it exhibits a texture like plastacine to the touch. Moisture can be squeezed out between the fingers yet it remains moist. I find this a great basis to start with.

Mix equal parts of the well decomposed saw dust with the above feel with perlite and vermiculite. To this add two parts sharp clean sand, one part compost and one part good crusher dust from a basalt rock quarry. Preferably black basalt but both are good. Make sure the sand comes from a source that does not have salt.

The decomposed Sawdust in this condition creates the moisture retention and holds nutrient in. The perlite and vermiculite make the mix neutral and both have great water holding capacity without shrinkage with age. The sand creates good drainage and is good for good healthy root development. The crusher dust adds vital minerals which the plants need.

Indoor plants need good light and ventilation without drying breezes or wind.

Again fertilize the plants on a monthly basis with the above formula on a rotation basis.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Celastrus australis

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Rosids

Order: Celastrales

Family: Celastracea

Subfamily: Celastroideae  

Genus: From Kelastros, which is Ancient Greek for the bitter-sweet. It refers to the overall appearance of the trees which resemble the common privet tree.

Specie: From Terra Australis, which is Latin for land of the south. It refers to plants, which were first discovered from the land down under.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Staff Climber.

Distribution:

Celatrus australis is widespread on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast. It is found south from Cania National Park in southern Queensland to Lakes Entrance in north eastern Victoria.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Celastrus+australis#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Celastrus australis prefer full shade to light dappled shade. It prefers warmer subtropical rainforests, cool tropical rainforests, gallery rainforests and better quality moist littoral rainforests. The altitude ranges from 1 meter ASL to 550 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degree in July to 37 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 610mm to 1650mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Celastrus australis prefer better quality loams, light gritty clays to medium clays. The soils are derived from decomposed shales, brown basalt or black basalt. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. It does not tolerate of water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 3m to 16m by 3m to 8m

Characteristics:

Celastrus australis is a strong scrambling twinning, compact vigorous climber where permanent moisture and good filtered light are available. The bark is a grey-brown on older creepers. Young stems are blue-green to mid green glabrous and covered in broad ovate to deltoid erose scales.

The alternate leaves of Celastrus australisare lanceolate to elliptical and often falcate near the apexes. The leaves measure 30mm to 90mm in length by 10mm to 40mm in width. The bases are broad cuneate to rounded while the apexes are acute or acuminate. The discolourous laminas are mid green to blue-green, dull and glabrous on the upper laminas while the lower laminas are paler. The laminas are flat, decurve towards the apexes and are slightly convex between the lateral veins and the main vein. The leaf margins are entire to shallowly tooth. The mid vein and main lateral veins is prominent on the lower lamina and is distinctly visible from the upper lamina. The glabrous petioles measure 3mm to 15mm in length.

The dioecious inflorescences of Celastrus australisare narrow panicles born from the terminals. The panicles have 20 to 40 flowers. The pedicles are mid olive-green and measure 2mm to 3mm in length. The mid green cupular calyxes have minute reddish-brown, truncate lobes. The calyxes measure 1.5mm to 2mm in length. The 5 pale yellow-green sepals measure 1.5mm to 2mm in length. The 5 pale yellow-green petals measure 1.8mm to 3mm in length by 0.8mm to 1.4mm in width.

The 5 filiform rusty-brown filaments are opposite the petals and measure 0.1mm to 0.2mm in length while the rusty-brown anthers measure 0.4mm to 0.6mm in length. The staminodes are similar to the stamens in the female flowers.

The mid green pistil turns pale yellow as it approaches the divaricate orbicular, trilobed stigma. The globose pistil measures 2mm to 3mm in length. The flowers appear from October to June.

Celastrus australis fruits are orbicular, ellipsoidal or sub globose capsules. The capsules measure 4mm to 7.5mm in length by 5mm to 9mm in diameter. The green berries turn olive-brown externally and have small bright red spots internally when ripe. The capsules split into 3 lobes and contain 3 seeds which are completely surrounded by a deep orange aril. The fawn seeds are triangular and measure 3mm to 4mm in length by 2.5mm to 3.5mm in width. The stigmas are persistent on the ripe fruit. The fruits ripen from late January to April.

Wildlife:

Celastrus australis rely on frugivorous birds like the Satin Bower bird (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus) and cat bird (Ailuroedus crassirostris) to consume the fruits and disperse the seeds.

All parts of the plants are poisonous to humans if eaten.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant ground cover on poorer soils.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Celastrus australis is a beautiful medium to large climber for larger areas, fences, in court yards, near water features, trellises or pergolas. It needs some shade with a cool root run and even moisture to look its best and to maintain its dense foliage. In the garden they can fill that difficult spot in the shade on heavy soil or where there is hot sun and dense shade variation over the different seasons.

It is particularly useful scrambling over mounds or over large retaining walls, where they can attract and feed the birds. If used in this manner be aware of cats as low lying plants will attract the birds but leave them vulnerable and exposed to cat attack.

They often reach their full potential of 8 meters to 10 meters in height by 3 meters in width in just 3 to 4 years and flower from the third year. It flowers best following a dryer winter. They are ideal for warm temperate, sub-tropical and tropical gardens and could also be tried in semi-arid areas of Australia where water is not a problem around the homestead.

Celastrus australis responds very quickly to regular tip pruning or aggressive pruning on an annual basis which is best carried out immediately after any late frosts or in mid-September.

These plants can be attacked on a regular basis by the beautiful Harlequin moth. If and when this occurs wait until the larvae pupate then prune back to about 50% of the stems, water well and fertilize two or three days later and give another soaking. This will rejuvenate the plants very quickly. This is always going to be a dilemma as the plants are beautiful when in full fruit yet the moth is native and is also very attractive. I prefer to let nature work things out.

The plants would make an interesting, formal totem indoors.

Propagation:

Seeds: Celastrus australis seeds require no treatment before sowing.

Sow into a seed raising mix and cover the fresh seeds with 5mm of the mix. Water in well and keep moist. Place the tray where some sun light is available.

When the seedlings are 25m to 40mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150m to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved with plantings of 2.5 meters centers. For trellis or low fence planting plant them at 2 meter to 3 meter centers.

Cuttings: Use 70mm to 100mm long hardwood cuttings can be taken from dormant, mature stems in late fall, winter, or early spring. Plants generally are fully dormant with no obvious signs of active growth. The wood is firm and does not bend easily.

1 Prepare the cutting mix by adding one third sharp clean river sand, one third peat and one third perlite. These ingredients are sterilize,

2 Select good material from non diseased plants,

3 Select semi green stems for cuttings. Look for a stem with two or three nodes,

4 Place the cutting on a flat, hard surface, and make a clean slice through the middle of the lower node on an angle towards the base, with a sterilized sharp knife or razor blade. – This scarification of the node will increase the chances of roots emerging from this spot. Now remove all but one or two the leaves, leaving the apex leaves in tact. If the leaves are very large in proportion to the stem, cut off the apical halves.

5 Some plants root easily, but a rooting hormone can help others by stimulating the cutting into sending out new roots. Fill a saucer with water, and place some rooting hormone into another container like a bottle top. Dip the node end of the cutting into the water and then into the rooting hormone. Tap off any excess hormone,

6 Use a small dipple stick or old pencil to poke a hole into the soilless potting mix. Ensure the hole is slightly larger than the stem diameter and be careful not to wipe the rooting hormone off the cuttings base, place the cuttings in a pattern ensuring the cuttings are not touching each other,

7 I like to place the pots in Plastic bags to help maintain temperature and moisture. Place in a semi shaded place like under 50% shade cloth.

8 When the cuttings have struck, open the bag to allow air circulation for a few days to a week,

9 Once hardened off remove the cuttings from the bag and allow to further hardening for a few more days,

10 Transplant into a good potting mix to grow on.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

INDOORS OR POTTED ON:

Sawdust or sand mixes are too well draining unless the sawdust has completely composted down where it exhibits a texture like plastacine to the touch. Moisture can be squeezed out between the fingers yet it remains moist. I find this a great basis to start with.

Mix equal parts of the well decomposed saw dust with the above feel with perlite and vermiculite. To this add two parts sharp clean sand, one part compost and one part good crusher dust from a basalt rock quarries. Preferably black basalt but both are good. Make sure the sand comes from a source that does not have salt.

The decomposed Sawdust in this condition creates the moisture retention and holds nutrient in. The perlite and vermiculite make the mix neutral and both have great water holding capacity without shrinkage with age. The sand creates good drainage and is good for good healthy root development. The crusher dust adds vital minerals which the plants need.

Indoor plants need good light and ventilation without drying breezes or wind.

Again fertilize the plants on a monthly basis with the above formula on a rotation basis.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Celastrus subspicata

Classification

Class: Magnoliopsida

Sub Class: Rosidae

Order: Vitales

Family: Vitacea

Genus: From Kelastros, which is Ancient Greek for the bitter-sweet. It refers to the overall appearance of the trees which resemble the common privet tree.

Specie: From Sub, which is Ancient Greek/Latin for below or lower and Spicatus, which is Latin for a spike. It refers to spikes, which are rather short.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Large Leaf Staff Vine.

Distribution:

Ceastrus subspicata is found in several disjunct populations south from Innisfail in far north eastern coastal Queensland to Shoal Haven Bay in central coastal New South Wales. It is found on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Celastrus+subspicata#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Ceastrus subspicata prefer dense shade to light dappled shade. It grows adjacent to warmer dry sub-tropical rainforests, dry tropical rainforests, better quality littoral rainforests and in moist enclosed Eucalyptus forests gallery forests. The altitude ranges from 30 meter ASL to 960 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in August to 37 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 600mm to 3200mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Ceastrus subspicata prefer better quality sandy loams, light gritty clays to medium clays. The soils are derived from decomposed granites, shales, brown basalt, black basalt or metamorphic rocks. The soil’s pH ranges from 4.5pH to 6pH. Soils are usually poorer quality soils. It does not tolerate of water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 3m to 16m by 3m to 8m

Characteristics:

Ceastrus subspicata grows as a strong scrambling twinning, compact vigorous climber where permanent moisture and good filtered light are available. The strongly corrugated main stem’s bark is greyish-brown with deep corky longitudinal ridges. Younger stems are brown to rusty-brown with white or grey longitudinal ridges. The new growth is blue-green to mid green and covered in fine longitudinal lenticels. The new growth is glabrous to covered in white, caduceous, puberulent hairs and caduceous deltoid to subulate scales.

The alternate leaves of Ceastrus subspicata are elliptical or lanceolate to ovate leaves measure 50mm to 150mm in length by 20mm to 70mm in width. The linear stipules measure 1.5mm to 2.5mm in length. The glabrous petioles measure 3mm to 13mm in length. The bases are cuneate while the apexes are broad acute to acuminate. The discolourous laminas are mid green to sea-green, dull and glabrous on the upper laminas while the lower laminas are paler. The laminas recurve strongly upwards from the mid vein to the margins and decurve strongly downwards towards the apexes. The leaf margins are entire to shallowly tooth. The mid vein and main lateral veins is prominent on the upper lamina and are faintly visible from the lower lamina.

The dioecious inflorescences of Ceastrus subspicata are narrow panicles born from the terminals. The panicles are sparsely covered in fine white puberulent hairs and have a few rusty-red deltoid scales. There are 20 to 30 flowers. The pedicles are mid blue-green and measure 3mm to 5mm in length. The mid blue-green cupular calyxes have minute truncate lobes. The calyxes measure 2mm to 2.5mm in length. The 5 pale yellow-green sepals measure 0.8mm to 1.5mm in length. The 5 pastel creamy yellow petals measure 2.2mm to 3mm in length by 1.2mm to 1.6mm in width.

The 5 filiform pastel creamy yellow filaments are opposite the petals and measure 0.6mm to 1mm in length while the pale yellow anthers measure 0.6mm to 1mm in diameter. The staminodes are similar to the stamens in the female flowers but smaller.

The blue-green pistil turns pastel yellow as it approaches the divaricate globular, 5 lobed stigma. The globose pistil measures 2mm to 3mm in length while the style measures 1mm to 1.2mm in length. The flowers appear from November to December.

Ceastrus subspicata fruits are ellipsoidal to ovoidal capsules. The capsules measure 5mm to 10mm in length by 5mm to 9mm in diameter. The green berries turn olive-brown to olive-yellow externally and have a few or no fine bright red spots internally when ripe. The capsules split into 3 lobes and contain 3 seeds which are completely surrounded by a deep orange to yellow-green aril. The fawn seeds are triangular and measure 4.5mm to 6mm in length by 3.6mm to 4.5mm in width. The stigmas are persistent on the ripe fruit. The fruits ripen from late January to April.

Wildlife:

Celastrus australis rely on frugivorous birds like the Satin Bower bird (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus) and cat bird (Ailuroedus crassirostris) to consume the fruits and disperse the seeds.

All parts of the plants are poisonous to humans if eaten.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant ground cover on poorer soils.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Ceastrus subspicata is a beautiful medium to large climber for larger areas, fences, in court yards, near water features, trellises or pergolas. It needs some shade with a cool root run and even moisture to look its best and to maintain its dense foliage. In the garden they can fill that difficult spot in the shade on heavy soil or where there is hot sun and dense shade variation over the different seasons.

They are particularly useful scrambling over mounds or over large retaining walls, where they can attract and feed the birds. If used in this manner be aware of cats as low lying plants will attract the birds but leave them vulnerable and exposed to cat attack.

They often reach their full potential of 8 meters to 10 meters in height by 3 meters in width in just 3 to 4 years and flower from the third year. It flowers best following a dryer winter. They are ideal for warm temperate, sub-tropical and tropical gardens and could also be tried in semi-arid areas of Australia where water is not a problem around the homestead.

Ceastrus subspicata responds very quickly to regular tip pruning or aggressive pruning on an annual basis which is best carried out immediately after any late frosts or in mid-September.

These plants can be attacked on a regular basis by the beautiful Harlequin moth. If and when this occurs wait until the larvae pupate then prune back to about 50% of the stems, water well and fertilize two or three days later and give another soaking. This will rejuvenate the plants very quickly. This is always going to be a dilemma as the plants are beautiful when in full fruit yet the moth is native and is also very attractive. I prefer to let nature work things out.

The plants would make an interesting, formal totem indoors.

Propagation:

Seeds: Ceastrus subspicata seeds require no treatment before sowing. Sow into a seed raising mix and cover the fresh seeds with 5mm of the mix. Water in well and keep moist. Place the tray where some sun light is available.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 40mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved with plantings of 2.5 meters centers. For trellis or low fence planting plant them at 2 meter to 3 meter centers.

Cuttings: Use 70mm to 100mm long hardwood cuttings can be taken from dormant, mature stems in late fall, winter, or early spring. Plants generally are fully dormant with no obvious signs of active growth. The wood is firm and does not bend easily.

1 Prepare the cutting mix by adding one third sharp clean river sand, one third peat and one third perlite. These ingredients are sterilize,

2 Select good material from non diseased plants,

3 Select semi green stems for cuttings. Look for a stem with two or three nodes,

4 Place the cutting on a flat, hard surface, and make a clean slice through the middle of the lower node on an angle towards the base, with a sterilized sharp knife or razor blade. – This scarification of the node will increase the chances of roots emerging from this spot. Now remove all but one or two the leaves, leaving the apex leaves in tact. Cut off the apical half of the leaves.

5 Some plants root easily, but a rooting hormone can help others by stimulating the cutting into sending out new roots. Fill a saucer with water, and place some rooting hormone into another container like a bottle top. Dip the node end of the cutting into the water and then into the rooting hormone. Tap off any excess hormone,

6 Use a small dipple stick or old pencil to poke a hole into the soilless potting mix. Ensure the hole is slightly larger than the stem diameter and be careful not to wipe the rooting hormone off the cuttings base, place the cuttings in a pattern ensuring the cuttings are not touching each other,

7 I like to place the pots in Plastic bags to help maintain temperature and moisture. Place in a semi shaded place like under 50% shade cloth.

8 When the cuttings have struck, open the bag to allow air circulation for a few days to a week,

9 Once hardened off remove the cuttings from the bag and allow to further hardening for a few more days,

10 Transplant into a good potting mix to grow on.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering. 

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Celtis paniculata

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Rosids

Order: Rosales

Family: Cannabaceae

Genus: From Keltos, which is Ancient Greek for a tree with sweet tasting fruit. It refers to any fruits, which taste sweet from a tree.

Specie: From Panos, which is Ancient Greek or Pānicula, which is Latin for a flower head. It refers to flowers, which are arranged in a head.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Native Celtis or Investigator Tree or Native Privet.

Distribution:

Celtis paniculata is found east from Vanderlin Island group to West Island to in the Northern Territory and Mornington Island to the Bentlick Island group in far north western Queensland along the coast in the Gulf of Carpentaria.

On the east coast it is found in several disjunct populations south from the Torres Straight Islands, the tip of Cape York Peninsular and the larger Islands of the Great Barrier Reef to Kiama in southern coastal New South Wales. It is found on the Western Slopes, on and east of the Great Dividing Range.

It is also found from Indonesia, Malasia, New Guinee and Papua.  

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Celtis+paniculata#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Celtis paniculata prefers full sun to dappled shade starting life in full shade. It grows in warm dry temperate rainforests, cool dry tropical rainforests, gallery rainforests, seasonal monsoonal vine forests, littoral rainforests or in wet seasonal eucalyptus forests adjoining the rain forests. It is found growing on alluvial flats, seasonal riverine gullies, riparian zones and on mountain slopes. The altitude ranges from 30 meter ASL to 800 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 4 degrees in July to 40 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 500mm to 3200mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Celtis paniculata prefers marginal soils that are sandy loams to medium clays. The soils are usually derived from decomposed sandstones. The soil’s pH ranges from 4.5pH to 7pH. It tolerates seasonal water logged soils. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 20m to 30m by 8m to 16m

Characteristics:

Celtis paniculata grows as a medium size single trunk tree. The bark is glabrous silver-grey with deep grey patches, paler longitudinal, corky pustules and at times raised ridges. Larger trees are buttressed to a meter above the ground. The new growth is brown, grey-green, brown-green to mid green and glabrous.

The elliptical to lanceolate leaves of Celtis paniculata are straight or slightly falcate especially near the apexes and measure 50mm to 100mm in length by 20mm to 45mm in width. The petioles measure 3mm to 6mm in length. The bases are cuneate while the apexes are acute. The discolourous laminas are mid green to sea-green, dull and glabrous on the upper laminas while the lower laminas are paler. The laminas are slightly to moderately recurve. The leaf margins are entire. The mid vein is prominent on the upper lamina and is distinctly visible on the lower lamina. There are also 2 longitudinal veins from the base. The leaf venation is strongly reticulate and faintly visible on both laminas but more pronounced on the lower laminas. Translucent oil dots are distinctly visible throughout the leaf. The new growth is glossy bronze or glossy lime green.

The dioecious inflorescences of Celtis paniculata are small loose panicles. The male panicles measure 25mm to 40mm in length by 20mm to 35mm in diameter. The male panicles comprise of 30 to 60 individual flowers while the female racemes comprise of 5 to 10 individual flowers.

The 5 pastel yellow-green male petals measure 1mm to 1.5mm in diameter. The 5 stamens are adjacent to the petals with the anthers extending beyond the petals.

The 5 pascal yellow-green female petals measure 1.5mm to 2mm in diameter. The pistil is pascal green. The flowers appear from early late October to late November.

The fruits of Celtis paniculata are ovoidal drupes. The green drupes turn deep purple-black on ripening. The drupes measure 9mm to 10mm in length by 9mm to 10.5mm in diameter. The stigma is persistent on the ripe fruits. The seeds are 1mm to 1.5mm in diameter. The fruits ripen from late August to early March.

Wildlife:

Celtis paniculata rely on frugivorous birds like the Satin Bower bird (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus) and cat bird (Ailuroedus crassirostris) to consume the fruits and disperse the seeds.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant medium size tree for better quality soils.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Celtis paniculata is one of the more beautiful small to medium trees that looks great in a medium or large garden as a feature tree or in the new rainforest patch. In cultivation the trees will grow from 15 meters by 20 meters in height by 10 meters to 16 meters in diameter when grown in the open.

The deep green semi glossy foliage is dense and is eye catching because of this feature alone. It can be used very effectively on heavier soils provided the drainage is good or of course sands provided a little mulch and organic fertilizer is applied annually. Celtis paniculata should be more widely in semi-arid, tropical, semi tropical and warm temperate areas of Australia. It is drought resistant once established but will drop some leaf if under stress.

The trees can be used to highlight architectural lines on long, low set to 3 story buildings to great effect because of the trees excellent umbrella shape This would be particularly so in semi-arid areas of Australia around the homestead or school yards. Celtis paniculata would make very good accent trees in front of low set commercial or industrial sheds where they will break up hard rigid architectural lines and give warmth and breadth to a building.

It does well if placed in a formal garden bed, with most Grevillea specie which prefer similar soils. Use Greville specie with finer, pale green or glaucous leaves for contrast. Avoid plants with yellow flowers and deep green foliage.

It is an excellent tree for hosting epiphytic orchids and ferns with older trees hosting many different species of lichens.

It makes an ideal avenue trees in parks because of their size and dense canopy. The beauty is further enhanced by the strong contrast in the colour of the upper and lower laminas. The flowers are prolific and will carpet the ground for many weeks in red and gold.

Try using Celtis paniculatawith its similar form to Brachychiton acerifolium could be used as a stunning feature for giving strength and taking the limelight when the flame tree becomes semi deciduous. Here again the foliage contrasts would be unmistakable. Be be prepared for passer byes dropping in and wanting to know what the tree is.

I have planted mine adjacent to Sterculia quadrifida for exactly the same reasons.

Propagation:

Seeds: Celtis paniculata seeds do not require treatment before sowing. Sow fresh seeds directly into a seed raising mix and cover with 5mm of the mix. When the seedlings are 25 to 40 mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150 to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings along drive ways or fence lines can be achieved by planting them at 6 meter centers. Plant specimen trees at 8 meters apart, this will allow them to develop to their full potential. Tall hedge rows can be maintained at 4 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cenchrus caliculatus

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Unranked: Commelinids

Class: Liliopsida

Order: Cyperales

Family: Poaceae

Subfamily: Panicoideae

Tribe: Paniceae

Genus: From Kenchros, which is Ancient Greek for a millet. It refers to the seeds which look resemble those of the horticultural millet seeds.

Specie: From Caliculatus, which is Latin for a set of bracts which resemble a calyx. It refers to plants, inwhich the flower bracts and calyxes are cupular and difficult to distinguish.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Hillside Burrgrass.

Distribution:

Cenchrus caliculatus is found south from the Mitchell River near Dunbar Crossing on Cape York Peninsular in far north east Queensland to the Bega valley in far south eastern New South Wales. It is mainly found on and east of the Great Dividing Range however it is not rare on the Western Plains. Isolated populations are found west of Bollon, Carnarvon Gorge National Park and Mount Isa along the Leichardt River in Queensland as well as the Todd River near Alice Springs in the Northern Territory with an old record along the Durack River in far north western, Western Australia.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cenchrus+caliculatus#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cenchrus caliculatus prefers dappled shade to full sun. It grows in open wet schlerophyll forests, open dry schlerophyll forests, moist open tropical woodlands, moist open subtropical woodlands, moist open temperate woodlands or semi-arid woodlands. It is mainly found growing on the north facing aspects. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 850 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 4 degrees in August to 40 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 200mm to 2000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Cenchrus caliculatus prefer sandy loams, skeletal rocky soils to medium clays. The soils are usually derived from decomposed brown basalt, black basalt, sandstones, granite, sedimentary, metamorphic rocks or on rare occasions accumulated peaty beach sands. The soil’s pH ranges from 4.5pH to 7pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.3m to 1.5m by 0.5m to 3m

Characteristics:

Cenchrus caliculatus is a scrambling, spreading perennial with long rhizomes forming loose clumps or scrambling over nearby vegetation. The erect, slender culms are terete and glabrous to scabrous.

The linear leaves of Cenchrus caliculatus are shorter than the culms and measure 140mm to 560mm in length by 3mm to 19mm in width. The pale blue-green appressed sheaths are glabrous while the ligules are a fringe of ciliate hairs which measure 1mm to 1.6mm in length. The bases are truncate while the apexes are acute. The concolourous laminas are mid grass-green to mid blue-green and scabrous. The midrib is strongly obtuse and prominent on the lower lamina and is clearly visible from the upper lamina forming a shallow furrow. The margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Cenchrus caliculatus are panicle spikes and measure 80mm to 250mm in length by 1mm to 2.8mm in diameter. The rachises are deep purple-black to pallid and measure 50mm to 235mm in length by 1mm to 2.8mm in diameter. The involucral bracts are a disc of connate bristles below the burr.

The glabrous spikelets are sessile in clusters of 3 to 12 spikelets, usually singular. The lower spikelets comprise of 2 or 3 individual flowers usually 2 with one fertile female floret and one sterile or rarely male floret. The upper spikelets comprise of 1 fertile female flower and 1 male flower or rarely 1 sterile floret. The spines measure 4mm to 7mm in length.

The glumes are thinner than fertile lemmas. The lower glumes are ovate and membranous, without keels and have 0 to 3 nerves. The lower ovate glumes measure 1.2mm to 3.5mm in length. The upper acute glumes are ovate, membranous, without keels and have 3 to 5 nerves. The upper glumes measure 2.4mm to 4.8mm in length.

The lower lemmas have 5 to 7 nerves and are finely scabrous. The lower lemmas are sterile or male and measure 3.5mm to 6.5mm in length. The upper lemmas have 3 nerves and are finely scabrous. The upper lemmas are bisexual, and measure 3.8mm to 6mm in length. The palea is slightly shorter.

The flowers appear from late December to May.

The fruits of Cenchrus caliculatus are globose burrs. The burrs measure 5mm to 6mm in length by 4mm to 5mm in diameter. The green burrs turn grey-brown when ripe.

Wildlife:

Cenchrus caliculatus is suitable for erosion control on drier slopes especially those that have short wet seasons.

Cenchrus caliculatus is a good cattle fodder grass in areas which have a long dry season but it is considered a weed amongst sheep farmers as the burrs get entangled in the wool.

Cultivation:

Cenchrus caliculatus is not a desirable garden subject due to the burrs and habit of growth which may become weedy and get out of control under favourable conditions.

Propagation:

Seeds: Collecting seeds from mature plants of Cenchrus caliculatus is not difficult as they hold onto the parent plant for extended periods when fully ripe. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix however better, more even germination is gained if the seeds are stratified for a short period and sown in spring. This can be achieved by placing the nuts in a paper bag in the vegetable crisper for a few weeks prior to sowing. Cover the seeds to a depth of 5mm. Seeds usually germinate rapidly with a strike rate of over 50%.

When the seedlings are 20mm to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good quality mix.

Once the seedlings reach 50mm in height they can be repot for indoor use or 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the flower buds appear.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cenchrus robustus

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Unranked: Commelinids

Class: Liliopsida

Order: Cyperales

Family: Poaceae

Subfamily: Panicoideae

Tribe: Paniceae

Genus: From Kenchros, which is Ancient Greek for a millet. It refers to the seeds which look resemble those of the horticultural millet seeds.

Specie: From Rōbustum, which is Latin for strong and hard as in Oak. It refers to timbers, trunks, branches or stems which are hard and strong.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Cenchrus robustus is restricted to a few isolated populations however its distribution would indicate that it is probably more widespread than recorded. These populations include an area around Ravenshoe and Tully, south of Lawn Hill to Mount Isa and from Kingaroy in Queensland to Casino to Lismore and Bellingen to Dungog in coastal New South Wales.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cenchrus+robustus#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cenchrus robustus prefers dappled shade to full sun. It prefers moist positions adjacent to moist rainforest, moist vine forests around permanent billabongs or pools. The altitude ranges from 0 meters ASL to 900 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 4 degrees in August to 39 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 400mm to 3000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Cenchrus robustus prefers sandy loams to medium clays or medium silts to heavy silts. The soils are usually derived from decomposed sandstones, brown basalt, black basalt and metamorphic rocks. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 1m to 2m by 0.5m to 3m

Characteristics:

Cenchrus robustus are erect to scrambling robust perennials with long, hard runners, often rooting at the lower nodes and scrambling over nearby vegetation. The rarely branching, stout culms are terete or occasionally grooved on the upper surface. The slender culms are scabrous below the inflorescence and have 10 to 20 nodes. They measure 400mm to 1200mm in length by 2.5mm to 4mm diameter.

The linear to linear-lanceolate leaves of Cenchrus robustus are shorter than the culms and measure 60mm to 280mm in length by 3mm to 7mm in width. The mid blue-green appressed sheaths are glabrous to scabrous while the ligules are a fringe of ciliate hairs which measure 1mm to 1.5mm in length. The bases are truncate while the apexes are acute. The concolourous laminas are mid grass-green, glabrous to scabrous and sparsely covered in white pilose or hispid hairs near the base. The midrib is strongly obtuse, prominent on the lower lamina and is clearly visible from the upper lamina forming a shallow furrow. The margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Cenchrus robustus are erect, dense, short spikes. The racemes measure 30mm to 110mm in length. The racemes are slightly flexuous and covered in 48 to 75 opaque bristles. The inner shorter bristles are stouter and plumose while the outer ones are more slender.

The 1 to 3 lanceolate spikelets measure 6mm to 8.5mm in length. They are contiguous and semi erect at maturity. The involucral bracts are a part of the disc of connate bristles below the burr.

The glumes are thinner than fertile lemmas. The lower glumes are hyaline or membranous, without keels and have no nerves or a single nerve. The lower ovate glumes measure 1.2mm to 3.5mm in length. The upper acute glumes are ovate, membranous, without keels, have 3 to 5 nerves and have an asperulous surface. The upper glumes measure 2.4mm to 4.8mm in length.

The lower lemmas have 5 nerves and are finely scabrous. The lower lemmas are sterile or male and measure 3mm to 4.5mm in length. The upper lemmas have 5 to 9 nerves and are finely scabrous. The upper lemmas are bisexual. The palea is thin or suppressed with 2 or 3 faint nerves.

The flowers appear from late February to October.

The trigonous fruits of Cenchrus robustus are globose burrs. The burrs measure 7mm to 9mm in length by 6mm to 8mm in diameter. The green burrs turn grey-brown when ripe.

Wildlife:

Cenchrus robustus is suitable for erosion control on drier slopes especially those that have short wet seasons.

It is a good cattle fodder grass in areas which have a long dry season but it is considered a weed amongst sheep farmers as the burrs get entangled in the wool.

Cultivation:

Cenchrus robustus is not a desirable garden subject due to the burrs and habit of growth which may become weedy and get out of control under favourable conditions.

Propagation:

Seeds: Collecting seeds from mature plants of Cenchrus robustus is not difficult as they hold onto the parent plant for extended periods when fully ripe. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix however better, more even germination is gained if the seeds are stratified for a short period and sown in spring. This can be achieved by placing the nuts in a paper bag in the vegetable crisper for a few weeks prior to sowing. Cover the seeds to a depth of 5mm. Seeds usually germinate rapidly with a strike rate of over 50%.

When the seedlings are 20mm to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good quality mix.

Once the seedlings reach 50mm in height they can be repot for indoor use or 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Centella asiatica

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Clade: Asterids

Order: Apiales

Family: Mackinlayaceae

Genus: May be from Gianapieiti (pronounced something like senipiella), which is Ancient Greek for to sip or to savour or Scintillae, which is Latin for to glisten or to shine brightly. If Greek it may refer to the edible qualities and health benefits of the leaves and if it is Latin it may refer to the leaves which shine brightly in the sun light especially after rain. There is also a reference to Kenteo, which is Ancient Greek for to prick or to pierce. The reference here may be to the formation of the health benefits derived from Asiatic acid found in the green parts.

Specie: From Asiatikós, which is Ancient Greek for from Asia. It refers to plants, which were first discovered from Asia or at times Asia Minor.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Pennywort or Penny Royal or Gotu Kola.

Distribution:

Centella asiatica is widespread along the coast and nearby ranges and is certainly more common than any of the maps indicate. It is found in Western Australia from Geraldton in the north south along the coast and nearby ranges to Cape Arid National Park in the east.

In the Northern Territory it is found along the Gatji to Milingimbi.

In South Australia it is found from Port Lincoln, Port Augusta, Adelaide, along the Murray River basin and around Mount Gambia in the south east.

In Victoria it is restricted to the Grampians across to Melbourne in a few disjunct populations.

In the east it is found south from the Torres Straight Islands and the tip of Cape York Peninsular in far north eastern Queensland to Montague Island off the southern coast of New South Wales. It is mainly found on the Western Slopes, on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast and off shore islands.

It is also found in Indo China, Malaysia, Phillipines, New Guinee and the Pacific Islands.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Centella+asiatica#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Centella asiatica prefer dense shade to semi shade or full sun in moist to wet situations and will be found growing in all types of moist habitats especially shallow depressions, drainage lines or ephemeral pools. This is a vigorous small herbaceous plant that can form dense lush mats. It grows in most positions where soil moisture is retained for long periods. The altitude ranges from 5 meter ASL to 850 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 4 degrees in July to 38 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 350mm to 3200mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Centella asiatica has no preference to soil type other than coarse sands. It prefers skeletal to deep loams to heavy clays or medium silts to heavy silts. The soils often have copious quantities of leaf litter and other natural debris. The soils are derived from most types of rocks including basalts, heavier fatty sandstones, metamorphic, laterites, granites, shales or alluvial deposits. The soil’s pH ranges from 4pH to 8pH. It tolerates water logged soils and thrives in nutrient rich soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:0.08m to 0.15m by 0.08m to 0.15m but will form massive mats when conditions are favourable.

Characteristics:

The stems of Centella asiatica are stoloniferous. The stolons are pale grass-green and glabrous.

The orbicular to cordate leaves of Centella asiatica are formed in small clusters of 2 to 10 leaves from a central tap root. The leaves measure 12mm to 40mm in length by 12mm to 40mm in width. The bases are broadly cordate and partially sheath the petioles while the apexes are obtuse. The concolourous laminas are grass-green, dull and glabrous on the upper laminas while the lower laminas are sparsely to moderately covered in a fine network of white hirsute hairs. The laminas are flat. The leaf margins are entire, sinuate or crenate. The 5 radiating veins are slightly prominent on the lower laminas. The petioles measure 10mm to 20mm in length.

The inflorescences of Centella asiatica are born on small simple umbels or 2 or 3 compound with 2 to 6 individual flowers on each umbel. The grass-green peduncles are glabrous and measure 8mm to 12mm in length. The 2 pale green, elliptical invocular bracts measure 2mm to 3mm in length. The sepals are absent. The pink to crimson, purple or rarely white ephemeral petals are obovate to orbicular and measure 0.8mm to 1mm in length.

The globose anthers are deep purple.

Theovaries are laterally compressed and bilobed having 2 styles. They measure 1.8mm to 2.2mm in length by 2.4mm to 2.7 mm in diameter.

The fruits of Centella asiatica are compressed ovoidal capsules. The capsules are glabrous with 3 to 5 prominent longitudinal ribs and measure 2.5mm to 3mm in length by 4mm to 5mm in diameter. The green capsules turn pinkish and split longitudinally when ripe to release the small seeds. The ovoidal seeds measure 0.1mm to 0.2mm in length.

Wildlife:

Centella asiatica leaves are often damaged by an unknown larvae but recover very quickly.

While the leaves and seeds are highly nutritious and they are easy to grow care must be taken as to where the plants are grown. Healthy non contaminated soils will produce healthy plants.

Centella asiatica was readily consumed in many parts of Asia but is now losing favour because it frequently suffers from high levels of bacterial contamination. The plants can absorb or take up high levels of bacteria and harbour certain bacteria within their cells. This arises due to heavy contamination of soils and waterways especially from raw sewerage.

Cultivation:

It would make an excellent fire retardant ground cover on moist semi shady areas.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Centella asiatica is a magnificent small herb that should be grown in association with other forest specie, partially shaded courtyards, around swimming pools, bush houses or walk ways. It is ideal at the edge of a moist forest or deep in the center of the forest. In cultivation it will grow from 0.1 meters to 0.15 meters in height by 0.1 meters to 0.15 meters in diameter when grown in the open.

Centella asiatica grows exceptionally well on all moist to wet soils, particularly those that are light to heavy clay and moisture can be maintained at an even level throughout the year. If these requirements are met it can cope with temperatures as low as minus 5 degrees and up to 40 degrees. It is moderately drought resistant once established though scorching of the leaves is common, however it recovers very quickly once moisture returns.

Add to the above, if it is given an adequate supply of water and a little native fertilizer on an annual basis the plants will respond with excellent leaf production and make a fantastic lawn substitute that won’t need mowing. Lawns grown in full sun will be shorter than those grown in shade. It can handle vast changes in light conditions from almost full shade in the winter to full sun in the winter or extremes in light densities during the day as can be seen in the first and last photographs in a public garden in Sha Ping Ba China. The upper photo the plants are growing in shade for most the day whereas the lower photo the plants are growing in full sun for around 3/4 of the day.

Place them at the bottom of slopes or retaining walls where moisture seeps out after rain is ideal especially when other plants fail and it does not require mowing.

Because of its size it is ideal in settings near ponds in court yards or moist rockeries rockery. It needs strong sun light for at least half the day to light shade or medium shade to grow at their best.

Centella asiatica also makes an excellent hanging basket plants especially where the humidity is high or where moisture can be sprayed over the trailing sections several times a day.

The leaves and seeds can be made into herbal teas or added to rice or potatoes and even ice cream in deserts.

Centella asiatica has been described as “a pharmacy in one herb” as it is rich in vitamins A, B, C and D with minerals which include calcium, chromium, cobalt, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, selenium, silica and zinc in a very good proportion for human consumption.

It was one of the original herbs deliberately grown in India and China as a table vegetable and later used to improve mental clarity. It has been shown to boost brain function and is effective in treating wounds and varicose veins. The brain function is attributed as much to calming as it does to clarity.

It has also shown to assist in the healing of wounds and in the treatment of respiratory infections. University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC).

Centella asiatica is commonly used today to treat varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency, a condition where blood vessels lose their elasticity, causing blood to pool in the legs, which then become swollen. “Studies suggest gotu kola may help reduce swelling and improve circulation. ” University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC).

It also contains naturally occurring compounds called triterpenoids, which have been shown to assist in healing wounds.

“Some studies suggest that the triterpenoids strengthen the skin, boost antioxidants in wounds and increase blood supply to the area. ” “Based on these findings, gotu kola has been applied to the skin, or topically, for minor burns, psoriasis, preventing scars after surgery, and preventing or reducing stretch marks. “

It is one of the most important single rejuvenating herbs. It is valuable for revitalising or stimulating nerve and brain cells, improving reflexes, helping digestion and promoting calmness yet is overlooked by the majority of practitioners.

One example I can give is of a 60 year old women in Lu Xian who was introduced to it following years of suffering with arthritis. Mrs. Chen harvested a cup of fresh leaves a day from the surrounding hills. She then consumed them in mixed salads or mixed with rice. Two months later she told me that she was re-energised, felt calmer and her arthritic pain had subsided dramatically to the point it was longer a problem.

To what extent she suffered is not known to the author but what was certain is that she had a new energy for life and was not arthritic any longer. I do not and have not included any wives tales in this book and feel strongly what I was told and knowing the research that has been undertaken I believed this womans story to be gospel. The Chengdu Natural Medicine laboratories herbal research center has discarded many of the old herbs as mind over matter but is presently undertaking further trials into Centella asiatica which may prove beneficial to millions of sufferers’ worldwide in the near future.

Propagation:

Seeds: Seeds of Centella asiatica are very difficult to obtain and the best method of propagation is from division or stolons.

As the seedlings roots reach the bottom of the pots plant them out into their permanent position and water thoroughly with our recommended fertilizer.

Carefully remove leafy stolons from the parent plants that have some established roots. Place them in a 100mm squat pot in a weed free mix being careful not to cover the crown. Place the pots in a cool spot under 50% to 60% shade and keep moist. Roots should appear at the bottom of the pots in 3 to 4 weeks in warm weather.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better, sweeter, more tender foliage for the table.

1. Water well the day before you start.

2. Dig up plants in a checker board fashion or cut sections off ensuring each small plant has sone leaves and roots,

3. Replant in the prepared area using half a hand full of blood and bone to a square meater of land,

4. Level off at the same level the bulbs were at the start.

5. Water regularly and feed fortnightly until the plants have re-established themselves.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Centratherum riparium

Classification

Unranked:

Unranked: Asterids

Order: Asterales

Family: Asteraceae

Subfamilia: Vernonioideae

Tribus: Vernonieae

Subtribus: Lychnophorinae

Genus: From Kéntron, which is Ancient Greek for a spur or a sharp point and From Aithérios, which is Ancient Greek, for of or pertaining to the upper air, ethereal, heavenly. It refers to the flowers.

Specie: From Rīpārium, which is Latin for a small creek or an ephermeral creek bank. It refers to plants, which prefer to grow in riparian zones.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Centratherum riparium is found south from Pyri Pyri Sector of Shoalwater Bay in central Coastal Queensland to Sydney in central coastal New South Wales. It is found on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast.

There is afurther disjunct population further south in the Bega Valley in far south eastern New South Wales and further north on Evelyn creek on Wild River in far north eastern Queensland.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Centratherum+riparium#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Centratherum riparium prefer dappled shade to full sun. It is found growing in riparian creek banks adjacent to wallums or swamps. The altitude ranges from 10 meter ASL to 1500 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 5 degrees in July to 38 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 600mm to 1800mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Centratherum riparium prefers most types of peaty sands to fatty sandy loams or course sandy loams. The soils are derived from decomposed granites, sandstones or accumulated peaty sands and alluvial deposits and gravelly washes. The soil’s pH ranges from 4.5pH to 7pH. It tolerates water logged soils and are usually found where water tables keep the upper surface moist or wet throughout the year. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:0.4m to 0.5m by 0.15m to 0.2m.

Characteristics:

Centratherum riparium is is a prawling to erect annual herb that has a divaricate branching habit. The base is woody while the stems are slightly ridged and sparsely covered in soft, white hirsute hairs.

The petiole is winged and is sparsely covered in soft, white hirsute hairs. The oblanceolate leaves has margins that are obtusely toothed to shallowly lobed and measure 20mm to 60mm in length by 6mm to 20mm in width. The bases are cunneate, while the apexes are broadly acute. The concolourous laminas are glabrous to sparsely covered in soft, white hirsute hairs.

The inflorescence heads are hemispherical to globose and measure 10mm to 15mm in diameter. The involucral bracts are oblong to lanceolate, with spreading, purplish-maroon, scarious, broad acute apexes. The are sparsely to moderately covered in fine, white ciliate to fimbriate hairs. The outer linear bracts measure 12mm to 25mm in length, while the inner linear bracts measure 5mm to 7mm in length and are sparsely covered in glandular hairs. The florets are mauve to purple.

The cylindrical, glabrous achenes have caduceous bristles on the pappus.

Wildlife:

Wild life that relies on Centratherum riparium is unknown to the author.

Cultivation:

Centratherum riparium is small herbaceous annual that is especially suited to miniature landscaping projects where purple is required. In cultivation it will grow 0.5meter to 0.7meter in height when grown in an open situation. It is suitable for sunny or dappled light situations

It would be suitable for sunnyin courtyards, and narrow spaces against walls and between pavings. Small frog ponds and small native fish ponds can have a hint of colour added. Mass plantings of 5 to 15 or more plants; even in small areas, really do the plants justification especially when it is in flower. Medium fish or frog ponds would look great with Centratherum riparium in the background.

If it is placed around pools, courtyards or other confined spaces then it can be plant in small groups, scatter planted or mass planted to cover the whole ground. Each scene created will be totally different and Centratherum riparium rise to the occasion every time Using rocks and small boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis and look much larger with this species due to its smaller size.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use is limited to plants that do not grow more than 350mm in height or 400mm in diameter to draw attention to Centratherum riparium and the other small plants featured. Some plants that come instantly to mind would be Viola betonicifolia or Pattersonia sericea are three for lighter conditions and all have good flowering habits. Various Peperomia specie, Chamaecrista nomame or Scaevola aemulum would make excellent companion plants on the higher side of a bank outside of the wet area or many of our small native ferns especially those with horizontal foliage and pale green fronds.

Centratherum riparium would make outstanding contribution to a wet any small bog gardens mixed with carnivorous plants. Here they can be used as the short vertical growth, grown in clumps throughout the scene.

Propagation:

Seeds: Collecting seeds from mature plants of Centratherum riparium is relatively easy as they hold onto the parent plant for a while when fully ripe. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix. Cover the seeds to a depth of 5mm. Seeds usually germinate rapidly with a strike rate of over 50%.

When the seedlings are 20mm to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm tubes using a good quality mix.

Once the seedlings reach 50mm in height they can be repot for the bushouse or plant them out into their permanent position.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the flower buds appear.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Centrolepis fascicularis

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Unranked: Commelinids

Order: Poales

Family: Centrolepidaceae

Genus: From Kentron, which is Ancient Greek for a spur and Lepis which is Ancient Greek for a scale. It refers to scale like floral bracts, which have spur like appendages.

Specie: From Fasiculus, which is latin for a small, close cluster or to be bundled together. It refers to flowers, which are closely imbricated together as in a fascicle like a small horse’s tail.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Tufted Cetrolepis.

Distribution:

Centrolepis fasicularis is widespread along the coast in cooler southern districts and in the cool highlands in the north. In Western Australia it is found in a few isolated populations around Yalgorup National Park, Margaret River, Walpole Noralup National Park and Two Peoples Bay National Park.

In South Australia it is found around Mount Gambier, Adelaide south to Deep Creek Conservation Park and Kangaroo Island.

It the east it is found south from Stanthorpe and Girraween National Park in southern Queensland south to the Grampians in south western Victoria. It is mainly found on and east of the Great Dividing Range in moist positions.

In Tasmania it basically circumnavigates the Island and is also found on all the major Islands like King Island, Flinders Island, Cape Barren Island and Clarke Island in Bass Straight.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Centrolepis+fascicularis#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Centrolepis fasicularis prefer dappled shade to full sun. It is found growing in coastal swamps, wallums and wet heaths to alpine peat bogs and wet swamps where the water tables are high. This is a vigorous small herbaceous plant with white and violet flowers. The altitude ranges from 30 meter ASL to 1440 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 5 degrees in July to 32 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 400mm to 3200mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Centrolepis fasicularis prefers most types of peaty sands to fatty sandy loams or course sandy loams. The soils are derived from decomposed granites, sandstones or accumulated peaty sands. The soil’s pH ranges from 4.5pH to 5.5pH. It tolerates water logged soils and are usually found where water tables keep the upper surface moist or wet throughout the year. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:0.1m to 0.15m by 0.15m to 0.2m.

Characteristics:

Centrolepis fasicularis is a small tufted perennial grass at times forming dense cushions. The culms are grass green and glabrous or sparsely covered in white hirsute hairs.

The linear, distichous leaves of Centrolepis fasicularis measure 8mm to 45mm in length by 0.8mm to 1mm in width. The bases are clasping while the apexes are tapering. The concolourous laminas are grass-green to deep grass-green, semi glossy and glabrous or sparsely covered in white hirsute hairs. The leaf margins are entire. The sheaths are narrowly triangular, entire and covered in multicellular white hairs. The margins are hyaline.

The inflorescences of Centrolepis fasicularis are scapes from the lower node. The terete grass-green to green-brown scapes are glabrous and measure 20mm to 60mm in length. The heads are ovoidal and measure 3mm to 3.5mm in length by 3mm to 4.5mm in diameter. The 2 white to off white inner bracts are sub opposite, gaping and sub equal. The green to reddish-brown 2 outer bracts are sub opposite and have a sheath tapering to a glabrous, caudate apex. The caudate apexes measure 2mm to 2.5mm in length. The herbaceous sheaths are sparsely covered in white hirsute hairs. The narrow hyaline margin is glabrous or covered in short white ciliate hairs. The Pseudanthium have 7 to 14 bisexual individual flowers within the Pseudanthium. There are 2 to 4 female flowers within each head.

The anthers measure 2mm to 3mm in length.

The style measures 2mm to 3mm in length. The ovoidal seeds measure 0.5mm to 0.6mm in length. The flowers appear from late October to early February.

Wildlife:

Wild life that relies on Centrolepis fasicularis is unknown to the author.

Cultivation:

Centrolepis fasicularis are very small sedge that should be more widely grown especially in miniature landscaping projects where the soils are sandy loams and plenty of moisture is available. In cultivation they will grow 0.05mm to 0.7mm in height by 0.1mm to 0.15mm in diameter when grown in an open situation. They are suitable for full shade to dappled light.

It is most suitable for use in courtyards, and miniature rockeries or adjacent to small frog ponds and small native fish ponds. Mass plantings of 5 to 15 or more plants; even in small areas, really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Medium fish or frog ponds look great with Centrolepis fasicularis in either the background or foreground.

If it is placed around pools, courtyards or other confined spaces then they can be plant in small groups, scatter planted or mass planted to cover the whole ground. Each scene created will be totally different and Centrolepis fasicularis rise to the occasion every time Using rocks and small boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis and look much larger with this species due to its smaller size.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use is limited to plants that do not grow more than 350mm in height or 400mm in diameter to draw attention to Centralisms funiculars and the other small plants featured. Some plants that come instantly to mind would be Viola betonicifolia or Pattersonia sericea are three for lighter conditions and all have good flowering habits. Various Peperomia specie, Chamaecrista nomame or Scaevola aemulum would make excellent companion plants on the higher side of a bank outside of the wet area or many of our small native ferns especially those with horizontal foliage and pale green fronds.

Centrolepis fasicularis would make outstanding contribution to a wet any small bog gardens mixed with carnivorous plants. Here they can be used as the short vertical growth, grown in clumps throughout the scene.

Propagation:

Seeds: Collecting seeds from mature plants of Centrolepis fasicularis is not difficult as they hold onto the parent plant for extended periods when fully ripe. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix. Cover the seeds to a depth of 5mm. Seeds usually germinate rapidly with a strike rate of over 50%.

When the seedlings are 20mm to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm tubes using a good quality mix.

Once the seedlings reach 50mm in height they can be repot for the bushouse or plant them out into their permanent position.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the flower buds appear.

Division: When growing from divisions remove the plant from the soil and just cut it into 3 or 4 equal parts, first down the middle then halve those sections again. Remove unwanted dead culms and any old small clumps that look weak. Plants can be divided further but ensure each division has a several strong shoots and healthy roots attached to the tuff. Replant ensuring the soil is at the same level as before. Water and fertilize. New shoots will appear within two weeks.

If they are being mass planted for a feature in a bog garden, plant them at 0.2 meter centers for group plantings or at 0.5 meter centers in scattered plantings where the whole plant is to be the feature.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cephalaralia cephalobotrys

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Asterids

Order: Apiales

Family: Araliaceae

Subfamily: Araliodeae

Genus: From Kephalḗ, which is Ancient Greek for a head and Aralie,which is Latinized from the French-Canadian word for the Aralia genus. It refers to the fruits, which form in small heads while the leaves look similar to the exotic Aralia genus.

Specie: From Kephalḗ, which is Ancient Greek for a head and Botrys, which is Ancient Greek for a bunch of grapes. It refers to flowers and fruits, which form in small grape like bunches.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Climbing Panax.

Distribution:

Cephalaralia cephalobotrys is found south from the Daintree River National Park in far northern coastal Queensland to Ulludulla in central coastal New South Wales. It is found on the Western Slopes, on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cephalaralia+cephalobotrys#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cephalaralia cephalobotrys prefer full shade to light dappled sun light. It grows in wet tropical rainforests, dry tropical rainforests, moist subtropical rainforests or in moist enclosed gallery forests. The altitude ranges from 500 meter ASL to 1250 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 2 degrees in July to 37 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 1000mm to 3200mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Cephalaralia cephalobotrys prefer better quality stony or rocky light clays to medium clays close to the parent rocks. The soils are derived from decomposed brown basalt and black basalts. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 3m to 8m by 3m to 4m

Characteristics:

Cephalaralia cephalobotrys is a scrambling twinning, compact climber where permanent moisture and good filtered light are available. The old stem’s bark is grey-brown with longitudinal oblong white or cream lenticels. Younger stems are grass-green and covered in rusty-brown to rusty-red hirtellous or retrorse hirtellous hairs. The new growth and juvenile growth is olive-green to mid purple-green and covered in fine longitudinal lenticels. The new growth is glabrous to covered in rusty-brown to rusty-red hirtellous or retrorse hirtellous hairs.

The alternate tripinnata leaves of Cephalaralia cephalobotrys are narrow ovate to ovate or oblanceolate. The lateral leaflets are unequal in length and width and measure 23mm to 115mm in length by 12mm to 58mm in width. The terminal leaflet measures 30mm to 150mm in length by 15mm to 70mm in width. The petioles measure 40mm to 120mm in length while the lateral petiolules measure 4mm to 15mm in length and the terminal petiolule measures 15mm to 35mm in length. The bases are rounded while the apexes are acuminate. The discolourous laminas are deep green, glossy and glabrous on the upper laminas while the lower laminas are paler. The laminas recurve slightly upwards from the mid vein to the margins and are convex between the main vein and lateral veins on the upper surface. The leaf margins are very shallowly toothed with each tooth apex possesses a long rusty-brown to rusty-red, retrorse hirsute hair. The mid vein and main lateral veins is prominent on the lower lamina and are clearly visible from the upper lamina. The petioles and petiolules are densely covered in rusty-brown to rusty-red hirtellous or retrorse hirtellous hairs.

The dioecious inflorescences of Cephalaralia cephalobotrysare panicles born opposite the leaf axils or from terminal heads and measure 100mm to 230mm in length overall. Each panicle has 3 to 6 heads with each head contain 8 to 18 individual flowers. The olive-green to purple-green rachises, pedunculates, peduncles and pedicels are densely covered in rusty-brown to rusty-red hirtellous or retrorse hirtellous hairs. The rachises measure 30mm to 55mm in length while the pedunculates measure 30mm to 55mm in length, the peduncules measure 10mm to 20mm in length and the pedicles measure 0mm to 3mm in length.

The deep purple to purple-maroon cupular calyx tubes have a minute lip around the edge of the hypanthia. The calyxes measure 2mm to 2.2mm in length by 2mm to 2.2mm in diameter. The 5 mid purple to mid purple-maroon or rarely cream caduceous petals measure 2mm to 2.2mm in length by 1.8mm to 2mm in width have an acute apex.

The leaf opposed male flowers have 5 white to pascal cream filiform filaments which are opposite the petals and measure 1.6mm to 2mm in length. The white to pastel cream, spherical anthers measure 0.15mm to 0.2mm in diameter.

The female flowers usually appear on the panicles born from terminal heads. The mid purple to mid purple-maroon or rarely cream bilobed pistils measures 1mm to 1.1mm in length. The globose pistil measures 2mm to 3mm in length. There is one ovule per locule. The flowers appear from September to April.

Cephalaralia cephalobotrys fruits are ovoidal to orbicular drupes. The drupes measure 5mm to 10mm in length by 5mm to 8mm in diameter. The green drupes turn deep purple-black when ripe. The fawn seeds are triangular and measure 4.5mm to 6mm in length by 3.6mm to 4.5mm in width. The 2 styles are persistent on the ripe fruit emerging from an orifice at the apex of the drupes. The 2, fawn, flat seeds per drupe measure 4mm to 7mm in length by 2mm to 3mm in width.

Wildlife:

Cephalaralia cephalobotrys rely on frugivorous birds like the Satin Bower bird and cat bird to consume the fruits and disperse the seeds.

Cultivation:

Cephalaralia cephalobotrys is a beautiful medium to large climber for larger areas, fences, in court yards, near water features, trellises or pergolas. It needs some shade with a cool root run and even moisture to look its best and to maintain its dense foliage. In the garden they can fill that difficult spot in the shade on heavy soil or where there is hot sun and dense shade variation over the different seasons.

They are particularly useful scrambling over mounds or over large retaining walls, where they can attract and feed the birds. If used in this manner be aware of cats as low lying plants will attract the birds but leave them vulnerable and exposed to cat attack.

They often reach their full potential of 8 meters to 10 meters in height by 3 meters in width in just 3 to 4 years and flower from the third year. It flowers best following a dryer winter. They are ideal for warm temperate, sub-tropical and tropical gardens and could also be tried in semi-arid areas of Australia where water is not a problem around the homestead.

Cephalaralia cephalobotrys responds very quickly to regular tip pruning or aggressive pruning on an annual basis which is best carried out immediately after any late frosts or in mid-September.

The plants would make an interesting, formal totem indoors.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cephalaralia cephalobotrys seeds require no treatment before sowing. Sow into a seed raising mix and cover the fresh seeds with 5mm of the mix. Water in well and keep moist. Place the tray where some sun light is available.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 40mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved with plantings of 2.5 meters centers. For trellis or low fence planting plant them at 2 meter to 3 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Cuttings: Use 70mm to 100mm long hardwood cuttings can be taken from dormant, mature stems in late fall, winter, or early spring. Plants generally are fully dormant with no obvious signs of active growth. The wood is firm and does not bend easily.

1 Prepare the cutting mix by adding one third sharp clean river sand, one third peat and one third perlite. These ingredients are sterilize,

2 Select good material from non diseased plants,

3 Select semi green stems for cuttings. Look for a stem with two or three nodes,

4 Place the cutting on a flat, hard surface, and make a clean slice through the middle of the lower node on an angle towards the base, with a sterilized sharp knife or razor blade or slice a 10mm piece from one side at the base. – This scarification of the node will increase the chances of roots emerging from this spot. Now remove all but one or two the leaves, leaving the apex leaves in tact. If the leaves are very large in proportion to the stem, cut off the apical halves.

5 Some plants root easily, but a rooting hormone can help others by stimulating the cutting into sending out new roots. Fill a saucer with water, and place some rooting hormone into another container like a bottle top. Dip the node end of the cutting into the water and then into the rooting hormone. Tap off any excess hormone,

6 Use a small dipple stick or old pencil to poke a hole into the soilless potting mix. Ensure the hole is slightly larger than the stem diameter and be careful not to wipe the rooting hormone off the cuttings base, place the cuttings in a pattern ensuring the cuttings are not touching each other,

7 I like to place the pots in Plastic bags to help maintain temperature and moisture. Place in a semi shaded place like under 50% shade cloth.

8 When the cuttings have struck, open the bag to allow air circulation for a few days to a week,

9 Once hardened off remove the cuttings from the bag and allow to further hardening for a few more days,

10 Transplant into 150mm pots or in a protected position outside.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cephalomanes caudatum

Classification

Division: Pteridophyta

Class: Pteridiospida

Order: Hymenophyllales

Family: Blechnaceae

Genus: From Kephalḗ, which is Ancient Greek for a head and Manes, which is Ancient Greek for a kind of deep cup. It refers to ferns which bear cup like sporangia with a larger than normal indusium than other species in the genus.

Specie: From Caudātum, which is Latin for to be drawn out like a long tail. It refers a leaf apex which is rather long and thin like a tail.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Jungle Bristle Fern.

Distribution:

Cephalomanes caudatum is found south from Fraser Island in southern coastal Queensland to Wilson’s Promontory in southern Victoria. It is mainly restricted to the coastal side of the Great Dividing Range. There are 2 isolated populations near Horsham in Victoria and Kurragong in New South Wales.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cephalomanes+caudatum#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cephalomanes caudatum grows in dense shade to moderate shade. It grows in cool sub-tropical rainforests to temperate rainforests. It often starts growing at the bases of trees and quickly becomes epiphytic in habit clinging to their trunks; especially those of tree ferns or at times rainforest trees which have a spongy type bark. Cyathea australis is the preferred species though Cyathea cooperii is often used in the north. The altitude ranges from 50 meters ASL to 1200 meters ASL.

The temperature ranges from 4 degrees in August to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 1000mm to 2000mm average per annum. Orographic montane aspects are the preferred locations that have heavy fogs throughout the year and may account for a doubling the actual rainfall.

Soil Requirements:

Cephalomanes caudatum prefers soils that have high leaf litter content beneath closed rainforests away from any openings. The soils are better quality loams to medium clays. The soils are usually derived from decomposed brown basalt, black basalt metamorphic rocks, shale and metashales. The soils pH ranges from 5.5pH to 6.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils but does best on soils which have all year round moisture. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 500mm to 8000mm by 300mm to 400mm.

Characteristics:

Cephalomanes caudatum have short thin creeping rhizome which are densely covered in deep brown to deep reddish-brown bristly hairs.

Cephalomanes caudatum’s single to twice pinnate fronds are divaricate, semi erect to semi erect at the base and pendulant on the apical half of the rhizome. The fronds measure 40mm to 220mm in length by 25mm to 85mm in width. The stipeses are deep chocolate-brown towards the base and with age and measure 55mm to 300mm in length. The stipes’s have 2 faint but distinct ribs on the upper surface. The stipes are scabrous, glabrous or sparsely covered in brown hirsute hairs near the base. The long oblong to lanceolate fronds longest pinnae are near the base and taper significantly as they approach the apex. The 8 to 20 concolourous pinnae are very deep green and glossy on the upper lamina while the lower laminas are semi glossy to dull. The pinnae are sessile to sub sessile and glabrous or sparsely covered in soft white puberulent hairs near the apexes. The margins are finely doubled serrate.

The fertile and sterile fronds are similar. The pinnae’s sori are numerous on each frond. The cupular involucre sporangia’s mouth is entire or double lipped. The sporangia’s receptacle is projecting beyond the involucre by 1mm to 1.5mm.

Wildlife:

Cephalomanes caudatum’s wildlife is unknown to the author.

Cultivation:

Cephalomanes caudatum is a beautiful epiphytic fern for courtyards, and rainforests where established Cyathea australis and Cyathea cooperi are growing. Cephalomanes caudatum gives an extra dimension to otherwise bare trunks. To incorporate the ferns; into a rainforest garden, on some of the trunks while other trunks are bare, highlights the differences superbly. Some thought will be needed to create a cool, humid microclimate as this is essential for their success and health with moisture being required throughout the year. It is not drought tolerant and a loss of moisture or humidity will see a quick decline in their vigour. This means a good misting system is essential for success. Applying our recommended fertilizer on a regular basis watering it down the trunk of the tree fern will ensure the tree ferns health and keep Cephalomanes caudatum looking magnificent.

Propagation:

Spores: This is a difficult fern to grow as are all filmy ferns even in a fern house designed exclusively for ferns. As a professional fern grower our losses were very high. It was easy to grow at each step however every time the next step of growth, transplanting was encountered, so were the deaths. Hardening off was slowed on consequent trials but the deaths continued. As it is not commercially available self-propagation may be the only alternative.

All ferns that are declared rare, vulnerable or endangered are protected by Federal and State Laws and must not be removed from the wild unless you are a land developer, mining company or main Roads department etc. This includes bulbs, roots, leaves and flowers. No part of any plant can be removed from Federal, State or Local Government land without the prior permission of the authority and this includes the spore.

Most people are put off at the thought of growing ferns from spore. Like all plants that produce their offspring from seed or spore the methods are basically the same. Remember nature has been doing this for millions of years and has been very successful. I had many excellent results growing over 200 different species of Australian ferns so don’t be afraid but filmy ferns are specialist ferns.

Step 1. Select spore from the fern fronds. Wait until the fern is just starting to release its spore. Rinse the fronds under clean running water and dry. This is to wash off any other spores from rogue ferns that may have settled onto the fronds. (There is nothing worse than having common brake or common soft bracken contaminating a prized tree fern or epiphyte.)

 Step 2. Place the dry fronds in a clean brown paper bag and keep them in a cool dark place like the linen closet for about a week to ten days before you are ready to sow the spore. The exception to this rule applies to ferns, which produce green spores. These must be sown immediately that they are released. Todea Barbara is a good example of a fern, which produces green spore.

 Step 3. Take a large ice cream container, a small ice cream container and a clean clear plastic bag large enough to seal the large ice cream container and three or four milk bottle tops.

 Step 4. Punch or drill 6 to 10 5mm holes in the bottom of the small ice cream container.

 Step 5. Wash both containers, tops and plastic bag so that they are very clean and sterile.

 Step 6. Use a clean fine seed raising mi. We used 30% fine sand, 30% peat and 30% perlite and 10% vermiculite. We used crushed basalt, crusher dust and peat in a 50:50 ratio for epiphytes. Moisten the mix enough that water does not run out when the mix is squeezed between the fingers.

 Step 7. Place the moisten mix (Enough to half fill the small ice cream container) in the microwave oven with a large glass of water for 7 or 8 minutes, until the water is boiling. Allow them to cool in the oven. You will need the water later so do not tip it out.

 Step 8. Take the brown paper bag out of the linen closet. Shake the bag and remove the fronds. You should have a yellow, brown, black or rarely greenish brown or ochre powder or very fine, small round pin head size spore depending on the specie involved.

 Step 9. Remove the mixture from the oven once it has cooled and place it in the small ice cream container and level.

 Step 10. Sprinkle the spore sparsely over the mixture in the small ice cream container.

 Step 11. Place the milk bottle tops in the large ice cream container with the flat surface facing down. Place the small ice cream container in the large ice cream container so that it is sitting on the milk bottle tops.

 Step 12. Remove the water from the microwave and pour it into the larger ice cream container so there is 25mm to 30mm of water in the bottom.

 Step 13. Place the ice cream containers in the plastic bag and seal.

 Step 14. Place the contents and bag in a warm shady place preferably 50% to 70% shade depending on the specie. Shade houses and some window sills are ideal.

 Step 15. The surface should turn green within a week to two weeks. The prothallus will then develop. From the prthalus the first true fronds will appear. Wait until the ferns are 20mm to 35mm in height before you attempt to transplant them. Once they are ready open the bag up slightly and allow the air to flow around the little ferns. Every 3 to 5 days open the bag a little further so the ferns get use to their new environment. Allow them a week to two weeks to harden off before you transplant them following the removal of the plastic bag. Carefully prick them out into 50mm standard squat tubes as you would any seedling.

Do not try to transplant them as single plants as they are still a little delicate still.

Once the smaller ones again reach 50mm to 70mm you may wish to divide the stronger and hardier individual plants into smaller clumps in 100mm squat pots.

Step 16. We fertilized with seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis until established. Fertilize every two months for one year even when in the ground.

Good Luck.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cephalotus follicularis

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Rosids

Order: Oxalidales

Family: Cephalotaceae

Genus: From Kephalḗ, which is Ancient Greek for with a head. It refers to the pitchers which resemble small mounted heads on the ground.

Specie: From Folliculus, which is Latin for a small bag. It refers to fruiting pods, which consists of a single carpel thus they have only one seed and splits along a single suture.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Albany Pitcher Plant.

Distribution:

Cephalotus follicularis is found east from near Augusta to Cheyne Beach near Albany in south western, Western Australia. It is found up to 60 kilometres in land to Yallingup.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cephalotus+follicularis#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cephalotus follicularis prefer full sun to very light dappled shade. It grows on the banks of slow flowing creeks and streams in open woodlands, wallums to dry Eucalypt forests or moist Eucalypt forests where natural seepages occur. Drainage ditches or soils that have a strong capillary action adjacent to permanent water. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 100 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 3 degrees centigrade in July to 34 degrees centigrade in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 800mm to 1600mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Cephalotus follicularis prefers fine sandy loams to light clays with high peat content. The soils are derived from decomposed sandstones or accumulated white, grey or black beach sands or alluvial deposits which contain copious quantities of natural peat or decomposed vegetable matter. The soils pH ranges from 4.5pH to 6pH. It tolerates water logged soils as all the terrains are poorly drained water or have high water tables. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 30mm to 100mm by 200mm to 750mm wide and up to 600mm high when in flower.

Characteristics:

Cephalotus follicularis grows as a herbaceous rosette, with young plants starting with a single prominent tap root with fibrous roots spreading horizontally. Some of these fibrous roots later develop into rusty red rhizomes which will develop into new plants where they make contact with the surface.

Cephalotus follicularis’s leaves have two distinct forms the first are the old world leaves and the second form are the well-known pitchers which are from more recent times. Both types of leaves live for one season, before they are discarded.

The leaves and petioles are scabrous, obovate to oval and measure 30mm to 45mm in length by 20mm to 28mm in width. The laminas are concolourous being light green to mid green. The base is attenuate with no discerning difference between the leaf blade and the petiole while the apex is broadly acuminate-obtuse. The margins are entire and covered in short white ciliate hairs. The petiole is flat and measures 12mm to 22mm in length and is covered in short white hirtellous hairs.

Often the plants form what appear to be malformed leaves which look like a cross between leaves and pitchers. These are primitive formations caught in the evolution of the modern plant and their ancestors which look and are between the old leaves and pitchers.

The pitchers of Cephalotus follicularis are a truly marvellous structure perfectly constructed for maximum efficiency. The pale green sometimes marked with red purple or burgundy petiole is flat and measures 12mm to 22mm in length. They are covered in white pilose hairs. The pitchers are attached to the petiole near the top and at the rear.

The pitchers externally are coriaceous, scabrous, broad oblong jugs and measure 8mm to 35mm in length by 6mm to 27mm in width. There are two “J” shaped flanges running down each side or the pitcher with a prominent ridge down the front. The front ridge may or may not be flanged. The flanges and ridges are covered in soft white pilose hairs. The external lamina is pale green to mid green especially when grown in filtered light but has red, purple and burgundy markings when grown in full sun.

The pitcher mouth is ridged with the ridges being red, purple or burgundy and the valleys are pale green. The opening measures 15mm to 18mm in diameter externally and 11mm to 14mm internally on 30mm long pitchers.

Internally the pitchers are glabrous and smooth and sparsely covered in short downward pointing hirsute hairs. Near the base of the pitcher is a longitudinal set of glands which dissolve nutrients from the solution. The peristome around the opening has glands that excrete a sweet liquid to attract insects.

The operculum or lid is oval and measures 17mm to 19mm in diameter on 30mm long pitchers. The lid is smooth and glabrous internally while externally it is scabrous, coriaceous and covered in white pilose hairs. The lids have the ability to close and open closing in dry weather to prevent evaporation of the enzyme fluids. The lids have windows placed strategically between deep burgundy stripes which seem to concentrate light on the pool of liquid at the bottom. This possibly makes the pool of liquid look larger and more enticing.

My personal view on this is that the plants have evolved from sundew like plants which exuded a sweet viscous enzyme from special hairs attached to the leaves in order to dissolve insects. Over the millenniums these simple leaves evolved into the transitional leaves that we still see today from time to time. They are more prevalent between the simple leaves of winter and the pitchers found during summer. The white pilose hairs and especially the shorter ciliate hair construction need to be more widely investigated and may hold the key to their origins in evolution. It must be remembered that Cephalotus follicularis is not related to any other carnivorous plant genre. In fact it is closest and even then they are distant cousins are the plants in the Oxalis family. Even further adrift are members in the cucumber family and Australia’s giants in the Elaeocarpus family all stem from common ancestors. All these later families have simple leaves. The root system is similar to Oxalis.

Cephalotus follicularis inflorescences are born on a long cylindrical scape which measures 500mm to 600mm in length by 1.6mm to 2.2mm in diameter with 10 to 15 bundles of flowers. Each bundle will have 4 to 6 individual flowers. The flowers are white. The scape and calyxes are densely covered in white pilose hairs. The calyx is deeply divided to form 6 narrow lanceolate lobes which measure 1mm to 1.3mm in length. The 6 glabrous, lanceolate petals measure 1.3mm to 1.6mm in length by 0.8mm to 1mm wide with an acute apex. The 12 stamens are white and measure 1mm in length. The anthers have pale cream. The green ovary has a short pale green style and stigma. Cephalotus follicularis flowers from December to early April.

Cephalotus follicularis’s fruit is a capsule. The style is persistent on the capsule. The green fruits turn black before ripening. There is a single seed in each ovary which is densely covered in long white pilose hairs.

Wildlife:

Cephalotus follicularis supports it nitrogen deficient soils by trapping small flying insects and ants, which venture into the deadly pitchers. The plants are also host to the Badisis ambulans fly which uses the pitchers as a breeding source. It is unknown to the author whether the insect larvae contribute anything towards plants in return.

Badisis ambulans is a stilt-legged wingless haltere-less fly, with an ant-like appearance. It is only found in the Southwest Australian bioregion of Western Australia and appears to be totally reliant on Cephalotus follicularis to complete its life cycle. It is also a rare species and migrates to the drier areas once it has pupated in the swamps where it is associated with the flowers on Astartea fascicularis.

Cultivation:

Cephalotus follicularis is an unusual addition to the keen gardener who is looking for something different yet still easy to grow. They are ideal in settings near ponds in court yards or the rockery. They need strong sun light to very light shade to grow at their best. Cultivated forms are available that are easier to grow, have a wider choice in colours from pure green forms to rich reds and burgundies and pitchers that are up to 80mm in length. Plants always display a variation in Pitcher size even on the same plant. Plants with 80mm pitchers will also have pitches ranging from the large 80mm down to 10mm in length.

To make a bog garden, extend the pond or to make an artificial marshland on sand all you need is a sheet of black plastic and some rocks. Dig the soil out and lay two or three layers of black plastic on the shallow depression. Fill the plastic to the original level with sharp course sand and peat mixed at a ratio of 4 to 1.Make sure the sand is free of salt. If it isn’t wash the sand several times to make sure the salt is completely removed. Punch some holes in the bottom of the plastic so that the water drains out slowly. This will prevent the water from becoming stagnant over a period of time. Fill the depression with water until it is within 50mm of the surface. Place the rocks around the perimeter so that it looks natural. Make a depression with your arm in the corner on the low side so excess water can drain away when it rains.

With Cephalotus follicularis ensure their roots are growing above the permanent water line and water moisture is maintained through capillary action.

I like to use some of the small Juncus or dwarf forms of Lomandra as a base and back drops when growing carnivorous plants as most are small and they look more natural when planted around or amongst grass like foliage.

Remove the plants and carefully plant them into their wallum. Do not fertilize.

The best thing about the carnivorous plants is you can grow a large number in a small area. They often reach their full potential in just 1 year and flower in their first year. The water level must be kept topped up for most carnivorous plants but to maintain optimum conditions for Cephalotus follicularis it is best to plant these on a raised section well above the water table and let capillary action feed the plants.

They are ideal plants for terrariums because watering can be maintained at an optimum level very easily. Planting a terrarium needs a sandy mix as already outlined using 4 parts sand to 1 part peat. Mix it up carefully place it in the container. Water well and drain off any excess water. Carefully remove the plants from their pots and plant them ensuring no mix is covering the leaves.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cephalotus follicularis is classified as rare and endangered and wild plants cannot be removed from the wild or seed taken. The seeds require some treatment before sowing. Fresh seeds from the present seasons flowering are most important. Wrap the seeds in a moist cloth. Place the cloth in a plastic bag and wrap several layers of cloth around the plastic bag. Place the contents in the refrigerator over winter. Make sure the temperatures do not drop below 3 degrees.

Sow stratified seeds directly into a deep tray or 150mm squat pot. The mix to be added should be 40% course sharp sand, 40% black peat that is salt free and 20% perlite. Wet the mix well allowing it to soak for an hour or two then drain the excess moisture off. Cover the surface with pre-soaked sphagnum moss. Press the seeds into the sphagnum moss about 20mm apart. Place the tray in a warm place sunny place. If the tray starts to dry out, water it from below by standing the tray or pot in a saucer of water. Do not stand the pot or tray in the water any longer than to just wet the mix throughout.

When the seedlings are 10 to 15 mm tall, prick them out and plant them into their permanent position in the bog garden or terrarium. Alternatively they can be transplanted into 75mm pots.

Fertilize using Seaweed or fish emulsion at half strength two weeks before planting out. This is all the plants will need for a life time of happiness. Mass plantings can be achieved by planting them at 400mm to 600mm centres.

Further comments from readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Ceratopetalum apetalum

Classification:

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Oxalidales

Family: Cunoniaceae

Genus: From Kerat/Keras, which is Ancient Greek for a horn and Pétalon which is Ancient Greek for a petal. It refers to the shape of the petal’s apexes having a small hook or horn.

Specie: From A, which is Greek/Latin for without or not having and Petalon, which is Ancient Greek for a petal.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Coachwood.

Distribution:

Ceratopetalum apetalum is found south from Mount Colosseum National Park north west of Bundaberg in central coastal Queensland to Batemans Bay in southern coastal New South Wales.  It is found on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Ceratopetalum+apetalum+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Ceratopetalum apetalum prefers full sun to dappled shade starting life in full shade. It grows in warm temperate rainforests, cool subtropical rainforests or in wet eucalyptus forests adjoining the rain forests. The altitude ranges from 80 meters ASL to 800 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 4 degrees in July to 37 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 450mm to 1500mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Ceratopetalum apetalum prefers poorer to medium quality sandy loams to light clays. The soils are usually derived from decomposed sandstones, shales or brown basalts. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils though they may grow adjacent to wallum land on pure sand. Non saline to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 10m to 25m by 8m to 10m

Characteristics:

Ceratopetalum apetalum grows as a small single trunk tree. The bark is glabrous silver-grey with horizontal markings of a slightly paler colour on older trees. Young branchlets are silvery grey while the juvenile branchlets are pale green and channelled.

The elliptical to oblong leaves of Ceratopetalum apetalum measure 60mm to 120mm in length by 20mm to 45mm in width. The base is narrow rounded while the apex is acuminate. The discolourous laminas are mid green to sea-green and glabrous on the upper lamina while the lower laminas are paler. The leaf margins are finely toothed. The mid vein is prominent on the lower lamina and is distinctly visible on the upper lamina. Young leaves are a glossy bronze or glossy pale lime green in colour. The upper lamina is flat or curves slight upwards from the mid vein towards the margin. The petioles are channelled above with 1mm long stipule and measure 10mm to 20mm in length.

Inflorescences of Ceratopetalum apetalum are small loose panicle. The panicles measure 70mm to 120mm in length by 90mm to 135mm in width. They comprise of 15 to 60 individual flowers. The petals are absent from this specie. The white sepals are elliptical to lanceolate and measure 5mm to 6mm in length. The sepals turn bright pink when ripe before fading to a pale fawn-brown prior to being discarded. The sepals swell to 6.5mm to 8mm in length by 4mm in width. The ripe seeds are dispersed by the wind. The individual peduncles measure 3mm to 6mm in length. Ceratopetalum gummiferum flowers appear from early November to late November.

The seeds measure 1mm to 1.5mm in length by 0.8mm to 1.2mm in diameter. The sepals are persistent at the base of the seeds.

Wildlife:

Ceratopetalum apetalum is an important host to numerous beetles, native flies, midget wasps, butterflies and native bees when in flower.

Cultivation:

Ceratopetalum apetalum is a beautiful small tree to medium tree that looks great in the garden as a feature plant, in the center of a bush garden or rainforest garden. The very showy calyxes make them a sought after addition to add colour in the middle of summer.

Cultivated trees will grow from 10 meters to 15 meters by 8 meters to 10 meters when grown in the open. It flowers best where winters reach sub zero temperatures however young plants are frost tender. One of the best Native trees on the market to start a rainforest garden or repair damaged riparian zones.

Ceratopetalum apetalum make excellent accent trees in front of low set commercial, industrial sheds, school buildings or around the house where they will break up hard rigid architectural lines and give warmth and breadth to a building. In front of high rise buildings they give balance especially where they could be grown in curves meandering to the entry doors or in formal nature strip plantings.

Propagation:

Seeds: Ceratopetalum apetalum seeds do not require treatment before sowing. Sow fresh seeds directly into a seed raising mix and cover with 5mm of the mix. When the seedlings are 25 to 40 mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150 to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings along drive ways or fence lines can be achieved by planting them at 6 meter centers. Plant specimen trees at 8 meters centers, this will allow them to develop to their full potential. Hedges or if growing for cut flowers plant them at 2 meters centers will give very good results for the home garden.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Ceratopetalum gummiferum

Classification:

Class:  Magnoliopsida

Order: Oxalidales

Family: Cunoniaceae

Genus: From Kerat/Keras, which is Ancient Greek for a horn and Pétalon which is Ancient Greek for a petal. It refers to the shape of the petal’s apexes having a small hook or horn.

Specie: From Gummi which is Latin for gum or glue and Ferum, which is Latin for to bear. It refers to the trees or shrubs, which have copious quantities of resin.

Sub specie:

Common Name: New South Wales Christmas Bush.

Distribution:

Ceratopetalum gummiferum is found south from Evans Head to Ulladulla in eastern New South Wales. The species found on the Glenreagh cliffs and at The Pinnacles near Grafton show some dimorphism and may in the future be reclassified as separate specie or a sub specie of Ceratopetalum gummiferum. This is one of 5 specie I want to study further in the future.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Ceratopetalum+gummiferum+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Ceratopetalum gummiferum prefers full sun to dappled shade. It grows in dry schlerophyll forests adjacent to dry cool, tropical rainforests, dry warm subtropical rainforests on ridges often near escarpments. The altitude ranges from 50 meters ASL to 600 meters ASL.

Temperatures range from minus 2 degrees in July to 37 degrees in January.

Rainfall ranges from lows of 500mm to 1500mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Ceratopetalum gummiferum prefers fine sands to light fatty clays. The soils are usually derived from decomposed sandstones, brown basalts or gritty shales. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. It does not tolerate of water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:5m to 10m by 3m to 6m

Characteristics:

Ceratopetalum gummiferum grows as a multi trunked large shrub or small tree. The bark is glabrous silver grey with horizontal markings of a slightly lighter colour on older trees. Young branchlets are pale silvery grey. Juvenile branchlets are pale olive-green and channelled.

The glabrous leaves of Ceratopetalum gummiferum are trifoliate. The lanceolate to narrow ovate leaves are 40mm to 80mm in length by 8mm to 30mm in width. The base is cuneate, while the apex is narrow acute. The concolourous laminas are pale grass green to pale olive green. The leaf margins are finely serrated and are flat or curves slight upwards from the mid vein towards the margin. The mid vein is prominent on the lower lamina and is distinctly visible on the upper lamina. Juvenile leaves are a glossy bronze in colour. The petioles are channelled above and measure 10mm to 22mm in length. The narrow stipules measure 1mm in length.

Inflorescences of Ceratopetalum gummiferum are small dense panicle. The panicles measure 70mm to 110mm in length by 90mm to 135mm in width. They comprise of 15 to 81 individual flowers. The 5 elliptical petals measure 3mm in length by 3mm in width. As the white petals die the 2mm long sepals become larger as the seeds ripen. They turn from a creamy green to bright pinks, red and salmon-reds and enlarge to 11mm to 13mm in length by 4mm to 5mm in width before turning brown and papery. The ripe seeds are dispersed by the wind. The individual peduncles measure 3mm to 6mm in length. Ceratopetalum gummiferum flowers from early November to late November.

The seeds are 1mm to 1.5mm in diameter surrounded by the persistent sepals.

Wildlife:

Ceratopetalum gummiferum is an important host to myriads of beetles, native flies, midget wasps, butterflies and native bees when in flower.

Cultivation:

Ceratopetalum gummiferum is a beautiful small tree or large shrub that looks great in the garden as a feature plant or in the center of a bush garden. The very showy sepals make them a sought after addition to add colour in the middle of summer. In cultivation the trees will grow from 5 meters to 6 meters tall by 3 meters to 4 meters in diameter. They often reach their full potential in around 7 years and flower from the third to fourth year from seed. It flowers best where winters reach sub zero temperatures however young plants are frost tender. This is one of the best Native trees on the market for summer colour with the transformation from white in November to red in December is truly magnificent. Give them plenty of room to reach their full potential. Best flowering is achieved when the plants are in full sun. They can be pruned annually and this is recommended to increase the length of the flowering stems.

Ceratopetalum gummiferum can be used as a shrub or small tree. If a shrub is required they must be pruned on an annual basis or a leader shoot will emerge and endeavour to grow as a tree. We tip prune our tree and this helps keep the tree bushy and assists in more prolific blooming.

Applications of a double strength fertilizers like the ones suggested below in late winter will also benefit the tree and help produce larger flowering stems.

Ceratopetalum gummiferum make excellent subjects for long driveways, shelter belts or erosion control on sandy soils where light frosts occur. Trees grown at Nana Glen have been subjected to minus 6 degree temperatures with damage being restricted to young growth and lower flower spikes older trees. Young trees have been badly burnt off, only to resprout from the trunk at ground level.

Propagation:

Seeds: Ceratopetalum gummiferum seeds do not require treatment before sowing. Sow fresh seeds directly into a seed raising mix and cover with 5mm of the mix. When the seedlings are 25 to 40 mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150 to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings along drive ways or fence lines can be achieved by planting them at 6 meter centers. Plant specimen trees at 8 meters apart, this will allow them to develop to their full potential. Hedges or if growing for cut flowers plant them at of 1.5 meter to 2 meter centers should give very good results for the home gardener.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Ceratophyllum demersum

Classification:

Order: Ceratophyllales

Family: Ceratophyllaceae

Genus: From Kerat/Keras, which is Ancient Greek for a horn and Phullon/Phýllon, which is Ancient Greek for leaves. It refers to the leaves of this submerged aquatic plants, which have two or more long horns.

Specie: From Dēmersum, which is Latin for to be overwhelmed or submerged. It refers to plants, which are usually submerged in fresh stationary slow moving water.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Hornwort.

Distribution:

Ceratophyllum demersum is widespread in several disjunct populations north and east from Broome in north western, Western Australia to north along the gulf streams in the north of the Northern Territory.

In South Australia it is found from the mouth of the Murray River along the river through to near Albury Wodonga in Victoria and the Murray Darling catchment areas in New South Wales.

In the east it is found south from the tip of Cape York Peninsular in far north eastern Queensland to Bega in New South Wales. It is mainly found on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast.

It is probably more widespread than any of the maps indicate.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Ceratophyllum+demersum+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Ceratophyllum demersum prefer full sun. It is found growing in slow moving or still fresh water creeks, streams, rivers, billabongs, dams and lakes. It grows in shallow or deep water from 1 meter to 11 meters in depth. This is a vigorous slender water plant. The altitude ranges from 50 meters ASL to 600 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 5 degrees in July to 32 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 400mm to 3200mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Ceratophyllum demersum prefer pure clean fresh water. The soil’s pH ranges 6.2pH to 6.7pH. It tolerates water logged soils as it is a water plant. Non saline waters to slightly saline waters are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:0.2m to 3m by 0.06m to 0.08m.

Characteristics:

Ceratophyllum demersum is a small elongated submerged fresh water plant. It is unattached to the soil or rarely loosely attached to loose sediments. The stems are pale grass-green to pale orange –green and glabrous. The plants have no true roots.

The long linear leaves of Ceratophyllum demersum are produced in whorls of six to twelve and are forked once to 4 times. The ultimate sections are brittle and cylindrical with very fine teeth. The leaves measure 8mm to 40mm in length overall. The concolourous laminas are lime-green to grass-green and glossy.

The monoecious flowers of Ceratophyllum demersum are born from the leaf axils with separate male and female flowers produced on the same plant. The small grass-green flowers measure 2mm to 2.5mm in length overall by 1.6mm to 2mm in diameter. The grass-green to green-brown calyx tubes have eight to 12 dimorphic linear lobes. The lobes measure 1mm to 2mm in length.

The grass-green to green-brown style measures 1mm to 1.5mm in length. The flowers appear throughout the year in warm tropical climates and from late November to early February in the south.

The fruits of Ceratophyllum demersum are oblong nuts. The nuts measure 4mm to 5mm in length excluding the 3 spines. There is 1 terminal and 2 laterally, separated basal spines. The 3 spines are usually longer than the capsules when they fully develop. One or both of the basal spines may only partially develop. The spines measure 1mm to 12mm in length

Wildlife:

No wild life totally relies on Ceratophyllum demersum as a food source though it often acts as a backup supply for many waterfowl and native fish. Small fish will use the dense floating stems for both camouflage and habit corridors with in the pond, dam or billabong.

Cultivation:

Ceratophyllum demersum are very small sedge that should be more widely grown especially in miniature landscaping projects where the soils are sandy loams and plenty of moisture is available. In cultivation they will grow 0.05mm to 0.7mm in height by 0.1mm to 0.15mm in diameter when grown in an open situation. They are suitable for full shade to dappled light.

It makes a good aquarium plant as it can cope with much lower levels of light than most aquarium plants and it is fast growing.

Propagation:

Seeds: Collecting seeds from mature plants of Ceratophyllum demersum is not easy as they have a tendency to break off and sink to the bottom when fully ripe. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a tank.

Division: The plants are far easier to grow from stem divisions. Just remove several pieces 300mm to 500mm in length, of the stems from the water wash thoroughly by rinsing in clean chlorinated tap water. Repeat the process 2 or 3 times. Allow the stems to remain soaking in the last rinse for 1 or 2 hours to ensure most water pathogens have been killed or removed. Cut the stems into the required lengths and place them into your aquarium or pond. The plants will do the rest.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained

Cerbera floribunda

Classification:

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Asterids

Order: Gentianales

Family: Apoccynaceae

Subfamily: Rauvolfiodeae

Genus: From Kerberus, which is Ancient Greek for the mythical three headed dog. It refers to plants, which are very toxic.

Specie:From Flōris, which is Latin for a flower or Flōs, which is Roman for the Goddess of spring and flowers and Bundus, which is Latin for abundant or plenty. It refers to flowers, which are born in prolific numbers when in flower.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Cassowary Plum or Native Rubber Tree or Milk Tree.

Distribution:

Cerbera floribunda is found south from the Torres Straight Islands and New Guinea, Cape York Peninsular to Townsville in far northern Queensland.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cerbera+floribunda+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cerbera floribunda prefers full sun to dappled shade. It is found along the coast in littoral rainforests on estuary flats or lowland rainforests and better quality monsoonal rainforests. The altitude ranges from 10 meters ASL to 500 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 8 degrees in July to 38 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 900mm to an average of 3200mm annually but this is of little consequence as the plants grow in the mangroves or along tidal river estuaries creeks and streams.

Soil Requirements:

Cerbera floribunda prefer to grow on soils associated with alluvial plains or on river flats on bends in creeks and streams. Soil’s pH ranges from 4.5pH to 7pH are preferred. It tolerates water logged soils being inundated on king tides or during flood periods. The salinity of the soils and acidity vary considerably with fresh water flows being solely fresh water to tidal surges. The pH of these soils can fluctuate widely from the dry season to the onset of the wet season. Moderately saline soils to extremely saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 15m to 20m by 10m to 12m.

Characteristics:

Cerbera floribunda’s deep brown deep brown-black bark is coarsely farinaceous while the branchlets are scabrous and pale brown or grey-brown, glabrous. Juvenile branchlets are green where the leaves are still growing and are square in cross section. All parts of the tree produce poisonous white latex.

Cerbera floribunda’s oblong leaves are arranged in whirls or are tightly packed and alternate. They measure 90mm to 230mm in length by 20mm to 55mm in width. The bases are cuneate while the apexes are acuminate. The discolourous laminas are mid green to deep grass-green and glabrous on the upper laminas while the lower laminas are paler green. The laminas recurve slightly upwards from the midvein to the margins. The mid vein and main lateral veins are prominent on the lower laminas and clearly visible from the upper laminas. The petioles measure 30mm to 40mm in length. New growth is a light glossy green. Old leaves turn a bright red before falling.

The inflorescence of Cerbera floribunda are erect loose panicles with 10 to 30 flowers. The corollas measure 8mm to 10mm in length by 25mm to 30mm in diameter across the lobes. The 5 contorted lobes are oblong with a broad rounded apex and measure 8mm to 12mm in length by 4mm to 6mm in width. The lobe margins curve strongly upwards at the margins and apex. The narrow oblong sepals have a mucronate apex and measure 5mm to 6.5mm in length by 5mm to 6mm wide. The glabrous corolla and lobes are white externally and deep red to burgundy internal. The pedicel is 15mm to 20mm long. Flowers can be found on the trees all year round.

Cerbera floribunda fruits are large oval deep blue purple fleshy drupes. The drupes have a large central seed. They measure 80mm to 110mm in length by 45mm to 55mm wide. The ovoid seeds are a light brown with a fibrous covering and measure 40mm to 45mm in length by 20mm to 26mm in width.

Wildlife:

As the name suggest it is a favourite food of the giant Australian and New Guinea Bird the Cassowary. The white tailed water rat removes the poisonous flesh to eat the seeds.

I have seen no research done on the seeds to know whether they are edible or toxic for human consumption. Notating that the white tail rat eats the seeds as I have seen caches close to the trees may indicate that they are not toxic but caution should prevail. If research were to be done and prove the seeds to be fit for human consumption, then the possibility of large scale production could be advanced on a lot of marginal lands in the north of Australia. It must be pointed out though that the fruits flesh is highly toxic as is the latex.

Cultivation:

Cerbera floribunda is magnificent small trees for the small coastal suburban garden or large properties which lay close to the coast. They are moderately fast growing given plenty of water.

They are an excellent tree for hosting epiphytic orchids and ferns with older trees hosting many different species of lichens. Trees start flowering from 4 years to 7 years of age. In cultivation the trees will grow from 10 meters to 15 meters tall with a large spread from 10 meters to 15 meters.

They make ideal avenue trees in parks along the foreshores in tropical areas where tidal surges and storm surges cause frequent problems because of their size and dense canopy. Their beauty is further enhanced by the strong perfume emitted by the flowers particularly at night.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cerbera floribunda seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix using 150mm native tubes and a good seed raising mix with 30% perlite added. The seeds may require heat out of the tropics as I found no seeds germinated in Grafton from a small collection I was given from the Townsville botanic gardens.

Once the seedlings reach 400mm to 500mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings, plant at 8 meters to 12 meters centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cerbera manghas

Classification:

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Asterids

Order: Gentianales

Family: Apoccynaceae

Subfamily: Rauvolfiodeae

Genus: From Kerberus, which is Ancient Greek for the mythical three headed dog. It refers to plants, which are very toxic.

Specie: From Manghos, which is Latinized from the local vernacular for Manas Island. It refers to the first plants which were discovered on the Island.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Native Frangipani.

Distribution:

Cerbera manghas is found east from Bathurst and Melville Islands the Cobourg Peninsular then south to Groote Eylandt and north to Marchinbar Island in the Northern Territory.

In the east it is found south from the Torres Islands and New Guinea, on the western side of Cape York Peninsular to Weipa and on the eastern side to the Fitzroy River near Rockhampton in north eastern coastal Queensland.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cerbera+manghas+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cerbera manghas prefers full sun to dappled shade. It grows in lowland rainforests, littoral rainforests and behind the mangrove rainforests where there is brackish water. The altitude ranges from 1 meter BSL to 80 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 10 degrees in July to 38 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 1000mm to an average of 3200mm annually but this is of little consequence as the plants grow in the mangroves or along tidal river estuaries where permanent water lies.

Soil Requirements:

Cerbera manghas prefers light muddy clay silts to heavy clay silts. The soils are derived from alluvial discharges from rivers as alluvial deposits or accumulated muddy sands. The soils pH ranges from 4pH to a 7pH. The salinity of the soils and acidity vary considerably with fresh water flows being solely fresh water to full strength sea water. The pH of these soils can fluctuate widely from the dry season to the onset of the wet season. Moderately saline soils to extremely saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 10m to 12m by 6m to 10m.

Characteristics:

Cerbera manghas’s bark is deep grey. It is lightly furrowed bark is coarsely rough on the trunk becoming scabrous on the larger branches. The branchlets are a light grey, glabrous even where the leaves are attached. The juvenile branchlets are mid green and glabrous. All parts of the tree produce poisonous white latex.

Cerbera manghas’s are elliptical to broad linear leaves are arranged in whirls or tightly packed and alternate. They measure 130mm to 250mm in length by 45mm to 70mm in width. The minute stipules are wedged between the axis and the branchlets. The petioles measure 20mm to 60mm in length. The bases are cuneate while the apexes are broad to narrowly acuminate. The discolourous laminas are deep sea-green, glabrous and dull on the upper laminas while the lower laminas are paler green. The laminas recurve upwards from the mid vein to the margins and are slightly undulating. The margins are entire. The mid vein is pale green and prominent on the lower laminas and are distinctly visible from the upper laminas. New growth is a light glossy green.

The inflorescence of Cerbera manghas are erect tightly packed panicles born in the upper leaf axils. There are 4 to 30 flowers. The corolla tube measures 22mm to 35mm in length by 5mm to 8mm in diameter. The flowers measure 20mm to 40mm across the lobes. The 5 contorted lobes are irregular and asymmetrical broad round with a long twisted mucronate apex. The lobes measure 18mm to 28mm in length by 15mm to 26mm in width. The corolla lobes are white with a red throat turning creamy white with age. The 5 sepal lobes vary considerably from oval, elliptical or linear. They may be symmetrical or asymmetrical. Often the same plant will display sepals of which two are narrow and opposite while the next two are also opposite and broad elliptical or oblong while the fifth lobe is in between the two. The lobes measure 12mm to 25mm in length by 3mm to 12mm in width. They are silky white to cream. The pedicel is 20mm to 25mm long. The sweetly scented flowers can be found on the trees all year round.

Cerbera manghas fruits are large round to oval deep blue purple fleshy drupes. The drupes turn red or red-green when ripe. They measure 60mm to 75mm in length by 35mm to 45mm in width. The ovoid seeds are a pale brown to pale grey with a vertical fibrous covering and measure 40mm to 50mm in length by 20mm to 26mm in width.

Wildlife:

As the name suggest it is a favourite food of the giant Australian and New Guinea Bird the Cassowary. The white tailed water rat is known for stealthily removing the poisonous flesh to get to the seeds.

I have seen no research done on the seeds to know whether they are edible or toxic for human consumption. Notating that the white tail rat eats the seeds as I have seen caches close to the trees may indicate that they are not toxic but caution should prevail. If research were to be done and prove the seeds to be fit for human consumption, then the possibility of large scale production could be advanced on a lot of marginal lands in the north of Australia. It must be pointed out though that the fruits flesh is highly toxic as is the latex.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant medium dense tree for heavier silt soils.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Cerbera manghas I have seen no research done on the seeds to know whether they are edible or toxic for human consumption. Notating that the white tail rat eats the seeds as I have seen caches close to the trees may indicate that they are not toxic but caution should prevail. If research were to be done and prove the seeds to be fit for human consumption, then the possibility of large scale production could be advanced on a lot of marginal lands in the north of Australia. It must be pointed out though that the fruits flesh is highly toxic as is the latex.

Cerbera manghas is magnificent small trees for the small suburban garden or large properties which lay close to the coast. They are moderately fast growing given plenty of water.

They are an excellent tree for hosting epiphytic orchids and ferns with older trees hosting many different species of lichens. Trees start flowering from 4 years to 7 years of age. In cultivation trees will grow from 10 meters to 15 meters in height with a large spread from 10 meters to 15 meters in diameter.

They make ideal avenue trees in parks along the foreshores in tropical areas where tidal surges and storm surges cause frequent problems because of their size and dense canopy. Their beauty is further enhanced by the strong perfume emitted by the flowers particularly at night.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cerbera manghas seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix using 150mm native tubes and a good seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 400mm to 500mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings, plant at 10 meters to 12 meters centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cestichis reflexa

Classification:

Class: Monocots

Order: Asparagales

Family: Orcidaceae

Subfamily: Epidendroideae

Genus: From Cespitosa, which is Latin for a tuft and órkhis, which is Ancient Greek for a man’s testicles. It refers to the combination of two genre names, one is the apparent resemblance to Cespitosa and the other to its synonym Stichorchis.

Specie: From Reflexsus, which is Latin for to be bent back or folded backwards. It refers to the corolla lobes being folded or bent backwards.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Cestichis reflexa is found south from Ted Baker Lookout in the Great Lakes area to near Nowra in coastal regions in central New South Wales to Southern coastal New South Wales. It is found on the eastern side of the Great Dividing Range.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cestichis+reflexa+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cestichis reflexa prefers medium shade to dappled sunlight. It grows as an epiphyte or occasionally as a lithophyte in wet schlerophyll forests and cool, moist rainforests. It is found from 50 meters ASL to 900 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 1 degree in July to 35 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 800mm to 1200mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Cestichis reflexa prefer trees that grow on rich volcanic soils derived from black basalt. The soils pH ranges from 6pH to 6.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Only non-saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.2m to 0.3m by 0.02m to 0.03 when in flower.

Characteristics:

Cestichis reflexa forms small colonies on limbs and over rocks. The off white to white roots are long, thick and have a distinctly long, pale glossy green meristem. The pseudobulbs are ovoidal to compressed-ovoid and measure 20mm to 40mm in length by 15mm to 30mm in width. Leaf scars are present on the apical half of the old pseudobulbs.

The 2 to 3 or occasionally 4 linear to lanceolate leaves of Cestichis reflexa are jointed at the base. The erect leaves measure 100mm to 300mm in length by 10mm to 16mm in width. The bases are truncate where they attach to the pseudobulbs while the apexes are tapering to acute. The concolourous laminas are pale grass-green, dull and glabrous. The thin, coriaceous laminas are conduplicate near the base and become more divaricate as they approach the apex. The mid vein is obtuse on the lower lamina and is distinctly visible from the upper lamina as a furrow. The margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Cestichis reflexa are a single flower spike from the base of the leaves. The rachises are pale grass-green, dull and glabrous. The 5 to 32 individual flowers are born on a long erect to pendulant rachises which measures 100mm to 300mmin length. The linear appressed flower sheaths measure 1.2mm to 3mm in length. The pedicels measures 6mm to 16mm in length including the 3mm to 3.5mm which is rather difficult to distinguish from the pedicel.

The lateral sepals are greenish, cream or lemon yellow become yellow-orange with age. The 2 linear decurve sepals have obtuse to acute apexes and measure 8mm to 18mm in length by 1.5mm to 3mm in width. The margins are entire.

The dorsal sepal is greenish, cream or lemon yellow become yellow-orange with age. The linear recurved dorsal sepal has a clavate apex with a short mucronate tip and measures 5mm to 12mm in length by 2.5mm to 4.2mm in width. The margins are entire.

The lateral petals are greenish, cream or lemon yellow become yellow-orange with age. The 2 linear decurve lateral petals have acute apexes and measure 6mm to 13mm in length by 1mm to 1.5mm in width. The margins are entire.

The broad oblong labellum is greenish, cream or lemon yellow and has 2 broad longitudinal orange stripes and becomes yellow-orange with age. The labellum is deflexed through to 180° and has a truncate to broad obtuse apex. The margins are entire to slightly or finely lacerate. The labellum measure 12mm to 24mm length by 5mm to 9mm in width. The flowers appear from February to June with a peak in early April.

The fruits of Cestichis reflexa are globose pods with a square cross section. The bases are cuneate while the apexes are truncate to broad obtuse with a cuspidate tip. The pods measure 12mm to 15mm in length by 9mm to 12mm in diameter. The pale lime-green longitudinal pods turn fawn when ripe.

Wildlife:

Cestichis reflexa is the host to numerous small native flies when in flower.

Cultivation:

Cestichis reflexa is a beautiful small flowering orchid which is easy to grow in cultivation at least as far south as sale in Victoria along the coast in frost free zones. It does very well either in the bush house attached to a slab of cork, pumice stone or planted in a course cymbidium mix in a pot.

Trees with mass plantings of mixed orchids look really spectacular and those that have a lot of Cestichis reflexa add interest and curiosity over a long period especially when in flower. It does very well on most rainforest trees that have a smooth or course, rough or furrowed barks will all suffice. Ceratopetalum apetalum is a natural host but the trees also do well on Cassuarina torulosa and Cassuarina cunninghamii in the garden.

I have not known any problems associated with Cestichis reflexa apart from the flowers having a faint dog urine odour.

Propagation:

Seeds:

Cestichis reflexa seeds require treatment before sowing. Really Orchid seeds are meant for professionals with time, equipment and space. However if you wish to persevere then here are the basics and you are learning from an amateur. You will need the following, a flask, Chloros solution, boiled water, an eye dropper, paper bag, a warm sheltered position and a lot of patience and luck. This is a most difficult orchid to grow even by professionals as it detests root disturbance and being reoriented.

The mycorrhizal bacteria must be introduced to the media if growing them from seed is to be successful. This can be achieved by sacrificing an existing plant and inoculation the prepared solution prior to sowing the seeds or using some leaf litter immediately adjacent to the swollen gland.

  1. Collecting the seed: seed can only be collected from fully ripe pods. You may need to watch a pod for several days or even weeks following the time it stops swelling for it to turn olive yellow. At this stage the pod must be watched carefully for the pod to commence spitting along the placenta. If possible place the paper bag over the pod and tie it off. If necessary place a plastic bag over the paper bag to prevent rain or moisture contacting the seeds.
  2. Knowledge is very important now, as different species and genre have various numbers of viable seed in a pod. Viable seeds may be as few as 20 or as many as several million. Check the bag daily and remove once the seed begins to disperse. Shake all the seeds from the pod into the bag.
  3. Purchase the appropriate agar solution from an orchid society as they will know what you want and which one will be best for your species. Prepare the agar solution and pour into the flask.
  4. Remove some of the seeds by shaking them into a solution of 1 part chloros to 20 parts water and allow soaking for 10 minutes.
  5. Remove the seeds with the eye dropper in the solution and spread evenly over the set agar.
  6. Place the flasks in a room that is will lit with indirect light and the temperature is a consistent 25 to 30 degrees centigrade.
  7. Wait 4 to 7 months for the seedlings to develop to a stage where they can be removed and planted on into a fine orchid mix. Do not remove the seedlings from their environment of light or temperature for at least another two months. Even at this stage it is best to place the seedlings in a hot house where their environment can be controlled.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then in September, November and January to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cestichis swenssonii

Classification:

Class: Monocots

Order: Asparagales

Family: Orcidaceae

Subfamily: Epidendroideae

Genus: From Cespitosa, which is Latin for a tuft and órkhis, which is Ancient Greek for a man’s testicles. It refers to the combination of two genre names, one is the apparent resemblance to Cespitosa and the other to its synonym Stichorchis.

Specie: Is named in honour of Swenson.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Cestichis swenssoni is found in several disjunct populations south from Maroochydore in south eastern Queensland to Swans Crossing in northern coastal New South Wales. It is found on and east of the Great Dividing Range.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cestichis+swenssoni+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cestichis swenssoni prefer medium shade to dappled sunlight. It grows as an epiphyte or occasionally as a lithophyte in wet schlerophyll forests and cool moist rainforests. It altitude ranges from 250 meters ASL to 1200 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 0 degrees in July to 35 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 1000mm to 1700mm average per annum. The rainfall is often supplemented through orographic precipitation.

Soil Requirements:

Cestichis swenssoni prefer trees that are growing on rich volcanic soils derived from black basalt. The soils pH ranges from 6pH to 6.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Only non-saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.2m to 0.3m by 0.02m to 0.03 when in flower.

Characteristics:

Cestichis swenssoni forms small colonies on limbs and over rocks. The off white to white roots are long, thick and have a distinctly long, pale glossy green meristem. The pseudobulbs are ovoidal to compressed-ovoid and measure 20mm to 40mm in length by 15mm to 30mm in width. Leaf scars are present on the apical half of the old pseudobulbs.

The 1 or 2 linear to lanceolate leaves of Cestichis swenssoni are jointed at the base. The erect leaves measure 100mm to 300mm in length by 10mm to 25mm in width. The bases are truncate where they attach to the pseudobulbs while the apexes are tapering to acute. The concolourous laminas are pale grass-green, dull and glabrous. The thin, coriaceous laminas are conduplicate near the base and become more divaricate as they approach the apex. The mid vein is obtuse on the lower lamina and is distinctly visible from the upper lamina as a furrow. The margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Cestichis swenssoni are a single flower spike from the base of the leaves. The rachises are mid yellow-green, glabrous. The 10 to 30 individual flowers are born on a long erect to pendulant rachises which measures 100mm to 250mmin length. The linear appressed sheaths measure 10mm to 12mm in length. The pedicels measures 8mm to 15mm in length including the 3mm to 3.5mm which is very difficult to distinguish from the pedicel.

The lateral sepals are mid yellow-green, glabrous and become cream to pale yellow with age. The 2 linear divaricate sepals have obtuse apexes and measure 6mm to 9mm in length by 1mm to 2mm in width. The margins are entire.

The dorsal sepal is mid yellow-green, glabrous and become cream to pale yellow with age. The linear recurved dorsal sepal has a clavate apex with a short mucronate tip and measures 4mm to 6mm in length by 2mm to 2.2mm in width. The margins are entire.

The lateral petals are mid yellow-green, glabrous and become cream to pale yellow with age. The 2 linear decurve lateral petals have acute apexes and measure 6mm to 9mm in length by 1mm to 1.2mm in width. The margins are entire.

The broad oblong labellum is mid yellow-green, glabrous and has 2 broad longitudinal orange stripes and becomes yellow-orange with age. The labellum is deflexed through to 180° and has a truncate to broad obtuse apex. The margins are entire to slightly or finely lacerate. The labellum measure 12mm to 24mm length by 5mm to 9mm in width. The flowers appear from February to July with a peak in early April.

The fruits of Cestichis swenssoni are globose pods with a square cross section. The bases are cuneate while the apexes are truncate to broad obtuse with a cuspidate tip. The pods measure 12mm to 15mm in length by 9mm to 12mm in diameter. The pale lime-green longitudinal pods turn fawn when ripe.

Wildlife:

Cestichis swenssoni is unknown to the author.

Cultivation:

Cestichis swenssoni is a beautiful small flowering orchid which is easy to grow in cultivation at least as far south as sale in Victoria along the coast in frost free zones. It does very well either in the bush house attached to a slab of cork, pumice stone or planted in a course cymbidium mix in a pot.

Trees with mass plantings of mixed orchids look really spectacular and those that have a lot of Cestichis swenssoni add interest and curiosity over a long period especially when in flower. It does very well on most rainforest trees that have a smooth or course, rough or furrowed barks will all suffice. Ceratopetalum apetalum is a natural host but the trees also do well on Cassuarina torulosa and Cassuarina cunninghamii in the garden.

I have not known any problems associated with Cestichis swenssoni apart from the flowers having a faint dog urine odour.

Propagation:

Seeds:

Cestichis swenssoni seeds require treatment before sowing. Really Orchid seeds are meant for professionals with time, equipment and space. However if you wish to persevere then here are the basics and you are learning from an amateur. You will need the following, a flask, Chloros solution, boiled water, an eye dropper, paper bag, a warm sheltered position and a lot of patience and luck. This is a most difficult orchid to grow even by professionals as it detests root disturbance and being reoriented.

The mycorrhizal bacteria must be introduced to the media if growing them from seed is to be successful. This can be achieved by sacrificing an existing plant and inoculation the prepared solution prior to sowing the seeds or using some leaf litter immediately adjacent to the swollen gland.

  1. Collecting the seed: seed can only be collected from fully ripe pods. You may need to watch a pod for several days or even weeks following the time it stops swelling for it to turn olive yellow. At this stage the pod must be watched carefully for the pod to commence spitting along the placenta. If possible place the paper bag over the pod and tie it off. If necessary place a plastic bag over the paper bag to prevent rain or moisture contacting the seeds.
  2. Knowledge is very important now, as different species and genre have various numbers of viable seed in a pod. Viable seeds may be as few as 20 or as many as several million. Check the bag daily and remove once the seed begins to disperse. Shake all the seeds from the pod into the bag.
  3. Purchase the appropriate agar solution from an orchid society as they will know what you want and which one will be best for your species. Prepare the agar solution and pour into the flask.
  4. Remove some of the seeds by shaking them into a solution of 1 part chloros to 20 parts water and allow soaking for 10 minutes.
  5. Remove the seeds with the eye dropper in the solution and spread evenly over the set agar.
  6. Place the flasks in a room that is will lit with indirect light and the temperature is a consistent 25 to 30 degrees centigrade.
  7. Wait 4 to 7 months for the seedlings to develop to a stage where they can be removed and planted on into a fine orchid mix. Do not remove the seedlings from their environment of light or temperature for at least another two months. Even at this stage it is best to place the seedlings in a hot house where their environment can be controlled.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then in September, November and January to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Chamaecrista maritima

Classification:

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Rosids

Order: Fabales

Family: Fabaceae

Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae

Tribe: Cassieae

Subtribe: Cassiinae

Genus: From Chamai, which is Ancient Greek for a dwarf or to lie on the ground and Crista, which is Latin for a crest, tuft or ridge. It refers to plants, which have a tuft like crest.

Specie: From Marīnum, which is Latin for of the sea. It refers to plants, which grow along the coastline.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Chamaecrista maritima is found south from Rainbow Beach National Park in southern coastal Queensland to Crowdy Bay National Park in coastal central New South Wales. It is only found along the coast strip.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Chamaecrista+maritima+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Chamaecrista maritima prefer full sun. It grows on windswept head lands and easterly exposed facing slopes. The altitude ranges from 8 meter ASL to 30 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 1 degree in August to 38 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 1100mm to 2000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Chamaecrista maritima prefer skeletal sandy loams to medium clays. The soils are derived from decomposed sandstones, brown basalt, black basalt, metamorphic rocks and shale. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated as are salt laden winds.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:0.01m to 0.2m by 0.3m to 0.5m

Characteristics:

Chamaecrista maritima grows as a small, open decumbent to tufted perennial shrub. The glabrous bark is a pale brown to reddish fawn on older shrubs. Young branchlets are glabrous, grass-green and sparsely covered in short, white pilose hairs.

Chamaecrista maritima’s alternate narrow even pinnate leaves measure 35mm to 90mm in length overall. There are 15 to 30 retrorse, pairs of leaflets. The oblong leaflets measure 3.3mm to 6.6mm in length by 1mm to 1.6mm in width. The 2 triangular stipules measure 2mm to 3mm in length. The blue-green petioles are sparsely covered in short white pilose hairs and measure 1.5mm to 3mm in length. There is a long elliptical discoid gland at the base which measures 0.3mm to 0.5mm in length. The bases are rounded while the apexes are acute. The concolourous laminas are mid blue-green, glabrous and dull on the upper laminas while the lower laminas are sparsely covered in white pilose hairs. The leaf margins are entire. The mid vein is slightly prominent on the lower lamina and is not visible from the upper laminas.

The inflorescences of Chamaecrista maritima have 1 to 3 individual flowers growing born slightly above the leaf axils. The 5 yellow broad obovate petals measure 8mm to 11mm in length by 8mm to 11mm in width. The blue-green pedicels are covered in fine, white, pulverulent hairs and measure 6mm to 25mm in length.

The 8 or 9 stamens are yellow-brown with large yellow-brown anthers which measure 3mm to 5mm in length.

The single style is located centrally on the pale green ovary which is covered in fine white pulverulent hairs. Chamaecrista maritima flowers appear throughout the warmer months.

The fruits of Chamaecrista maritima are long flat pods. The pods measure 30mm to 50mm in length by 3.5mm to 4.5mm in width. The blue-green, pods are covered in fine, white pulverulent hairs and turn deep grey-brown when ripe. The small, deep brown-black seeds are glossy, flattened ovate and measure 3mm to 4mm in length.

Wildlife:

Chamaecrista maritima’s wildlife is unknown to the author.

Cultivation:

Chamaecrista maritima is a beautiful small shrub that looks great in small rockeries, around swimming pools or sunny north facing walls. In cultivation they will grow from 0.1m to 0.3m by 0.4m to 0.6m when grown in an open sunny position.

Chamaecrista maritima is a short lived native living for 2 to 3 years so should be replanted every year to maintain vigour and consistency in flowers in the garden bed. This is one plant that benefits highly from being mass planted or planted in scattered clumps. Their small size enables this to be achieved even in small and medium size gardens.

When they are in flower these plants will catch your attention and the viewer will be transfixed on the display rather than watching the path. Plant them at 0.8 meter to 1 meter centers.

Propagation:

Seeds: Germination from Chamaecrista maritima is very consistent when grown from seed. Seeds do not require treatment before sowing. Sow fresh seeds into a seed raising mix cover with 2mm of the mix and gently water. Place the trays in a warm airy sunny position. When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 80mm to 120mm in height nip the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved with spacing of 0.2 meters to 0.5 meters depending on whether they are to touch each other or to have a small space to highlight the mulch. Small pebble mulches do look very attractive between the blue-green foliage and yellow flowers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Chamaecrista nomame

Classification:

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Rosids

Order: Fabales

Family: Fabaceae

Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae

Tribe: Cassieae

Subtribe: Cassiinae

Genus: From Chamai, which is Ancient Greek for a dwarf or to lie on the ground and Crista, which is Latin for a crest, tuft or ridge. It refers to plants, which have a tuft like crest.

Specie: May be from No, which is English for no or nothing and Name, which is English for a name of a person or thing. It may therefore refer to a plant that had gone a long time without a name due to its confusing characteristics.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Chamaecrista nomame is widespread from the Kimberley Range in Western Australia through the top end of the Northern Territory as far south as Kakadu national Park and the Roper River and its tributaries.

In Queensland it is found south from the tip of Cape York Peninsular and the Torres Straight Islands to the Goulburn River National Park in central coastal New South Wales. It is found on the Western Slopes, on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Chamaecrista+nomame+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Chamaecrista nomame prefers full sun to dappled light shade. It grows in dry schlerophyll forest, drainage channels in cleared scrubs on plains and slopes. The altitude ranges from 10 meter ASL to 700 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 2 degrees in July to 37 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 500mm to 3200mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Chamaecrista nomame prefer soils that are pure yellow, white or grey sand lying over limestone or laterites. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated as are salt laden winds.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:0.5m to 1.5m by 0.5m to 2m

Characteristics:

Chamaecrista nomame grows as an open erect small shrub. The glabrous bark is a pale brown to reddish fawn on older shrubs. Young branchlets are glabrous, grass-green and sparsely covered in short, or at times short and long white pilose hairs.

Chamaecrista nomame’s alternate narrow even pinnate leaves measure 35mm to 90mm in length overall. There are 20 to 60 retrorse, pairs of leaflets. The linear leaflets measure 3mm to 10mm in length by 0.8mm to 1mm in width. The bases are sessile, truncate while the apexes are acute. The concolourous laminas are mid blue-green, glabrous and dull on the upper laminas while the lower laminas are glabrous or very sparsely covered in white pilose hairs. The leaf margins are entire. The mid vein is slightly prominent on the lower lamina and is not visible from the upper laminas. The 2 narrow triangular stipules measure 4mm to 10mm in length. The blue-green petioles and rachises are sparsely covered in short white pilose hairs. The petioles measure 2mm to 5mm in length while the rachises measure 60mm to 90mm in length. There is an ovate discoid gland at the base which measures 0.5mm to 0.9mm in diameter.

The inflorescences of Chamaecrista nomame have 1 to 3 individual flowers growing born slightly above the leaf axils. The 5 pale yellow broad obovate petals measure 6mm to 9mm in length by 6mm to 9mm in width. The blue-green pedicels are sparsely covered in fine, white, pulverulent hairs and measure 4mm to 6mm in length.

The 4 or 5 stamens or 8 or 9 stamens are dimorphic yellow-brown with large yellow-brown anthers which measure 2mm to 4.5mm in length.

The single style is located centrally on the pale green ovary which is covered in fine white pulverulent hairs. Chamaecrista nomame flowers appear throughout the year.

The fruits of Chamaecrista nomame are long flat pods. The pods measure 40mm to 80mm in length by 4mm to 5mm in width. The green pods are covered in white pulverulent hairs and turn grey-brown on ripening. The brown to brown-black seeds measure 4mm to 5mm in length by 3.5mm to 4mm in width and 1.5mm in thickness.

Wildlife:

Chamaecrista nomame’s wildlife is unknown to the author.

Cultivation:

Chamaecrista nomame is a beautiful small shrub that looks at home in small rockeries, and adjacent to natural bush gardens. In cultivation they will grow from 0.8m to 1m by 0.8m to 1m when grown in an open sunny position.

Chamaecrista nomame is a short lived native living for 2 to 3 years so should be replanted every year to maintain vigour and consistency in flowers in the garden bed. This is one plant that benefits highly from being mass planted or planted in scattered clumps. Their small size enables this to be achieved even in small and medium size gardens.

When they are in flower these plants will catch your attention and the viewer will be transfixed on the display rather than watching the path. Plant them at 0.4 meter to 0.5 meter centers.

Propagation:

Seeds: Germination from Chamaecrista nomame is very consistent when grown from seed. Seeds do not require treatment before sowing. Sow fresh seeds into a seed raising mix cover with 2mm of the mix and gently water. Place the trays in a warm airy sunny position. When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 80 to 120mm in height nip the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved by planting them at 0.2 meters to 0.5 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Chamelaucium uncinatum

Classification:

Class: Eudicots

Order: Rosids

Family: Myrtales

Subfamily: Myrtaceae

Genus: From Chamai, which is Ancient Greek for a dwarf or to lie on the ground and possibly Kamēlaúkion/Kalymmaúchion, which are Greek for a veil or covering. It would refer to the flowers, which completely cover the shrubs for a long time when in flower.

Specie: From Uncīnātum, which is Latin for a hook or to bear hooks. It refers to structures or organs, which are covered in pungent or non-pungent hooks.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Geraldton Wax.

Distribution:

Chamelaucium uncinatum is found south from Geraldton to the Swan river Plain. There is an outlying colony located on the foreshores in Warren National Park and the Fitzgerald River National Park on the southern coast.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Chamelaucium+uncinatum+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Chamelaucium uncinatum prefers full sun. It grows in drier heaths or in open dry woodlands usually close to the coast on flats gentle slopes or hillsides. The altitude ranges from 10 meter ASL to 200 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 3 degrees in July to 37 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 260mm to 1300mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Chamelaucium uncinatum prefers yellow, white or grey sands or sandy loams over limestone or laterites. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 7pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated as are salt laden winds.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:0.5m to 4m by 2m to 4m

Characteristics:

Chamelaucium uncinatum grows as an open small to medium shrub. The glabrous bark is a pale brown to fawn on older shrubs. Young branchlets are glabrous and vary in colour from the fawn to a pale pink while the juvenile branchlets are pale green, pink or red.

The opposite narrow linear leaves of Chamelaucium uncinatum measure 35mm to 40mm long by 1mm to 2mm wide. They point towards the apex of the branch at an angle of less than 40 degrees. The base is almost sessile or has a petiole to 1.5mm in length while the apex is hooked downwards. The concolourous laminas are lime green to sea green. The leaf margins are entire. Young leaves are a glossy with no mark difference to adult leaves in colour.

Chamelaucium uncinatum inflorescences have two rarely three flowers growing from a leaf axis. The white, pale pink or lilac flowers radiate out from a 7mm to 9mm disc. The individual flowers are from 15mm to 20mm in diameter. The petals are wider at the apex than the base and measure 6mm to 8mm long by 4mm to 8mm wide. The 10 stamens and 10 staminodes alternate around the hypanthium of the disc. The stamens measure 4mm in length while the staminodes measure 2mm in length. The single style is located centrally on the pale green disc and measures 6mm to 7mm in length. Chamelaucium uncinatum flowers from mid-June through May though flowering is common through to late November in good seasons.

The fruits of Chamelaucium uncinatum are 5 chambered capsules. The capsules measure 8mm to 10mm in diameter. They contain several, small, brown, chaff like seeds in each chamber.

Wildlife:

Chamelaucium uncinatum is the host to numerous beetles, native flies, midget wasps, butterflies and native bees when in flower. They are also attractive to numerous small honeyeaters.

Cultivation:

Chamelaucium uncinatum is a magnificent small to medium size shrub that looks great in the garden as a feature plant or better still in the center of a bush garden. The flowers come in every shade of pink, lilac, reds, purples and oranges. The showy blooms, long stems and their longevity as a cut flower have made them Australia’s most widely grown cut flower overseas. Their popularity is also growing at home here in Australia.

Small semi prostrate forms are ideal for growing in courtyards, around pools, against walls or in rockeries. They are tidy will accept light tip pruning or heavy pruning on an annual basis. Cutting the flowers for indoors then trimming to even the shrubs up so that they have a neat appearance is all you need to do to keep the plant looking good. In early autumn a good soaking with double strength fertilizing will ensure good size blooms the following season.

They often reach their full potential in just 3 years from seed.

Gardeners have a choice from densely matted prostrate forms through to more open taller growing forms. The prostrate forms will grow from 0.3 meters to 0.6 meters high by 2 meters to 3 meters in diameter. The taller forms will grow from 2 meters to 3 meters tall by 2 meters to 3.5 meters in diameter. All forms need a deep sandy well drained sunny position. They are best kept to southern Australia in the temperate zones though I believe many forms would do well in better semi-arid areas.

Chamelaucium uncinatum is a short lived native living for around 12 years so should be replanted beneath the original plants after 8 to 10 years to maintain year round beauty and vigour.

They are best used adjacent to small areas of bush close to paths or the house so their beautifully coloured flowers can be fully appreciated. They are great in small rockeries as a fill in plant. Here they can be planted in small groups of 2 or 3 or as a standalone plant to create a harsh barren look with other arid plants. If they are surrounded by shorter plants with broader foliage and red flowers they will dominate at the center giving an expansive look to the bed especially when they are in flower. This is one plant that benefits highly from being mass planted or planted in scattered clumps. The smaller size forms enable this to be achieved even in small and medium size gardens.

Six or more planted back from a bend will become a very strong focal point when in flower gain a lot of attention whether you are coming or going because of the fresh clean look of the foliage even in the driest of times. They can be regularly tip pruned if a smaller shrub is required. They respond well to pruning recovering quickly and often increasing the number of flowers in the following season. Place them in the foreground with other large leaf ground covers and very small shrubs. To the rear, use large leaf taller plants. Plants with white, deep red or deep purple flowers can be used in both the mid ground and background. Use colours that complement each other or plants that flower in different seasons. This will lead the viewer’s eyes directly to the flowers for a longer period.

Ensure that the whole plant or at least most of it is on display from most sections of the garden as the flowers are a real bonus. This is one plant where you can use various forms together to give a mass display over a very long period of time.

The prostrate forms lend themselves beautifully for planting on banks, between large boulders and over small walls to cascade over.

When they are in flower these plants will catch your attention and the viewer will be transfixed on the display rather than watching the path. Plant them at 0.8 meter to 1 meter centers.

Propagation:

Seeds: Germination from Chamelaucium uncinatum is very erratic when grown from seed. Seeds do not require treatment before sowing. Sow fresh seeds into a seed raising mix cover with 2mm of the mix and gently water. Place the trays in a warm airy sunny position. When the seedlings are 25 to 50 mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150 to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved by planting them at 1 meter to 4 meters depending on the variety grown.

Cuttings: Results from cutting grown material is more satisfying and you can select the exact colours you want to grow, however seedlings always give the surprise in colour when they first bloom. Cuttings are rather easy. Use 50mm to 75mm long material from the present season’s growth that has hardened off. Take terminal shoots or heel cuttings. Take them in mid-summer to mid-autumn.

1 Prepare the cutting mix by adding one third sharp clean river sand, one third peat and one third perlite. These ingredients are sterilize,

2 Select good material from non diseased plants,

3 Select semi green stems for cuttings. Look for a stem with two or three nodes,

4 Place the cutting on a flat, hard surface, and make a clean slice through the middle of the lower node on an angle towards the base, with a sterilized sharp knife or razor blade. – This scarification of the node will increase the chances of roots emerging from this spot. Now remove all but one or two the leaves, leaving the apex leaves in tact. If the leaves are very large in proportion to the stem, cut off the apical halves.

5 Some plants root easily, but a rooting hormone can help others by stimulating the cutting into sending out new roots. Fill a saucer with water, and place some rooting hormone into another container like a bottle top. Dip the node end of the cutting into the water and then into the rooting hormone. Tap off any excess hormone,

6 Use a small dipple stick or old pencil to poke a hole into the soilless potting mix. Ensure the hole is slightly larger than the stem diameter and be careful not to wipe the rooting hormone off the cuttings base, place the cuttings in a pattern ensuring the cuttings are not touching each other,

7 I like to place the pots in Plastic bags to help maintain temperature and moisture. Place in a semi shaded place like under 50% shade cloth.

8 When the cuttings have struck, open the bag to allow air circulation for a few days to a week,

9 Once hardened off remove the cuttings from the bag and allow to further hardening for a few more days,

10 Transplant into a good potting mix to grow on.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cheilanthes distans

Classification:

Division: Pteridophyta

Class: Polypodiopsida

Order: Polypodiales

Family: Pteridaceae

Genus: From Kheilos, which is Ancient Greek for a lip and ántha/ánthos, which are Ancient Greek for the male reproductive organs in a flower or the flower. It refers to the edges of the fronds which curve back over the sori and maybe it refers to the white indusial of some species, which look somewhat like a flower at first glance.

Specie: Distans, which is Latin for separating from. It refers to any organ, which is situated a distance from the next.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Bristly Cloak Fern.

Distribution:

Cheilanthes distans is widespread in disjunct populations in the southern third of Western Australia in the western corner.

It is also found in the southern third of South Australia in the south eastern third.

In the east it is found south from the Daintree River National Park in far north Queensland to west of Melbourne.

It is found from Bircheno to Castle Cary Regional Reserve in coastal eastern Tasmania and the Flinders Island group of Islands.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cheilanthes+distans+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cheilanthes distans grows in light shade to filtered sunlight. It grows on hill sides in open woodlands, open Eucalyptus forests, open riparian zones. The altitude ranges from 10 meter ASL to 800 meters ASL.

The temperature ranges from minus 4 degrees in August to 39 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 300mm to 2800mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Cheilanthes distans prefer soils that have high leaf litter content beneath open moist Eucalyptus forests. The skeletal soils are light sandy loams, gravelly clays to heavy clays derived from decomposed shale, black basalt, brown basalt, metamorphic rocks, laterites, sandstones or alluvial deposits. The soil’s pH ranges from 4.5pH to 7pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.2mm to 0.3mm by 0.2mm to 0.5mm.

Characteristics:

Cheilanthes distans have a very short creeping deep red-brown almost black rhizome covered in large deep brown scales. The lanceolate scales are entire.

Cheilanthes distans’s narrow bipinnate, lanceolate fronds grow in small flushes. The deep red-brown to deep brown black stipes is moderately to densely covered in deep brown–black lanceolate scales especially near the base. The scales are entire. The lanceolate fronds measure 100mm to 300mm in length by 20mm to 30mm in width overall. The ultimate pinnae are lanceolate to ovate. The terminal pinnae’s margins are moderately to deeply divided. The lateral pinnules measure 2mm to 6mm in length by 2mm to 3mm in width. The concolourous fronds are bright blue-green to bright deep grass-green and covered in white pilose hairs on the upper laminas while the lower laminas are covered in minute golden-yellow to golden brown scales.

The sori are continuous around the margins of the pinnules and become confluent at either end.

Wildlife:

Cheilanthes distans wildlife is unknown to the author.

Cultivation:

Cheilanthes distans are very hardy fern for courtyards, around swimming pools or in the garden where moist to dry bright conditions prevail. It is an excellent small fern for around swimming pools, small rockeries, small frog and fish ponds that are exposed to the elements yet still give a tropical feel. If used correctly Cheilanthes distans can make small areas look much larger. Some cleaning of spent fronds on an annual basis is necessary and a little moisture is required to keep it at its best. They are drought tolerant so the occasional lapse in watering will see the fronds shrivel but recover as soon as soil moisture is returned with new fronds following shortly afterwards. If they do happen to look dead after a long holiday, during a drought prune all the fronds off to a few centimetres of the rhizome and give them a good soaking. Apply a single strength dose of our recommended organic fertilizer two days later and within two weeks they will reshoot. 

It often reaches its full potential of 250mm in just over 1 year.

Where mass plantings are required space the ferns at 100mm apart for a dense forest type ground cover scene or use 500mm to 600mm centers where a barren look is wanted.

Cheilanthes distans are not the easiest ferns to grow as they are fairly particular on their moisture requirements and sunlight. Most people give them too much shade and over water them. My best tip here is to treat them like many of our native daisies for moisture and provide them with strong dappled light. Heavy shade is an absolute certainty which will lead to the ferns death. They prefer light clay loams to medium clays.

Propagation:

Spores:  All ferns that are declared rare, vulnerable or endangered are protected by Federal and State Laws and must not be removed from the wild unless you are a land developer, mining company or main Roads department etc. This includes bulbs, roots, leaves and flowers. No part of any plant can be removed from Federal, State or Local Government land without the prior permission of the authority and this includes the spore.

Most people are put off at the thought of growing ferns from spore. Like all plants that produce their offspring from seed or spore the methods are basically the same. Remember nature has been doing this for millions of years and has been very successful. I have had excellent results growing over 200 different species of Australian ferns so don’t be afraid. Give it a go.

Step 1. Select spore from the fern fronds. Wait until the fern is just starting to release its spore. Rinse the fronds under clean running water and dry. This is to wash off any other spores from rogue ferns that may have settled onto the fronds. (There is nothing worse than having common brake or common soft bracken contaminating a prized tree fern or epiphyte.)

 Step 2. Place the dry fronds in a clean brown paper bag and keep them in a cool dark place like the linen closet for about a week to ten days before you are ready to sow the spore. The exception to this rule applies to ferns, which produce green spores. These must be sown immediately that they are released. Todea Barbara is a good example of a fern, which produces green spore.

 Step 3. Take a large ice cream container, a small ice cream container and a clean clear plastic bag large enough to seal the large ice cream container and three or four milk bottle tops.

 Step 4. Punch or drill 6 to 10 5mm holes in the bottom of the small ice cream container.

 Step 5. Wash both containers, tops and plastic bag so that they are very clean and sterile.

 Step 6. Use a clean fine seed raising mi. We used 30% fine sand, 30% peat and 30% perlite and 10% vermiculite. We used crushed basalt, crusher dust and peat in a 50:50 ratio for epiphytes. Moisten the mix enough that water does not run out when the mix is squeezed between the fingers.

 Step 7. Place the moisten mix (Enough to half fill the small ice cream container) in the microwave oven with a large glass of water for 7 or 8 minutes, until the water is boiling. Allow them to cool in the oven. You will need the water later so do not tip it out.

 Step 8. Take the brown paper bag out of the linen closet. Shake the bag and remove the fronds. You should have a yellow, brown, black or rarely greenish brown or ochre powder or very fine, small round pin head size spore depending on the specie involved.

 Step 9. Remove the mixture from the oven once it has cooled and place it in the small ice cream container and level.

 Step 10. Sprinkle the spore sparsely over the mixture in the small ice cream container.

 Step 11. Place the milk bottle tops in the large ice cream container with the flat surface facing down. Place the small ice cream container in the large ice cream container so that it is sitting on the milk bottle tops.

 Step 12. Remove the water from the microwave and pour it into the larger ice cream container so there is 25mm to 30mm of water in the bottom.

 Step 13. Place the ice cream containers in the plastic bag and seal.

 Step 14. Place the contents and bag in a warm shady place preferably 50% to 70% shade depending on the specie. Shade houses and some window sills are ideal.

 Step 15. The surface should turn green within a week to two weeks. The prothallus will then develop. From the prthalus the first true fronds will appear. Wait until the ferns are 20mm to 35mm in height before you attempt to transplant them. Once they are ready open the bag up slightly and allow the air to flow around the little ferns. Every 3 to 5 days open the bag a little further so the ferns get use to their new environment. Allow them a week to two weeks to harden off before you transplant them following the removal of the plastic bag. Carefully prick them out into 50mm standard squat tubes as you would any seedling.

Do not try to transplant them as single plants as they are still a little delicate still.

Once the smaller ones again reach 50mm to 70mm you may wish to divide the stronger and hardier individual plants into smaller clumps in 100mm squat pots.

Step 16. Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health and vitality.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cheilanthes sieberi

Classification:

Division: Pteridophyta

Class: Polypodiopsida

Order: Polypodiales

Family: Pteridaceae

Genus: From Kheilos, which is Ancient Greek for a lip and ántha/ánthos, which are Ancient Greek for the male reproductive organs in a flower or the flower. It refers to the edges of the fronds which curve back over the sori and maybe it refers to the white indusial of some species, which look somewhat like a flower at first glance.

Specie: Distans, which is Latin for separating from. It refers to any organ, which is situated a distance from the next.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Cheilanthes sieberi is widespread throughout Australia including Tasmania except for the true deserts.

It is also found on Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, New Zealand and New Caledonia.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cheilanthes+sieberi+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cheilanthes sieberi grows in light shade to filtered sunlight. It grows on hill sides in open woodlands, open Eucalyptus forests, open riparian zones and riverine banks. It is particularly common in the shelter of large rocks and boulders. The altitude ranges from 5 meter ASL to 2000 meters ASL.

The temperature ranges from minus 4 degrees in August to 42 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 300mm to 3600mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Cheilanthes sieberi prefer soils that have high leaf litter content beneath open moist Eucalyptus forests. The skeletal soils are light sandy loams, gravelly clays to heavy clays derived from decomposed shale, black basalt, brown basalt, metamorphic rocks, laterites, sandstones or alluvial deposits. The soil’s pH ranges from 4.5pH to 8pH. It tolerates seasonal water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 80mm to 350mm by 100mm to 200mm.

Characteristics:

Cheilanthes sieberi have a very short creeping deep red-brown almost black rhizome covered in large deep brown scales. The lanceolate scales are entire.

Cheilanthes sieberi’s are crowded2 or at times 3-pinnate fronds grow in small flushes. The deep red-brown to deep brown black stipes are moderately to densely covered in deep brown–black lanceolate, entire scales especially near the base.

The sori are continuous around the margins of the pinnules and become confluent at either end. The lamina is linear-lanceolate or ovate, glabrous or sparse to moderately covered in whiteish hirsute hairs. The ultimate segments are sessile or very shortly stalked and measure 2mm to 8mm in length by 1m to 3mm in width. The concolourous laminas are deep grass-green and have incised margins that inroll under the slightest stress.

The sori usually remaining discrete, rarely confluent, with the spherical, verrucose, spores with varying amounts of globular, branched or reticulate deposits. The spores are black or deep brown.

Wildlife:

Cheilanthes sieberi wildlife is unknown to the author.

Cultivation:

Cheilanthes sieberi are very hardy fern for courtyards, around swimming pools or in the garden where moist to dry bright conditions prevail. Cheilanthes sieberi are excellent for around small frog ponds, small moist rockeries, small fish ponds that are exposed to the elements yet still give a tropical feel. If used correctly Cheilanthes sieberi can make small areas look much larger. Some cleaning of spent fronds on an annual basis is necessary and a little moisture is required to keep it at its best. It is drought tolerant so the occasional lapse in watering will see the fronds turn black and shrivel but recover as soon as soil moisture is returned with new fronds following shortly afterwards. If it does happen to look dead after a long holiday, during a drought prune all the fronds off to a few centimetres of the rhizome and give them a good soaking. Apply a single strength dose of our recommended organic fertilizer two days later and within two weeks they will reshoot. 

It often reaches its full potential of 250mm to 300mm in just over 1 year.

Where mass plantings are required space the ferns at 100mm apart for a dense forest type ground cover scene or use 500mm to 600mm centers where a barren look is wanted.

Cheilanthes sieberi is not the easiest fern to establish as it is fairly particular on their moisture requirements and sunlight in the early stages. Most people give them too much shade and over water them. My best tip here is to treat them like many of our native daisies for moisture and provide them with strong dappled light. Heavy shade is an absolute certainty which will lead to the ferns death. Its hardiness can be expressed in that it is growing here naturally in the small spaces between our but paved, paving bricks in the dappled shade of Corymbia curtisii and Cupaniopsis anacharioides without any special attention.

Propagation:

Spores:  All ferns that are declared rare, vulnerable or endangered are protected by Federal and State Laws and must not be removed from the wild unless you are a land developer, mining company or main Roads department etc. This includes bulbs, roots, leaves and flowers. No part of any plant can be removed from Federal, State or Local Government land without the prior permission of the authority and this includes the spore.

Most people are put off at the thought of growing ferns from spore. Like all plants that produce their offspring from seed or spore the methods are basically the same. Remember nature has been doing this for millions of years and has been very successful. I have had excellent results growing over 200 different species of Australian ferns so don’t be afraid. Give it a go.

Step 1. Select spore from the fern fronds. Wait until the fern is just starting to release its spore. Rinse the fronds under clean running water and dry. This is to wash off any other spores from rogue ferns that may have settled onto the fronds. (There is nothing worse than having common brake or common soft bracken contaminating a prized tree fern or epiphyte.)

 Step 2. Place the dry fronds in a clean brown paper bag and keep them in a cool dark place like the linen closet for about a week to ten days before you are ready to sow the spore. The exception to this rule applies to ferns, which produce green spores. These must be sown immediately that they are released. Todea Barbara is a good example of a fern, which produces green spore.

 Step 3. Take a large ice cream container, a small ice cream container and a clean clear plastic bag large enough to seal the large ice cream container and three or four milk bottle tops.

 Step 4. Punch or drill 6 to 10 5mm holes in the bottom of the small ice cream container.

 Step 5. Wash both containers, tops and plastic bag so that they are very clean and sterile.

 Step 6. Use a clean fine seed raising mi. We used 30% fine sand, 30% peat and 30% perlite and 10% vermiculite. We used crushed basalt, crusher dust and peat in a 50:50 ratio for epiphytes. Moisten the mix enough that water does not run out when the mix is squeezed between the fingers.

 Step 7. Place the moisten mix (Enough to half fill the small ice cream container) in the microwave oven with a large glass of water for 7 or 8 minutes, until the water is boiling. Allow them to cool in the oven. You will need the water later so do not tip it out.

 Step 8. Take the brown paper bag out of the linen closet. Shake the bag and remove the fronds. You should have a yellow, brown, black or rarely greenish brown or ochre powder or very fine, small round pin head size spore depending on the specie involved.

 Step 9. Remove the mixture from the oven once it has cooled and place it in the small ice cream container and level.

 Step 10. Sprinkle the spore sparsely over the mixture in the small ice cream container.

 Step 11. Place the milk bottle tops in the large ice cream container with the flat surface facing down. Place the small ice cream container in the large ice cream container so that it is sitting on the milk bottle tops.

 Step 12. Remove the water from the microwave and pour it into the larger ice cream container so there is 25mm to 30mm of water in the bottom.

 Step 13. Place the ice cream containers in the plastic bag and seal.

 Step 14. Place the contents and bag in a warm shady place preferably 50% to 70% shade depending on the specie. Shade houses and some window sills are ideal.

 Step 15. The surface should turn green within a week to two weeks. The prothallus will then develop. From the prthalus the first true fronds will appear. Wait until the ferns are 20mm to 35mm in height before you attempt to transplant them. Once they are ready open the bag up slightly and allow the air to flow around the little ferns. Every 3 to 5 days open the bag a little further so the ferns get use to their new environment. Allow them a week to two weeks to harden off before you transplant them following the removal of the plastic bag. Carefully prick them out into 50mm standard squat tubes as you would any seedling.

Do not try to transplant them as single plants as they are still a little delicate still.

Once the smaller ones again reach 50mm to 70mm you may wish to divide the stronger and hardier individual plants into smaller clumps in 100mm squat pots.

Step 16. Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health and vitality.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Chiloglottis diphylla

Classification:

Class: Monocots

Order: Asparagales

Family: Orcidaceae

Subfamily: Orchidoideae

Tribe: Diurideae

Sub Tribe: Drakaneinae

Genus: From Kheîlos, which is Ancient Greek for a lip and glottis, which is Ancient Greek for a small tongue. It refers to the tongue like labellum which have a lip.

Specie: From Di/Dis, which are Ancient Greek for two and phúllon, which is Ancient Greek for a leaf or leaves. It refers to leaves or phyllodes, which are twice as broad as the other subspecies.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Chiloglottis diphylla is found south from Fraser Island in coastal southern Queensland to Macquarie Pass in central coastal New South Wales. There are several disjunct populations further south at Bateman’s Bay and Genoa in north eastern Victoria. Further north it is found in Carnarvon Gorge National Park, Expedition National Park and the Blackdown Tablelands National Park. It is mainly found on and east of the Great Dividing Range.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Chiloglottis+diphylla+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Chiloglottis diphylla prefers medium shade to dappled light. It grows in moist schlerophyll forests on the ranges. The altitude ranges from 10 meters ASL to 900 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 2 degrees in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 400mm to 1700mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Chiloglottis diphylla prefers better quality sandy loams to light gritty or stony clays. The soils are usually derived from decomposed sandstone or granite or at times alluviums on bends of creeks and streams and metasandstones and metamorphic rocks. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to 6.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.1m to 0.2m by 0.05m to 0.1 when in flower.

Characteristics:

Chiloglottis diphylla canform small colonies on the forest floor. The few, off white to pale grey roots are long, thick with a single spherical to ovate tuber in the upper layer of mulch and top soil. The tuber is probably associated with a symbiotic Mycorrhizal relationship between the orchid and a certain bacteria.

The 2 obovate, divaricate, procumbent leaves of Chiloglottis diphylla measure 30mm to 55mm in length by 10mm to 18mm in width. The clasping petiole measures 2mm to 16mm in length. The bases are cuneate or truncate while the apexes are broad acute, broad acuminate or rarely obtuse. The discolourous laminas are deep green, dull and glabrous on the upper laminas while the lower laminas are paler. The laminas recurve slightly upwards from the midvein to the margins. The margins are entire. The midrib is prominent on the lower lamina and is distinctly visible as a shallow furrow on the upper lamina.

The inflorescences of Chiloglottis diphylla are a single flower spike. The single flower is born on a long, slender, erect spike which measures 70mm to 120mmin length. The pastel olive–green to pink sheath often has a reddish tinge and has a narrow acute apex. The sheaths measures 28mm to 40mm in length.

The long, linear lateral sepals are mid olive-green with a deep maroon tinge especially on the basal half. The lateral sepals are divaricate to the ovary on the basal half while the apex half is strongly decurve to 90 degrees. The lateral sepals measure 15mm to 22mm in length by 0.5mm to 1.5mm in width near the base. The osmophoric apex is yellow to olive–yellow and measures 7mm to 10mm in length. The margins are entire.

The dorsal sepal is mid olive-green with a purplish-bronze to deep maroon tinge. The linear-spathulate dorsal sepal measures 12mm to 14mm in length by 2mm to 2.5mm in width. The osmophoric apex is yellow to olive–yellow and measures 3mm to 4mm in length. The margins are entire.

The lateral petals are mid olive-green with a deep maroon tinge especially on the basal half. The narrow elliptical to narrow oblong, divaricate lateral petals measure 7mm to 9mm in length by 2mm to 2.4mm in width. The margins are entire.

The rhomboidal labellum is mid grass-green to mid greenish-brown with a deep maroon to burgundy callus. The labellum measures 7mm to 12mm length by 4mm to 6mm in width. The anterior margins are recurved while the black insectifera callus occupies most of the upper surface. The margins are entire and slightly crisped. The flowers appear from February to May.

The hood is mid olive-green with a deep maroon tinge especially on the basal half with pale yellow margins. The linear broad spathulate hood decurve 180 degrees to cover the labellum and measures 7mm to 8mm in length by 3.5mm to 4.5mm in width across the spathe.

The fruits of Chiloglottis diphylla are unknown to the author.

Wildlife:

Chiloglottis diphylla is the host to numerous small wasps when in flower.

Cultivation:

Chiloglottis diphylla is a beautiful yet very difficult orchid to succeed with in cultivation. If you are lucky enough to have them in your bush garden, it is a good idea to leave them where they are and proceed to plan the garden around them. It is possible to grow it in the garden provided they are left undisturbed. It prefers and flourishes in periods when the summers are drier and the winters are wet. Allow the orchids to grow naturally where it is a matter of letting them do their own thing and for you to supply a constant supply of natural local mulch to feed the mycorrhizal to which they have a symbiotic relationship with.

Propagation:

Seeds: All orchids are protected by Federal and State Laws and must not be removed from the wild unless you are a land developer, mining company or main Roads department etc. This includes bulbs, roots, leaves and flowers. No part of any plant can be removed from Federal, State or Local Government land without the prior permission of the authority and this includes the spore.

Chiloglottis diphylla is unknown in cultivation and its production remains a secret.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Chiloglottis sylvestris

Classification:

Class: Monocots

Order: Asparagales

Family: Orcidaceae

Subfamily: Orchidoideae

Tribe: Diurideae

Sub Tribe: Drakaneinae

Genus: From Kheîlos, which is Ancient Greek for a lip and glottis, which is Ancient Greek for a small tongue. It refers to the tongue like labellum which have a lip.

Specie: From Sylvāticum, which is Latin for a forest. It refers to growing in, on or beneath trees in a forest.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Chiloglottis sylvestris is found south from Fraser Island in coastal central Queensland to the Bega Valley in southern coastal New South Wales. It is mainly found on and east of the Great Dividing Range. There is an isolated population near Narromine in central New South Wales and 2 in Queensland in the Bulloo district and on the tip of Cape York Peninsular. There are several disjunct populations in Queensland which include one west of MacKay, Port Curtis, Banana and Carnarvon National Park.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Chiloglottis+sylvestris+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Chiloglottis sylvestris prefers medium shade to dappled light. It is found growing in moist schlerophyll forests on the ranges usually close to creeks and streams. The altitude ranges from 50 meters ASL to 1400 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 2 degrees in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 400mm to 3000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Chiloglottis sylvestris prefer better quality sandy loams to light gritty or stony clays. The soils are usually derived from decomposed sandstone or granite or at times alluviums on bends of creeks and streams and metasandstones and metamorphic rocks. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to 6.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.1m to 0.2m by 0.05m to 0.1 when in flower.

Characteristics:

Chiloglottis sylvestris canform small colonies on the forest floor. The few, off white to pale grey roots are long, thick with a single spherical to ovate tuber in the upper layer of mulch and top soil. The tuber is probably associated with a symbiotic Mycorrhizal relationship between the orchid and a certain bacteria.

The 2 obovate, divaricate, procumbent leaves of Chiloglottis diphyllameasure 30mm to 55mm in length by 10mm to 18mm in width. The clasping petiole measures 2mm to 16mm in length. The bases are cuneate or truncate while the apexes are broad acute, broad acuminate or rarely obtuse. The discolourous laminas are deep green, dull and glabrous on the upper laminas while the lower laminas are paler. The laminas recurve slightly upwards from the midvein to the margins. The margins are entire. The midrib is prominent on the lower lamina and is distinctly visible as a shallow furrow on the upper lamina.

The inflorescences of Chiloglottis sylvestrisare a single flower spike. The single flower measures 20mm to 26mm in length and is born on a long, slender, erect spike which measures 60mm to 90mmin length.

The long, narrow oblong to oblong-linear lateral sepals are mid pale green to pale greenish-pink or deep maroon turning yellow towards the apexes. The lateral sepals are divaricate to the ovary on the basal half while the apex half is strongly decurve to 90 degrees. The lateral sepals measure 10mm to 14mm in length by 2mm to 2.5mm in width near the base. The osmophoric apex measures 2mm to 3mm in length. The margins are entire.

The dorsal sepal is mid pale green to pale greenish-pink or deep maroon. The linear to narrow spathulate dorsal sepal measures 10mm to 13mm in length by 2mm to 3mm in width. The osmophoric apex section measures 2mm to 3mm in length. The margins are entire.

The lateral petals are mid pale green to pale greenish-pink or maroon. The lanceolate divaricate lateral petals are decurve on the apical half and measure 7mm to 10mm in length by 2mm to 2.4mm in width. The margins are entire.

The rhomboidal labellum is mid grass-green to mid greenish-brown with a deep maroon to burgundy callus. The labellum measures 7mm to 10mm length by 5mm to 6mm in width. The anterior margins are recurved while the deep green or deep maroon-burgundy insectifera callus occupies the basal half to two thirds. The margins are entire and widely sinuate. The flowers appear from December to May.

The hood is mid pale green to pale greenish-pink or pastel green spotted maroon. The linear broad spathulate hood decurve 180 degrees to cover the labellum and measures 8mm to 11mm in length by 2.3mm to 3.5mm in width across the spathe.

The fruits of Chiloglottis sylvestris are unknown to the author.

Wildlife:

Chiloglottis sylvestris is the host to numerous small flies when in flower.

Cultivation:

Chiloglottis sylvestris is a beautiful yet very difficult orchid to succeed with in cultivation. If you are lucky enough to have them in your bush garden, it is a good idea to leave them where they are and proceed to plan the garden around them. It is possible to grow it in the garden provided they are left undisturbed. They prefer and flourish in periods when the summers are drier and the winters are wet. Allow the orchids to grow naturally where it is a matter of letting them do their own thing and for you to supply a constant supply of natural local mulch to feed the mycorrhizal to which they have a symbiotic relationship with.

Propagation:

Seeds:

All orchids are protected by Federal and State Laws and must not be removed from the wild unless you are a land developer, mining company or main Roads department etc. This includes bulbs, roots, leaves and flowers. No part of any plant can be removed from Federal, State or Local Government land without the prior permission of the authority and this includes the spore.

Chiloglottis sylvestris is unknown in cultivation and its production remains a secret.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Chiloglottis trilabra

Classification:

Class: Monocots

Order: Asparagales

Family: Orcidaceae

Subfamily: Orchidoideae

Tribe: Diurideae

Sub Tribe: Drakaneinae

Genus: From Kheîlos, which is Ancient Greek for a lip and glottis, which is Ancient Greek for a small tongue. It refers to the tongue like labellum which have a lip.

Specie: From Treîs/Tría, which are Ancient Greek or Tri, which is Latin for three and Labrum, which is Latin for to hang down or a lip. It refers to labellum on orchids which have three lobes.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Chiloglottis trilabra is found south of Point Lookout in the southern MacPherson Ranges National Park in far south eastern Queensland to Briagolong in south eastern Victoria and in a disjunct population at Enfield State Forest in Victoria and Cudgeway, Burrora National Park in central New South Wales.

In Tasmania it is found in the Ben Lomond region and Hurst Point. It is mainly found the coastal side of the Great Dividing Range at lower altitudes.

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Aspect / Climate:

Chiloglottis trilabra prefers light shade to dappled light. It is found growing in moist schlerophyll forests where copious quantities of leaf litter are found. It is found from 60 meters ASL to 1150 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 600mm to 1700mm average per annum.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Chiloglottis+triabra+#tab_mapView

Soil Requirements:

Chiloglottis trilabra prefers fertile grey, red to brown sandy loams to light fatty clays. The soils are usually derived from decomposed sandstone or granites or at times alluviums along creeks and streams. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to 6.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.25m to 0.3m by 0.02m to 0.03 when in flower.

Characteristics:

Chiloglottis trilabra can form small colonies on the forest floor. The few, off white to pale grey roots are long, thick with a single spherical to ovate tuber in the upper layer of mulch and top soil. The tuber is probably associated with a symbiotic Mycorrhizal relationship between the orchid and a certain bacteria.

The 2 obovate, divaricate, procumbent leaves of Chiloglottis trilabra measure 30mm to 60mm in length by 16mm to 24mm in width. The clasping petiole measures 2mm to 16mm in length. The bases are cuneate or truncate while the apexes are broad acute, broad acuminate or rarely obtuse. The discolourous laminas are deep green, dull and glabrous on the upper laminas while the lower laminas are paler. The laminas recurve slightly upwards from the midvein to the margins. The margins are entire. The midrib is prominent on the lower lamina and is distinctly visible as a shallow furrow on the upper lamina.

The inflorescences of Chiloglottis trilabraare a single flower spike. The single flower measures 30mm to 34mm in length and is born on a long, slender, erect spike which measures 50mm to 75mmin length.

The long, narrow linear lateral sepals are deep maroon-green to deep maroon. The lateral sepals are divaricate to the ovary on the basal half while the apex half is strongly decurve to 90 degrees. The lateral sepals measure 13mm to 18mm in length by 0.7mm to 1mm in width near the base. The osmophoric apex measures 3mm to 7mm in length and are deeper in colour. The margins are entire.

The dorsal sepal is deep maroon-green to deep maroon internally and deeper in colour externally. The linear to narrow spathulate dorsal sepal has an elongated apex and measures 13mm to 16mm in length by 2mm to 2.5mm in width on the basal section 3.5mm to 4mm in width across the spathe. The osmophoric apex section measures 1mm to 3mm in length. The margins are entire.

The lateral petals are deep maroon-green to deep maroon. The oblong lateral petals decurve from the base and measure 9mm to 12mm in length by 3mm to 3.5mm in width. The margins are entire.

The rhomboidal-deltoid labellum is mid lime-green with a maroon to burgundy sheen along the margins internally with a much intense maroon to burgundy sheen externally. The labellum measures 7mm to 11mm length by 5mm to 7mm in width. The anterior margins are pleated while the deep green or deep maroon-burgundy clavate insectifera callus occupies the basal half then tapers to the apex. The margins are entire. The flowers appear from December to May.

The hood is mid lime-green with a maroon to burgundy sheen along the margins internally with a much intense maroon to burgundy sheen externally. The linear to oblong slightly spathulate apex hood decurve about 130 degrees to partially cover the labellum and measures 9mm to 12mm in length by 3.5mm to 4mm in width across the spathe.

The fruits of Chiloglottis trilabra are unknown to the author.

Wildlife:

Chiloglottis trilabra is the host to numerous small flies when in flower.

Cultivation:

Chiloglottis trilabra is a beautiful yet very difficult orchid to succeed with in cultivation. If you are lucky enough to have them in your bush garden, it is a good idea to leave them where they are and proceed to plan the garden around them. It is possible to grow it in the garden provided they are left undisturbed. They prefer and flourish in periods when the summers are drier and the winters are wet. Allow the orchids to grow naturally where it is a matter of letting them do their own thing and for you to supply a constant supply of natural local mulch to feed the mycorrhizal to which they have a symbiotic relationship with.

Propagation:

Seeds:

All orchids are protected by Federal and State Laws and must not be removed from the wild unless you are a land developer, mining company or main Roads department etc. This includes bulbs, roots, leaves and flowers. No part of any plant can be removed from Federal, State or Local Government land without the prior permission of the authority and this includes the spore.

Chiloglottis trilabra is unknown in cultivation and its production remains a secret.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Chloanthes parviflora

Classification:

Unranked: Tracheobionta

Unranked: Magnoliophyta

Class: Equisetopsida

Subclass: Magnoliidae

Order: Laminales

Family: Lamiaceae

Subfamily: Prostantheroideae

Tribe: Cloantheae

Genus: From Khlóē, which is Ancient Greek for (young) green shoots – a grass and ántha/ánthos, which are Ancient Greek for the male reproductive organ of a flower or the flower. It refers to flowers, which have hairs within the corolla, which resemble a field of grass beyond or surrounding the anthers.

Specie: From Paûros, which is Ancient Greek or Parvum which is Latin for small and Flōris which is Latin for a flower or Flōs from the Roman goddess of spring and flowers. It refers to flowers, which are smaller when compared to other species in the genus.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Chloanthes parviflora is widespread along the coast on the eastern side of the Great Dividing Range south from Cooktown in far north Queensland to the New South Wales, Victoria border. It is found from the coast to the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range and along the head waters of the Dawson River, Mary River, the Suttor River, Fitzroy River and the Warrego River catchment areas in central Queensland.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Chloanthes+parviflora+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Chloanthes parviflora prefer partial shade to light dappled shade. It grows in schlerophyll forest, open woodland, coastal and montane heaths and at times adjacent to littoral rainforest in heaths. The latitude ranges from 10 meters ASL to 750 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 4 degree in August to 40 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 300mm to an average of 2800mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Chloanthes parviflora prefers to grow on most types of course sand, fine sands or sandy loams. The soils are derived from decomposed sandstone, granite or accumulated peaty beach sands. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to a 6pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils though the soils are usually always moist from capillary action from high water tables or depressions. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.3m to 0.9m by 0.4m to 0.6m.

Characteristics:

Chloanthes parviflora is a perennial sub shrub with trailing, red-brown to purple-grey stems. The stems are densely covered in long, white villous hairs. The new growth and juvenile stems are blue-green and densely covered in long, white villous hairs.

Chloanthes parviflora’s leaves are clustered in whirls of 3 or usually 4.The linear leaves measure 10mm to 40mm in length by 2mm to 5mm in width. The bases are slightly tapering while the apexes are obtuse. The discolourous laminas are pale green to pale blue-green, wrinkled-bullate, glabrous and sparsely covered in long, white pilose hairs on the upper lamina while the lower lamina is silvery and densely covered in short white, villous hairs. The margins are bullate and strongly revolute.

The inflorescence of Chloanthes parvifloraare born singularly from the leaf axils. The pedicles are densely covered in short white, villous or pulverulent branched hairs and measure 1mm to 2mm in length.

The 5 pale green to pale blue-green calyx lobes are linear with the margins becoming revolute towards the apexes. The calyxes and lobes are densely covered in white, villous or pulverulent branched hairs. The calyxes and lobes measure 8mm to 15mm in length. The pale blue-lavender to lavender or mauve corollas are campanulate and covered in purple oblong spots. The corollas measure, 15mm to 30mm in length by 13mm to 25mm in breadth and 6mm to 11mm in height near the opening of the corolla. The corollas are covered in white pulverulent hairs externally and are glabrous internally except for a dense ring surrounding the ovary and long white villous hairs near the mouth near the lower lobe. The upper 2 lobes are semi erect while the lower 3 lobes slightly spreading. The lobes are covered in white pulverulent hairs externally and internally. The lobes are broad elliptical to orbicular. The lower lobe is the largest and measures 6mm to 12mm in length.

The inserted white dimorphic filaments are placed irregularly near the base of the corolla with 2 near the opening of the corolla between the upper pair and lateral pair of lobes. The filaments measure 1mm to 4mm in length. The anthers are oblong rusty-red to orange-red.

The white to mauve, inserted or exserted styles measure 10mm to 32mm in length. The style tapers to the stigma. The flowers appear throughout the year with a peak from October to April.

Chloanthes parviflora fruits are ovoidal mericarps that do not split into separate nutlets. The green mericarps are glabrous and turn grey when ripe.

Wildlife:

Chloanthes parviflora wildlife is unknown to the author though its fertilization appears to be larger bees or pollen flies with the setup of the style and anthers forcing the insects to go deep into the corolla.

Cultivation:

Chloanthes parviflora is a delicate looking small sub shrub for ground covers near swimming pools, beside driveways or between car tracks and rockeries. They are suitable for small to large gardens. Garden subjects need substantial amounts of sunlight though they will look their best in indirect sunlight, on good loams to medium clays or skeletal soils on well drained slopes. They grow from 0.4 meters to 0.6 meters by 0.5 meters to 0.7 meters in diameter when grown in the open.

Chloanthes parviflora make outstanding contribution to a drier open heath gardens or open woodland scenes. The plants do not like to be crowed in. When you design a flat heath garden which Chloanthes parviflora is well suited don’t use contours to display the plants as heath lands are almost always flat or have a slight rise. Make the path narrow so you have to feel the plants brush against your legs as you walk through the garden bed. This gives an extra dimension which many people forget about when designing heath gardens. Plants must be planted close together and be short so you can see over the tallest ones with the exception of one or two plants at the most. These will be feature plants. The idea is to achieve a feeling of expansive flatness. This can be achieved with using the Chloanthes parviflora’s bright green linear leaves and having them contrasting with finer pale green or soft grey to glaucous coloured foliage. Leave room for Chloanthes parviflora to attain its full size without touching adjacent plants. Use a lot of procumbent plants like Melaleuca pearsonii. Mix them with other smaller shrubs so none of them dominate the scene but blend in to give a mosaic of foliage colours that you oversee.

Mass plantings can be achieved by planting them at 0.4 meters to 0.8 meters. They are an extraordinarily beautiful plant when mass planted whether it is in a heath scene or beneath scattered woodlands where plenty of sunlight reaches the floor of the woodland. In woodland scenes scatter plantings of 3 or 5 in a group also make for an interesting feature especially if a variety of different genera are used in the same manner. Leschenaultia formosum, Hibertia linariifoliaBulbine bulbosa, even the little fern Cheilanthes sieberi sub sp. sieberi can add great variety or small compact shrubs like Acacia brownie.

They should be treated as a perennial and replanted from seedlings every 2 or 3 years as they have a tendency to become woody after the second year. Tip pruning will enhance their bushiness and character.

Propagation:

Seeds: Chloanthes parviflora are easy to grow from fresh seeds though the seeds can be a problem to collect. The seeds can be sown directly into trays using a fine porous mix. Place the trays in a warm position under 30% shade and keep moist not wet. Seeds usually germinate in 10 to 30 days.

When the seedlings reach the three to four leaf stages, prick them out and plant them into 75mm native tubes using a good organic mix.

Once the seedlings reach 100mm to 140mm in height nip the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Cuttings: Cuttings have not been tried in the nursery industry however the Townsville SCAP states it has grown it from cuttings.

I am treating it here as a semi hardwood perennial.

Use 70mm to 100mm long hardened growth for cuttings. Take the cuttings from late September to early April or later if you are in a frost free area

1 Prepare the cutting mix by adding one third sharp clean river sand, one third peat and one third perlite. These ingredients are sterilize and fill 25mm tubes with the mix,

2 Select good material from non diseased plants,

3 Remove the cuttings when the stems are firm and the leaves of mature size. Remove the old dead leaves from the basal section being careful not to tear the bark. Take a 10mm slice off the bark from the base of the cutting on one side.

4 Some plants root easily, but a rooting hormone can help others by stimulating the cutting into sending out new roots. Fill a saucer with water, and place some mild rooting hormone into another container like a bottle top. Dip the node end of the cutting into the water and then into the rooting hormone. Tap off any excess hormone,

5 Use a small dipple stick or old pencil to poke a hole into the soilless potting mix. Ensure the hole is slightly larger than the stem diameter and be careful not to wipe the rooting hormone off the cuttings base,

6 I like to place the pots in Plastic bags to help maintain temperature and moisture. Place in a semi shaded place like under 50% shade cloth.

7 When the cuttings have struck, open the bag to allow air circulation for a few days to a week,

8 Once hardened off remove the cuttings from the bag and allow to further hardening for a few more days,

9 Transplant into 150mm pots and a good potting mix for growing on.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Chloanthes stoechadis

Classification:

Unranked: Tracheobionta

Class: Equisetopsida

Subclass: Magnoliidae

Order: Laminales

Family: Lamiaceae

Subfamily: Prostantheroideae

Tribe: Cloantheae

Genus: From Khlóē, which is Ancient Greek for (young) green shoots – a grass and ántha/ánthos, which are Ancient Greek for the male reproductive organ of a flower or the flower. It refers to flowers, which have hairs within the corolla, which resemble a field of grass beyond or surrounding the anthers.

Specie: From Stoikhás, which is Ancient Greek for lined up in little rows one behind the other. It refers to the flowers on the spikes, which are lined up in a row.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Chloanthes stoechadis is found in 3 disjunct populations mainly on or east of the Great Dividing Range south from The Pinnacles Floral Reserve and Yuragir National Park in northern New South Wales south to Bega in southern New South Wales. There are 2 populations in coastal Queensland one on the Sunshine Coast and the second on Hinchenbrook Island.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Chloanthes+stoechadis+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Chloanthes stoechadis prefer full sun to light dappled shade. It grows on coastal back dunes, sandy headlands and montane heaths or open woodlands. The altitude ranges from 10 meters ASL to 750 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 1 degree in August to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 800mm to an average of 3200mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Chloanthes stoechadis prefers to grow on coarse sands, fine sands, peaty sandy loams, light fatty clays to rocky light clays. The soils are usually derived from decomposed sandstone, accumulated peaty sands, alluvial sands and skeletal sands. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to a 7pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated as are salt laden winds.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.3m to 0.9m by 0.4m to 0.6m.

Characteristics:

Chloanthes stoechadis is a perennial sub shrub with trailing, red-brown to purple-grey stems. The stems are densely covered in long, white villous hairs. The new growth and juvenile stems are blue-green and densely covered in long, white villous hairs.

Chloanthes stoechadis’s subterete leaves are clustered in whirls of 3 or usually 4.The linear leaves measure 5mm to 50mm in length by 2mm to 5mm in width. The bases are slightly tapering while the apexes are acute to obtuse. The discolourous laminas are pale green to pale blue-green, wrinkled-bullate, glabrous to sparsely covered in long, white pilose hairs on the upper lamina while the lower lamina is silvery and densely covered in short white, villous hairs. The margins are bullate and strongly revolute.

The inflorescences of Chloanthes stoechadis are born singularly from the leaf axils. The pedicles are densely covered in white, pulverulent hairs and measure 1mm to 4mm in length.

The 5 pale green to pale blue-green calyx lobes are narrow-ovate to linear-oblong while the margins are recurved to revolute. The calyxes and lobes are bullate, covered in white, pulverulent hairs. The calyxes and lobes measure 8mm to 17mm in length. The white or pale mauve corollas are long and campanulate. The corollas measure, 20mm to 45mm in length by 6.5mm to 14mm in diameter near the opening of the corolla. The corollas are covered in short white pulverulent hairs externally and are glabrous internally except for a dense ring of long white villous hairs just above the ovary near the mouth near the lower lobe.

The upper 2 lobes and lateral lobes are elliptical, divaricate with an acute-obtuse apex while the lower lobe is oblong, much longer, has an acute-obtuse apex and is more reflexed than the upper lobes. All the lobes are covered in short white pulverulent hairs externally and are glabrous internally. The lower lobe measures 6mm to 13mm in length by 3.5mm to 8mm in width near the base.

The 5 slightly exserted white filaments have deep grey-brown oblong anthers.

The white to pale mauve, slightly exserted styles measure 18mm to 45mm in length. The style tapers to the stigma. The flowers appear throughout the year with a peak from October to April.

Chloanthes parviflora fruits are orbicular mericarps. The mericarps splits into 2 hemispherical nutlets. The green mericarps are glabrous and turn grey when ripe.

Wildlife:

Chloanthes stoechadis wildlife is unknown to the author though its fertilization appears to be larger bees or pollen flies with the setup of the style and anthers forcing the insects to go deep into the corolla.

Cultivation:

Chloanthes stoechadis is a fragile looking small shrub suitable for around swimming pools, beside driveways and rockeries in small to large gardens. Garden subjects need substantial amounts of sunlight though they will look their best in indirect sunlight, on good loams to medium clays or skeletal soils on well drained slopes. They grow from 0.4 meters to 0.6 meters by 0.5 meters to 0.7 meters in diameter when grown in the open.

Chloanthes stoechadis make outstanding contribution to a drier open heath gardens or open woodland scenes. The plants do not like to be crowed in. When you design a flat heath garden which Chloanthes parviflora is well suited don’t use contours to display the plants as heath lands are almost always flat or have a slight rise. Make the path narrow so you have to feel the plants brush against your legs as you walk through the garden bed. This gives an extra dimension which many people forget about when designing heath gardens. Plants must be planted close together and be short so you can see over the tallest ones with the exception of one or two plants at the most. These will be feature plants. The idea is to achieve a feeling of expansive flatness. This can be achieved with using the Chloanthes stoechadis’s bright green linear leaves and having them contrasting with finer pale green or soft grey to glaucous coloured foliage. Leave room for Chloanthes parviflorato attain its full size without touching adjacent plants. Use a lot of procumbent plants like Melaleuca pearsonii. Mix them with other smaller shrubs so none of them dominate the scene but blend in to give a mosaic of foliage colours that you oversee.

Mass plantings can be achieved by planting them at 0.4 meters to 0.8 meters. They are an extraordinarily beautiful plant when mass planted whether it is in a heath scene or beneath scattered woodlands where plenty of sunlight reaches the floor of the woodland. In woodland scenes scatter plantings of 3 or 5 in a group also make for an interesting feature especially if a variety of different genera are used in the same manner. Leschenaultia formosa, Hibertia linariifolia, Bulbine bulbosa, even the little fern Chloanthes stoechadis can add great variety or small compact shrubs like Acacia brownie.

They should be treated as a perennial and replanted from seedlings every 2 or 3 years as they have a tendency to become woody after the second year. Tip pruning will enhance their bushiness and character.

Propagation:

Seeds: Chloanthes stoechadis is easy to grow from fresh seeds though the seeds can be a problem to collect. The seeds can be sown directly into trays using a fine porous mix. Place the trays in a warm position under 30% shade and keep moist not wet. Seeds usually germinate in 10 to 30 days.

When the seedlings reach the three to four leaf stages, prick them out and plant them into 75mm native tubes using a good organic mix.

Once the seedlings reach 100mm to 140mm in height nip the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Cuttings: Use 70mm to 100mm long semi hardwood cuttings prepared from partially mature wood of the current season’s growth, just after a flush of growth. Take the cuttings from late September to early April or later if you are in a frost free area. Take the cuttings when the wood is reasonably firm and the leaves of mature size. Remove half the leaves from the bottom section being careful not to tear the bark. Take a 10mm slice off the bark from the bottom of the cutting on one side.  Using an appropriate rooting hormone, dip the cutting in then place it in a moist sterile seed raising mix. When the cuttings have obviously struck and have developed good roots treat them as for seedlings.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Chloris ventricosa

Classification:

Unranked: Monocots

Unranked: Commelinids

Order: Poales

Family: Poaceae

Subfamily: Chloridoideae

Genus: From Khloros, which is Ancient Greek for green or yellowish-green. It refers to leaves, which stand out because of their colour.

Specie: From Ventricosus, which is Latin for to be swollen on one side. It refers to the leaves or at times the fruits, which are swollen more on one side than the other.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Plump Windmill Grass.

Distribution:

Chloris ventricosa is widespread on the eastern two thirds of Queensland and New South Wales with disjunct populations extending into northern South Australia and northern Victoria.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Chloris+ventricosa+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Chloris ventricosa prefers dappled shade to full sun. It grows on plains and gentle slopes or riparian zones in open woodlands. The altitude ranges from 2 meters ASL to 850 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in August to 40 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 300mm to 1900mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Chloris ventricosa prefer heavy loams to medium clays. It is most commonly found on poor weathered duplex soils including grey and yellow cluggy podsolics. The soils are derived from decomposed shale, brown basalt, black basalt, laterites, fatty sandstone, mudstone and metamorphic rocks. The soil’s pH ranges 4pH to 5.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils though many of the soils are cluggy clay-loams during the wet season. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:0.6m to 1m by 0.5m to 1m.

Characteristics:

Chloris ventricosa is an erect, tufted perennial grass at times covering large areas. The culms are typically grass green and glabrous or sparsely covered in white pilose hairs. The culms are branched with 3 to 6 nodes. The culms measure 600mm to 1meter.

The linear leaves of Chloris ventricosa are distichous and measure 50mm to 250mm in length by 2mm to 3.5mm in width. The bases are clasping while the apexes are tapering. The concolourous laminas are grass-green to deep grass-green and glabrous or sparsely covered in white pilose hairs. The leaf margins are entire. The sheaths are narrowly triangular, entire scabrous or covered in white pilose hairs. The ligule is a fringed membrane with white ciliate margins that measure 0.4mm to 0.6mm length.

The inflorescences of Chloris ventricosa are digitate scapes with 3 to 5 flexuous branches. The spikelets are densely imbricate and closely arranged in 2 rows along the underside of the branches and are 2or 3 flowered. The branches measure 40mm to 100mm in length.

The lower glumes are lanceolate to ovate, scarious with a single keel which has a single nerve. The lower glumes are glabrous and measure 1.2mm to 2.3mm in length. The upper glumes are lanceolate to ovate, scarious with a single keel which has a single nerve. The upper glumes are glabrous or scabrous and measure 2.5mm to 4.1mm in length.

The fertile lemmas are elliptical to obovate with acute or obtuse apexes. The lemmas are glabrous with a scabrous midvein and occasionally covered in white ciliate hairs on the margins. They measure 2mm to 5.4mm in length.

The primary floret measures 1.2mm to 2.8mm in length. The single awn on the primary floret measures 2mm to 17mm in length. The second floret measures 1mm to 2.6mm in length. The single awn on the second floret measures 1mm to 9mm in length. The third floret when present is smaller than the second floret and does not have an awn.

The 3 anthers are rusty-red to rusty-brown. The flowers appear from late October to early March.

Wildlife:

Chloris ventricosa is eaten by kangaroos and wallabies but does not form a staple part of their diet. I have observed several species of finches feeding on the seeds at Nana Glen and assume that other finches and possibly parrots and doves would also eat the seeds in times of drought when food is scarce. The finches include the Red browed Finch (Aegintha temporalis), the Double Barr Finch (Taeniopygia bichenovii) and the Chest nut breasted Manikin (Lonchura castaneothorax).

Cultivation:

Chloris ventricosa are grasses of the plains and gentle slopes. This grass can only handle light frosts and in frosty locations should be treated as an annual. Apart from being a moderately good fodder crop for grazing animals Chloris ventricosa has no real horticultural merit.

Propagation:

Seeds: Collecting the seeds of Chloris ventricosa is easy and the growing is just as easy from fresh seeds. The seeds can be sown directly into trays using a fine porous mix. Place the trays in a warm position under 30% shade and keep moist not wet. Seeds usually germinate in 10 to 30 days.

When the seedlings reach the three to four leaf stages, prick them out and plant them into 75mm native tubes using a good organic mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height nip the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position.

Where mass plantings of Chloris ventricosa are required, as a feature tree plant them at 8 meter to 20 meter centers or where dense hedges are required plant them at 6 meter to 8 meter centers. As hedges and screens go they will need regular pruning to maintain the multi stems or they may try to send a leading stem out.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the flower buds appear.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Chorizandra cymbaria

Classification:

Unranked: Monocots

Unranked: Commelinids

Order: Poales

Family: Cyperaceae

Genus: From Khoriso, which is Ancient Greek for to separate and Andros, which is Ancient Greek for a male. It refers to filaments, which are well spaced apart.

Specie: Maybe from Kúmbalon, which is Ancient Greek or Cymbalum, which is Latin for cymbals. It refers to flower heads which resemble cymbals on the culms.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Chorizandra cymbaria is found south from the Byfield National Park in central coastal Queensland to Shoalhaven in coastal southern New South Wales. There is an isolated population between Nitchaga Creek and Tully in far north Queensland.

In Victoria it is found from Genoa Creek in the far north west of the state to Melbourne and then in the west around the Grampians.

In Tasmania it Cockle Creek Plains in the south east.

In Western Australia it is found from Busselton in the north in a straight line to Peaceful Bay in the south west corner of the state. It is mainly found east of the Great Dividing Range from the coast.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Chorizandra+cymbaria+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Chorizandra cymbaria prefer dappled shade to full sun. It grows in and adjacent to shallow swamps, wallums, marshes and water logged depressions. Its altitude ranges from near sea level to 1300 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in August to 39 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 600mm to 2450mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Chorizandra cymbaria prefer sandy loams to medium clays. The soils are usually derived from decomposed sandstone, gritty shale, granites and metamorphic rocks deposited as alluvial. The soil’s pH ranges 4.5pH to 6pH. It tolerates water logged soils and often grows in the shallows. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:0.6m to 1m by 0.5m to 1m.

Characteristics:

Chorizandra cymbaria is an erect, tufted perennial rush at times covering large areas. The slender but tough rhizomes are orange-brown. The culms apexes are usually minutely verruculose or at times glabrous. The culms are unitubulose, transverse, septa which can be distinctly seen without having to slice the culm open. They are often pluritubulose near base. The terete culms are deep green to sea-green, glaucous when immature often turning yellow-green when it matures with faint longitudinally striations. The culms measure 500mm to 1000mm in height by 1.3mm to 4mm in diameter.

The linear leaves of Chorizandra cymbaria are rusty-brown to orange–brown. The appressed leaves measure 500mm to 660mm in length by 2mm to 8.5mm in width. The bases are truncate, clasping while the apexes are tapering. The concolourous laminas are grass-green to deep grass-green and glabrous. The leaf margins are entire. The thin, chartaceous, linear sheaths are deep yellow-brown to deep rusty-brown and loosely clasp the culms.  The sheaths measure 150mm to 250mm in length.

The inflorescences of Chorizandra cymbaria are narrow ovoid to ovoidal or rarely globose and are born from a split in the unitubulose culms. The inflorescences measure 11mm to 15mm in length by 5mm to10mm in diameter. There are 10 to 30 glumes in a pseudo spikelet while each glume is surrounded by yellow chartaceous sheaths with fine red dots.

The core is scarcely raised and is oblong to ovate. The involucral bracts measure 60mm to 100mm in length.

The lower glumes are lanceolate to ovate, scarious with a single keel which has a single nerve. The lower glumes are glabrous and measure 1.2mm to 2.3mm in length. The upper glumes are lanceolate to ovate, scarious with a single keel which has a single nerve. The upper glumes are glabrous or scabrous and measure 2.5mm to 4.1mm in length.

The glumes are oblong to spathulate with the lowest few glumes keeled towards apex while the upper glumes are without keels. The apexes are usually obtuse and praemorse.

The 13 to 20 stamens have white filaments and pastel yellow anthers. The filaments measure 2mm to 5mm in length while the anthers measure 1.5mm to 3.7mm in length. The white styles are bifid to quadfid. The flowers appear from September to February

The fruits of Chorizandra cymbaria are reddish-brown ellipsoidal nuts. The nuts have 4 to 8 longitudinal ridges with very faint, irregular and interrupted transverse ridges. The nuts measure 2.7mm to 4mm in length by 1.5mm to 2.7mm in diameter.

Wildlife:

Chorizandra cymbaria is eaten