Plant Descriptions – C – Caelospermum paniculatum – Carissa spinarum

Caelospermum paniculatum
Caesalpinia bonduc
Caesalpinia subtropica
Caesia parviflora subsp. minor

Caesia parviflora subsp. parviflora
Caesia parviflora subsp. vittata
Cajanus pubescens
Caladenia alata
Caladenia carne
Caladenia catenata

Calamus australis
Calamus muelleri
Caladrinia pickeringii
Calanthe triplicata
Caleana major

Caleana minor
Callicarpa brevistyla
Callicarpa pedunculata
Callicoma serratifolia

Callistemon see Melaleuca
Callitriche muelleri
Callitris baileyi
Callitris columellaris
Callitris endlicheri
Callitris glaucophylla

Callitris macleayana
Callitris monticola
Callitris oblonga
Callitris rhomboidea
Calochlaena dubia

Calochilus campestris
Calochilus gracillimus
Calochilus grandiflorus
Calochilus paludosus
Calochilus robertsonii

Calomeria amaranthoides
Calotis cuneifolia
Calotis lappulacea
Calytrix tetragona
Canarium australasicum

Canavalia rosea
Capillipedium parviflorum
Capillipedium spicigerum
Capparis arborea

Cardamine microthrix
Carex appressa

Carex breviculmis
Carex brunnea
Carex declinata
Carex fascicularis
Carex gaudichaudiana
Carex hubbardii
Carex inversa
Carex longebrachiata
Carex maculata
Carex polyantha
Carex pumila

 Carissa spinarum

Caelospermum paniculatum

Classification

Class: Eudicots

Order: Asterids

Family: Verbanaceae

Genus: From káykos, which is Latin for one eyed, almost blind or invisible or Caelātum which is Latin for to engrave, carve or embroidery and Spérma which is Ancient Greek for a seed. It refers to seeds or fruits, which have a distinct looking eye at the apex or appear as though they have been carved out.

Specie: From Panos, which is Ancient Greek or Pānicula, which is Latin for a flower head. It refers to many flowers, which are arranged in a compact head.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Beauty Berry or Native Lantana.

Distribution:

Caelospermum paniculatum is found south from Heathlands Resources Reserve in far north Queensland south to the Clarence River In far north New South Wales.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Caelospermum+paniculatum#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Caelospermum paniculatum prefer dappled shade to full shade. It grows in littoral rainforests, warm sub-tropical and cool tropical rainforests. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 800 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 1 degree in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 800mm to 2400mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Caelospermum paniculatum prefers peaty coarse sands, light gravelly clays to medium clays. The soils are derived from decomposed basalts shale’s alluvial deposits or accumulated peaty beach sands. The soils pH ranges from 5.5pH to 7pH. It does not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 3m to 6m by 2m to 4m.

Characteristics:

Caelospermum paniculatum grows as a dense vine. The mid grey, scabrous or rough bark is sparsely longitudinally furrowed. Juvenile stems and new shoots are deep purple almost black, glabrous and semi glossy.

The opposite leaves of Caelospermum paniculatumare narrow obovate to narrow elliptical and measure 40mm to 170mm in length by 20mm to 80mm in width. The base is narrow cuneate while the apex is acute to acuminate or rarely obtuse. The concolourous laminas are sea-green and glabrous. The laminas are flat to slightly recurve upwards from the mid vein to the margins, are undulating and slightly convex between the lateral veins on the upper laminas. The leaf margins are entire. The mid vein and the reticulate lateral veins are prominent on the lower laminas and faintly visible from the upper laminas. There are 5 to 12 prominent domatia in the axils of the midvein and the lateral veins. The juvenile and new leaves are glossy, glabrous and deep auburn-green. The glabrous petioles measure 5mm to 20mm in length.

The inflorescences of Caelospermum paniculatum are cymous panicles which are born terminally. There are 70 to 140 flowers in a panicle. The Rachises, peduncles, pedunculates and pedicels are glabrous. The rachises measure 70mm to 150mm in length while the peduncles measure 20mm to 35mm in length, the pedunculates measure 8mm to 18mm in length and the pedicels measure 2mm to 4mm in length.

The lime-green to yellow-green copular calyxes have 5 minute, obtuse lobes and measures 3mm to 5mm in length. The white, cream or pale yellow corolla measures 6mm to 11mm in length. The white, cream or pale yellow lobes have an acute apex and measure 7mm to 10mm in length.

The 4 cream or pale yellow filaments measure 3mm to 4mm in length while the linear anthers are tan and measure 3mm to 4mm in length.

The cream or pale yellow, bilobed style and stigma measure 3.5mm to 4.5mm in length. The flowers appear from September to February.

The fruits of Caelospermum paniculatum are variable globular drupes. The drupes measure 9mm to 13mm in length by 13mm to 18mm in diameter. The pale green to lime-green drupes turn deep red, deep purplish-red or black when ripe. The drupes contain a single ovoidal to reniform pyrene which measure 6.5mm to 8mm in length. The single seed in each pyrene measures 5mm to 6mm in length by 3mm in diameter.

Wildlife:

Caelospermum paniculatum is the host to numerous beetles, native flies, midget wasps, butterflies, native bees and pollen flies when in flower and in return attracts many small insectivorous birds.

Cultivation:

Caelospermum paniculatum is a beautiful small bushy creeper. It makes an excellent plant for pool side fences or strip gardens at the edge of a pool as they can be pruned hard or tip pruned to any shape that is desired. It responds well to pruning and pruning is necessary to keep the plants in a bushy state. If they become straggly or drop their leaves due to stress cut them back and apply a double dose of our fertilizer. Repeat the watering and fertilizing again a week later and the plants will recover to their former beauty very quickly. They are ideal for all gardens from the tropics to temperate Australia. Plants in cultivation that are grown in full sun, mulched and have been lightly tip pruned will grow 2 meters to 6 meters in height by 2 meters to 6 meters in diameter and remain quite bushy.

It is best used adjacent to small areas of bush as a ground cover or pruned to form formal shrubby clumps.

It can be used for climbing over small pergolas and other light framed structures as it is fast growing and light.

Propagation:

Seeds: Caelospermum paniculatum seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix after they have been removed from the nut or the nut has been nicked. Cover the nuts or seeds with 5mm of fine sand and water keeping the mix moist not wet. Place the trays in a warm airy position under 30mm shade.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 40mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 100mm to 150mm in height nip the growing tips out and plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved with planting them at 3 to 5 meter centers on a fence or 2 meter centers on a pergola and when used for bushy shrubs.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Cuttings:

Cuttings are best taken in late winter or early spring.

Use 100mm to 150mm cuttings that are from present season’s growth.

1 Prepare the cutting mix by adding one third sharp clean river sand, one third peat and one third perlite. These ingredients are sterilize,

2 Select good material from non diseased plants,

3 Select semi green stems for cuttings. Look for a stem with two or three nodes,

4 Place the cutting on a flat, hard surface, and make a clean slice through the middle of the lower node on an angle towards the base, with a sterilized sharp knife or razor blade. – This scarification of the node will increase the chances of roots emerging from this spot. Now remove all but one or two the leaves, leaving the apex leaves in tact. If the leaves are very large in proportion to the stem, cut off the apical halves.

5 Some plants root easily, but a rooting hormone can help others by stimulating the cutting into sending out new roots. Fill a saucer with water, and place some rooting hormone into another container like a bottle top. Dip the node end of the cutting into the water and then into the rooting hormone. Tap off any excess hormone,

6 Use a small dipple stick or old pencil to poke a hole into the soilless potting mix. Ensure the hole is slightly larger than the stem diameter and be careful not to wipe the rooting hormone off the cuttings base, place the cuttings in a pattern ensuring the cuttings are not touching each other,

7 I like to place the pots in Plastic bags to help maintain temperature and moisture. Place in a semi shaded place like under 50mm shade cloth.

8 When the cuttings have struck, open the bag to allow air circulation for a few days to a week,

9 Once hardened off remove the cuttings from the bag and allow to further hardening for a few more days,

10 Transplant into a good potting mix to grow on.

Further Comments from Readers: My name is Jesse and I’m an Editor at Happy DIY Home. I was doing research on Rare Flowers and just finished reading your wonderful piece: https://bibleofbotany.com/plant-descriptions/plant-descriptions-c/

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Caesalpinia bonduc

Classification

Class: Eudicots

Order: Asterids

Family: Fabacaceae

Genus: Is named in honour of Andrea Cesalpino; 1519-1603, who was a botanist, Phílosopher, physician and a professor of medicine. He used a systematic method of classifying plants or is named in honour of Melchior Guilandino; 1520?-1.. . , who was an Italian herbalist.

Specie:From Bonduk, which is Ancient Greek for a hazelnut. It refers to the fruits which closely resemble grey hazelnuts.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Grey Nicker bean or Yellow Nickers or Nicker nut or Grey Nicker or Wait-a-while.

Distribution:

Caesalpinia bonduc/Guilandina bondoc is a pantropic species which is found south from Cape York Peninsular in coastal far north Queensland south to Seven Mile Beach near Byron Bay with an outlier further south at Hat Head National park in central coastal New South Wales. It is found along the eastern side of the Great Dividing Range.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Caesalpinia+bondoc+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Caesalpinia bonduc prefer dappled shade to full sun. It is found growing on the frontal dunes, back dunes and monsoonal rainforests. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 300 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 1 degree in July to 39 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 1200mm to 3200mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Caesalpinia bonduc prefers course sands, peaty sands and gravelly loams. The soils are derived from accumulated beach sands or alluvial deposits. The soils pH ranges from a 6pH to 8pH. It is not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 3m to 15m by 2m to 5m.

Characteristics:

Caesalpinia bonduc grows as a scrambly sub shrub/climber or strong climber with a few stems. The stems are covered with short decurve prickles. New growth and juvenile stems are bright, pale green and glabrous except for around the numerous prickles which are glabrous or surrounded with golden-brown hirtellous hairs at the base. The prickles measure 1mm to 6mm in length.

The leaves of Caesalpinia bonduc are even tripinnata and measure 200mm to 400mm in length by 200mm to 400mm in width near the base. There are 4 to 11 pairs of pinnae that measure 50mm to 180mm in length. There are 8 to 14 pinnules on each pinna. The usually oblong or broad elliptical to ovate pinnules measure 15mm to 40mm in length by 10mm to 20mm in width. The usually ovate stipules are foliaceous and measure 8mm to 10mm in length by 8mm to 30mm in width.

The rachis is armed with straight and decurve prickles. The underside of the compound leaf’s primary axes and secondary axes are also armed with decurve prickles. The petiolules measure 3mm to 8mm in length.

The bases are rounded while the apexes are acute to obtuse with a macro. The concolourous laminas are mid grass-green to deep grass-green and sparsely to moderately cover in golden to golden-brown hirtellous hairs. The laminas curve upwards from the main vein. The leaf margins are entire. The mid vein is prominent on the lower lamina and is clearly visible from the upper lamina.

Inflorescences of Caesalpinia bonduc are supra-axillary racemes which are often branched and are born up to 20mm above the leaf axil. The racemes are sparsely to moderately cover in golden to golden–brown tortuous or hirtellous hairs and small decurve prickles. The racemes measure 100mm to 120mm in length. The pedicels are covered in golden to golden–brown tortuous or hirtellous hairs and measure 3mm to 12mm in length. The narrow oblong to broad oblong sepals are shorter than petals and measure 6mm to 12mm in length. The calyx and sepals are densely cover in golden to golden–brown tortuous or hirtellous hairs The 5 pale yellow to deep yellow petals measure 10mm to 12mm in length. The 4 lower petals have 9 to 11 prominent vertical veins while the upper petal is slightly to densely covered in scarlet-red horizontal markings.

The staminal filaments are densely cover in white to pale golden hirtellous hairs. The filaments measure 2.5mm to 6mm in length while the fawnish-yellow dorsifixed anthers dehisce longitudinally and measure 1mm to 2.5mm in length.

The 2 ovule, stipitate ovary measures 1mm in length and is densely cover in white to pale golden hirtellous hairs. The flowers appear from early September to late November.

The fruits of Caesalpinia bonduc are oblong-elliptical pods. The green pods turn rusty-brown to deep brown when ripe. The pods are densely cover in long rigid spines and measure 30mm to 85mm in length by 25mm to 40mm in width. The pods contain 1 or 2 rarely 3 large, hard, flat, ovate, pale grey to mid-grey ovoid to globose seeds. The seeds measure 15mm to 29mm in length.

Wildlife:

Caesalpinia bonduc is food plant for the larval stages of the Speckled Line blue Butterfly. Common & Waterhouse (1981).

Cultivation:

Caesalpinia bonduc is a beautiful small bushy subshrub creeper for sub-tropical and tropical gardens away from paths and children. It is fast growing and makes an unusual specimen plant for gardens with sandy soils. Plants in cultivation need to be mulched and have to be lightly tip pruned to ensure a bushy sub shrub.

It is an ideal plant for fence barriers and hedges to keep neighbours annoying cats and dogs at bay. It also provides a safe haven for small birds and native marsupials like the eastern brown antechinus, Antechinus stuartii, which find shelter amongst the prickles.

Propagation:

Seeds: Caesalpinia seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix after treatment. File the outer testa on one side ensuring a wide area is roughened to almost the inner cotyledons. Place one seed into each tube and cover the nut with 5mm to 10mm of fine sand and water. Keep the mix moist not wet. Place the tubes in a warm airy position in full sun to 30mm shade.

When the seedlings have fully developed their first pair of leaves they can be planted out into their permanent position or repot into large native tubes.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Caesalpinia subtropica

Classification

Class: Eudicots

Order: Asterids

Family: Verbanaceae

Genus: Is named in honour of Andrea Cesalpino; 1519-1603, who was a botanist, Phílosopher, physician and a professor of medicine. He used a systematic method of classifying plants.

Specie:From Sub, which is Ancient Greek/Latin for below or lower and Tropḗ, which is Ancient Greek for solstice. It refers to plants, which grow in areas between the tropics and the temperate regions within a country.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Corky Prickly Vine.

Distribution:

Caesalpinia subtropica is found south from the Daintree National Park in coastal far north Queensland south to Glenugie Peak near Grafton in central coastal New South Wales. It is found along the eastern side of the Great Dividing Range in several disjunct populations.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Caesalpinia+subtropica+#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Caesalpinia subtropica prefer dappled shade to heavy shade. It is found growing in and on the edges of warm subtropical rainforests. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 300 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 1 degree in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 900mm to 2000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Caesalpinia subtropica prefers better quality light gravelly clays to medium clays derived from decomposed black basalt. The soils pH ranges from a 5pH to 6pH. It is not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 3m to 6m by 2m to 4m.

Characteristics:

Caesalpinia subtropica grows as a woody climber. The stems are covered with longitudinal flanges of pale fawn to pale grey-brown cork. New growth and juvenile stems and covered in golden-brown pulverulent hairs and scattered prickles. The prickles are mainly at the leaf nodes and measure 1mm to 3mm in length.

The leaves of Caesalpinia subtropicaare even pinnate and measure 50mm to 300mm in length by 80mm to 200mm in width. There are 3 to 8 pairs of pinnae that measure 40mm to 180mm in length. There are 8 to 14 pinnules on each pinna. The obovate to oblong pinnules measure 4mm to 12mm in length by 5mm to 6mm in width. The bases are rounded while the apexes are obtuse. The concolourous laminas are mid grass-green to deep grass-green and glabrous. The laminas are flat. The leaf margins are entire. The mid vein is slightly prominent on the lower laminas. The petiole, rachis and petiolules are covered in golden-brown pulverulent hairs and small prickles. The petioles measure 15mm to 50mm in length while the rachises measures 50mm to 100mm in length and the petiolules measure 0mm to 0.5mm in length.

Inflorescences of Caesalpinia subtropica are racemes born along terminals panicles. The racemes are covered in golden–brown pulverulent hairs and small prickles. The racemes measure 120mm to 200mm in length. The pedicels are covered in golden-brown pulverulent hairs and measure 3mm to 4mm in length.

The pale green sepals are covered in golden-brown pulverulent hairs externally and measures 3.5mm to 5mm in length. The deep yellow, to golden-yellow petals are glabrous and measure 3.5mm to 5mm in length.

The golden yellow filaments are attached to the upper section of the style and measure 4mm to 7mm in length. The bright orange-tan anthers are oblong and measure 1mm to 1.2mm in length.

The yellow pistils measure 6mm to 9mm in length. The flowers appear from September to November.

The fruits of Caesalpinia subtropicaare flat, ovate to rhombic pods. The green drupes turn rusty brown when ripe with prominent venations. The pods measure 20mm to 30mm in length by 10mm to 20mm in width. The pods contain 2 small, flat, ovate, black seeds.

Wildlife:

Caesalpinia subtropica is unknown to the author.

Cultivation:

Caesalpinia subtropica is a beautiful small bushy creeper. It makes an unusual creeper for a rainforest garden where it can be allowed to develop their main stem to full potential. Plants in cultivation need to be mulched and have been lightly tip pruned above 2 meters to ensure a bushy canopy over pergolas and light frames yet still be able to show off its corky stem. It will need to be protected from inquisitive soles, who cannot resist the temptation to break pieces off the stems.

Propagation:

Seeds: Caesalpinia subtropica seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix following placing a nick in the testa of each seed. Cover the nuts or seeds with 5mm to 10mm of the mix with 30mm perlite and water keeping the mix moist not wet. Place the trays in a warm airy position under 30mm shade.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 40mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 100mm to 150mm in height nip the growing tips out and plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved with planting them at 3 to 5 meter centers on a fence or 2 meter centers on a pergola and when used for bushy shrubs.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Caesia parviflora

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Order: Asparagales

Family: Xanthorrhoeaceae

Subfamily: Hemerocallidoideae

Genus: Is named in honour of Frederico Cesi; 1585-1630, who was the first person to realize the importance of spore in fern reproduction.

Specie: From Paûros, which is Ancient Greek or Parvum which is Latin for small and Flōris which is Latin for a flower or Flōs from the Roman goddess of spring and flowers. It refers to flowers, which are smaller when compared to other species in the genus.

Common Name: Pale Grass Lily.

Distribution:

Caesia parviflora var. minor is found south from near Lismore in far north eastern New South Wales to Mount Gambier In south eastern South Australia and the north eastern side of Tasmania.

Caesia parviflora var. occidentalis is found in the south western corner of Western Australia.

Caesia parviflora var. parviflora is found south from the tip of Cape York peninsular to the Queensland New South wales border then is several disjunct populations south south to the eastern half of Tasmania and west to the Grampians in western Victoria and the Grampians in south eastern South Australia.

Caesia parviflora var. vittata is found south from Cape York peninsular in far north Queensland to southern Victoria and west to Alexandrina in Southern South Australia.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Caesia+parviflora#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Caesia parviflora prefers dappled shade to full sun. It is found in moist depressions in grasslands, schlerophyll forests, woodlands and moist heaths. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 800 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 2 degree in July to 40 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 300mm to 1800mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Caesia parviflora prefer grey, red to brown sandy soils to fatty sands.

The soils are derived from decomposed sandstone. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. It does not tolerant water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:

Caesia parviflora var. minor 0.15m to 0.2m by 0.06m to 0.1m.

Caesia parviflora var. minor 0.15m to 0.2m by 0.06m to 0.1m.

Caesia parviflora var. parviflora 0.2m to 0.5m by 0.1m to 0.15m.

Caesia parviflora var. vittata 0.2m to 0.5m by 0.1m to 0.15m.

Characteristics:

Caesia parviflora grows as a tufted herbaceous perennial. The rhizomes are extensively branched forming fleshy to fibrous or narrow tuberous root clusters. The growing points are glabrous.

The leaves of Caesia parviflora var. parviflora are linear and measure 220mm to 500mm in length by 1mm to 5mm in width. The bases are purplish-red or pale grass-green, scarious sheaths while the apex is tapering. The concolourous laminas are mid grass green to mid blue-green and glabrous. The leaf margins are entire.

The leaves of Caesia parviflora var. minor are linear and measure 220mm to 450mm in length by 1mm to 2mm in width. The bases are purplish-red or pale grass-green, scarious sheaths while the apex is tapering. The concolourous laminas are mid grass green to mid blue-green and glabrous. The leaf margins are entire.

The leaves of Caesia parviflora var. vittata are linear and measure 150mm to 200mm in length by 4mm to 8mm in width. The bases are purplish-red or pale grass-green, scarious sheaths while the apex is tapering. The concolourous laminas are mid grass green to mid blue-green and glabrous. The leaf margins are entire.

Inflorescences of Caesia parviflora var. parviflora are racemes with ascending branches. There are 5 to 10 clusters of flowers. Each cluster has 2 to 6 flowers usually 2 or 3.The racemes measure 200mm to 550mm in height. The lower bracts measure 15mm to 20mmin length while the lowest subtended by short subulate bracts and measure 6mm to 10mm in length. The upper bracts are subulate and measure 1.8mm to 15mm in length. The narrow elliptic tepals are white with a yellow-green longitudinal veins or lilac to purple with purple longitudinal veins. The tepals measure 5mm to 8.5mm length.

The white to greenish-white fusiform filaments measure 3mm to 4.5 mm in length while the white or yellow anthers measure 0.5mm to 2.1mm in length

The white pistil is uniform colour throughout its length and measures 4.5mm to 5.5mm in length. The flowers appear from September to February

The fruits of Caesia parvifloraare strongly 3 ribbed, globose capsules. The green capsules turn black when ripe. The capsules measure 3mm to 4.5mm in length by 3.5mm to 5mm in diameter. The granulated to sparsely tuberculate, dull black seeds measure 1.3mm to 2.3mm in diameter.

Wildlife:

Caeasia parviflora is unknown to the author.

The roots are edible though the flavour is unknown to the author.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant lily if mass planted on moist soils.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Caesia parviflora is an easy to grow small lily for small moist heath gardens. It makes an excellent small rockery plant. It always look green and fresh especially where adequate ground moisture is retained whether they are grown in light shade or full sun. It is very suitable on sandy soils. It is most suitable for small, medium and large gardens close to the coast in temperate, sub-tropical, tropical or arid gardens.

Around a formal small fish or frog pond they can be used as the main plant. Imagine a small pond with fish swimming. Beside it is a mass planting of Caesia parviflora, and above them is water cascading down over small rocks. This is very powerful yet formal and relaxing. They can partially surround such a scene and still look effective. Use them in small groups with smaller rocks or in front of a small log feature. Caesia parviflora can be a mixture of the purple and white forms to add interest. The vertical stems and linear leaves will create a longer looking log that has greater diameter. Very small prostrate plants are about the only compatible plants required so not to overpower the Caesia parviflora so use Viola hederacea, Mazus pumilio or Callicarpa brevistylis.

Propagation:

Seeds: Caesia parviflora seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix with at least 30mm perlite to help maintain moisture. Cover the seeds with 2mm of the mix and water carefully so as not to disperse the seeds.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 40mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved with planting them at 1.5 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cajanus pubescens

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Order: Fabales

Family: Fabaceae

Sub Family: Faboidea

Tribe: Phaseoleae

Genus: From Cajanus, which is Latinized from the vernacular for the Malay word for a pigeon pea. It refers to the plants which resemble the pigeon pea.

Specie: From Pūbēscēns, which is Latin for short, very soft hairs. It refers to structures or organs, which are covered in soft, white or pale grey hairs.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Cajanus pubescens is found east from Dolphin Island and the Barlee Range in central western Western Australia east and north of a line to Cloncurry and then to Einasleigh and Palmerville Creek in the southern portion of Cape York Peninsular in north Queensland. It is probably far more common than any of the maps indicate north and south of this line due to the sparseness of collectors in the area. Where collectors exist it appears to be fairly common.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cajanus+pubescens#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cajanus pubescens prefer full sun to light dappled shade. It grows in open dry schlerophyll forests, open woodlands, open vine forests, along dry creek, on ridges, beneath cliffs and on escarpments again indication the plant grows in a wide variety of habitats. The altitude ranges from 3 meters ASL to 500 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 6 degrees in August to 44 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 450mm to 1550mm average per annum.zzz

Soil Requirements:

Cajanus pubescens prefers soils that are sandy loams to light fatty clays, gravelly clays, screes, light rocky clays and conglomerates. The soils are usually derived from decomposed sandstone, quartzites or at times granitic sands. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 7pH. It is not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline to probably the high end of moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 1m to 3m by 1m to 2m

Characteristics:

Cajanus pubescens grows as a multi stemmed spindly erect or spreading shrub to bushy shrub. The pale grey to silver-grey bark is covered in fine longitudinal lenticels. The new growth and juvenile plants branchlets are pale grey-green and densely covered in white to pale grey pubescent and long fine hirsute hairs.

The alternate leaves of Cajanus pubescens are trifoliate. The leaflets are elliptical to ovate-elliptical with the central leaflet being the longest. The leaflets measure 32mm to 70mm in length by 26mm to 40mm in width. The bases are broad tapering, cuneate or tapering rounded while the apexes are obtuse-acute to acute. The petiole and petiolules are pale grey-green to greenish-grey and densely covered in white to pale grey pulverulent and long fine hirsute hairs. The petioles measure 25mm to 37mm in length while the petiolules measure 7mm to 15mm in length. The concolourous or discolourous laminas are pale to mid greyish-green, grey-green to greenish-grey and are densely covered in white to pale grey pubescent and long fine hirsute hairs on the upper lamina while the lower lamina is similar or slightly paler. The laminas recurve strongly upwards in an arch from the mid vein to the margins and decurve slightly downwards close to the apex. The leaf margins are entire or slightly undulate. The mid vein and 8 to 10 lateral veins are strongly prominent on the lower lamina and are distinctly visible on the upper lamina. There are often several slightly prominent lateral veins on the lower lamina with the prominent reticulated veins. The lateral veins form loops inside the margins.

The inflorescences of Cajanus pubescens are dense terminal clusters of 8 or more individual flowers. The  50mm to 100mm in length by 40mm to 60mm in diameter. The pale green peduncules and pedicels are densely covered in white or pale grey pubescent and long, fine hirsute hairs. The pedicel measures 12mm to 16mm in length. The calyx and 5 narrow triangular to narrow lanceolate lobes are densely covered in white pulverulent and fine long hirsute hairs and sparsely covered in long fawnish glandular hairs externally and are glabrous internally. The calyx tubes measure 5mm to 7mm in length while the lobes measure 6mm to 9mm in length.

The erect bright yellow, semi glossy, standards measure 25mm to 28mm in length by 24mm to 27mm in height. The bright yellow semi glossy, ovate wings measure 25mm to 28mm in length by 13mm to 16mm in height. The bright yellow, semi glossy, spathulate keels measure 24mm to 27mm in length by 12mm to 15mm in height.

The 10 didelphis stamens have 9 fused filaments form a tube for 18mm to 22mm while the single free stamen is located at the base of the longitudinal slit along one side. The free section of the fused filaments is dimorphc with one long and one short. The ovary and the base of the style are covered in white pubescent hairs. The flowers appear from mid-March to August and at times through to October in favourable seasons.

The fruits of Cajanus pubescens are flattened terete pods. The pods are slightly constricted between the seeds and are moderately to densely covered in white pubescent hairs and measure 30mm to 40mm in length by 17mm to 22mm in width. The green pods turn brown to grey-brown when ripe. The calyx is persistent at the base while the style is persistent at the apex. The 3 or 4 flattened orbicular grey marbled seeds are hard and semi glossy.

Wildlife:

Cajanus pubescens supports numerous beetles, native flies, midget wasps, butterflies and native bees when in flower.

Cultivation:

Cajanus pubescens is a magnificent small to medium shrub that deserves to be the center of attention in most semi-arid heath gardens. The only plants I have seen in cultivation were at the Townsville Botanic Gardens and the display bed was a real credit to Larry Corbett the gardens curator. The shrubs grow much smaller in cultivation growing from 1 meter to 1.5 meters in height by 1.5 meters to 2 meters in diameter when grown in an open situation.

The shrubs are excellent park and garden specimens being fast growing especially in the early years, can cope with light soils, are drought resistant, and can handle black frosts. Flowering usually commences in the second year even from seed.

Cajanus pubescens has one drawback in that it can become very straggly in habit as it ages so needs a little pruning from time to time to maintain its health and vigour. It would make an interesting subject for an arid heath garden when it is surrounded by fine leaf natives with bright green leaves and red or orange flowers. In Townsville the curator had chosen wisely to plant either side with local Lomandra specie,Orthiosiphon aristatis and small Grevilleas which created a great contrast in foliage colours and textures.

Alternatively Cajanus pubescens can be used at the center of a bush garden or make an outstanding contribution to a dry heath garden. When planted at the center as a feature or amongst boulders try using a lot of procumbent plants like with contrasting foliage like Melaleuca thymifolia or Melaleuca pearsonii that allow you to look over the foreground plants to the feature behind. Make the path narrow so you have to feel the plants as you walk through the garden bed. This gives an extra dimension which many people forget about when designing heath gardens. Plants must be planted close together and be short so you can see over the tallest ones with the exception of one or two plants at the most.

With Cajanus pubescens you could also mass plant them in an almost formal curving row through the back of the garden bed with bright green fine foliage in the foreground to give depth and length to the garden bed. The idea would be to give great power and draw attention to the back of the bed during the flowering season. Mass plantings of smaller red and pink flowers would not only compliment the scene but make it more powerful.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cajanus pubescens seeds need to be treatment before sowing. Collect the seeds from the pods that have begun to disperse their seeds for best results.

It is best to plant the seeds out in early spring after removing them from the vegetable crisper over winter. Place the seeds into a glass of hot not boiling water and allow to stand for 2 to 4 hours in the water. Seeds that have not swollen repeat the process before sowing with hot water. This would give a better more even germination. Sow the seeds into a tray and cover them with a fine potting mix to 2 mm. Place the trays in a warm sheltered position under 30mm shade or dappled sunlight. Keep the seeds moist not wet.

When the seedlings reach 25mm to 50mm prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height nip the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings, plant the shrubs at 3 meter to 5 meter centers for a forest garden or 1 meter to 1.5 meter centers for a windbreak or hedge row that is several meters wide. For a wind break they would need to be planted in the center row not on the outside due to the sparseness of foliage near the base. Here they can be planted 1.5 meters apart and within 200mm of the plants on the outside rows.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Caladenia alata

Classification

Class: Monocots

Order: Asparagales

Family: Orcidaceae

Subfamily: Orchidoideae

Genus: From Kalos/Kallis, which are Ancient Greek for beautiful and from Aden which is Ancient Greek for a gland. It refers to the glandular discs on the labellum.

Specie: From Alatus, which is Latin for to have a wing or wings. It refers to stems, which have distinct longitudinal wings.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Pink Fairy.

Note: Botanists are still in a quandary as to the exact number and order of family, subfamily, tribe and specie for Caladenia. We have taken the latest grouping but these change almost annually. Some botanists claim that Caladenia alata is actually a variety of Caladenia carnea while others regard it as a separate species and still others suggest that it is a subspecies. Further complications arise from the fact that if the orchids are separate species they hybridize between themselves naturally where their distributions overlap. Our explanations and observations have simplified the descriptions and may be in error to the official botanical view at any particular time.

Distribution:

Caladenia alata is found south from Forster to Jervis Bay in coastal central New South Wales. There are several disjunct populations further north to Fraser Island in Queensland and to the south to Toora in Victoria.

It is also found along the east coast of Tasmania from Spring Bay to Bruny Island while there are 2 isolated populations on Hunter Island and Mawbanna in the north west of the Tasmania and 1 at Richmond National Park on the Glenelg River in western Victoria. It is mainly found on and east of the Great Dividing Range especially on the western side of the range.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Caladenia+alata#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Caladenia alata prefer light shade to dappled light. It grows in dry schlerophyll forests and woodlands on moist flat sites, often at edge of sandstone outcrops and adjacent to swamps and wallums. The altitude ranges from 10 meters ASL to 100 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 2 degrees in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 700mm to 2000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Caladenia alata prefer grey, red to brown sandy soils to fatty sands. The soils are derived from decomposed sandstone or accumulated sands. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to 6.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.08m to 0.1m by 0.0.2m to 0.03 when in flower.

Characteristics:

Caladenia alata forms small colonies on the forest floor. The off white to pale grey roots forms a long, vertical, elongated tuber. There is a mycorrhizal swelling on the collar of the orchids just below the layer mulch.

The 1 or at times 2 linear leaves of Caladenia alata have clasping bases while the apexes are acute. The erect leaves measures 40mm to 60mm in length by 1.5mm to 3mm in width. The concolourous laminas are grass-green to mid green, dull and glabrous or sparsely covered in white hirsute hairs. The laminas flat while the midvein is slightly prominent on the lower lamina. The margins are entire. The leaves emerge from mid-autumn to mid-winter.

The inflorescences of Caladenia alata are a single flower spike. The single or rarely 2 flowers are born on a long slender spike which measures 80mm to 110mmin length. The ovary is smooth and glabrous. The reddish sheath acute apex ends just below the ovary. The flowers are short lived.

The sepals are white, pink, and mauve to deep pink with the colour intensifying as it approaches the apexes. The broad linear to narrow elliptical slightly falcate lateral sepals have an acute tapering to obtuse or mucronate apex. The lateral sepals measure 4mm to 8mm in length by 2mm to 3mm in width.

The broad linear to narrow elliptical slightly falcate dorsal sepal has an acute tapering to obtuse or mucronate apex. The erect dorsal sepal is equal to or slightly shorter than the lateral sepals and measures 3mm to 8mm in length by 2mm to 3mm in width. The sepals are divaricate and decurve or recurve near the apex. The margins are entire and flat to slightly undulating.

The petals are white, pink, and mauve to deep pink with the colour intensifying as it approaches the apexes. The broad linear to narrow elliptical slightly falcate lateral petals have an acute tapering to obtuse or mucronate apex. The lateral petals measure 4mm to 8mm in length by 2mm to 3mm in width. The petals are divaricate and decurve or recurve near the apex. The margins are entire and flat to slightly undulating.

The labellum is white, pink, mauve to deep pink with purple basal bands and a deep yellow-orange apex. The reniform labellum measures 4.5mm to 5.5mm in length by 4.5mm to 5.5 mm in width. The labellum has 3 lobes with entire margins and purple bands. The mid lobe margins have a prominent bright yellow to bright yellow-orange tooth closer to the base while the margins are entire on the apex half. The central calli are in 2 rows with smooth stalks and clubbed with yellow heads, becoming shorter towards the mid lobe base. The flowers appear from September to November.

The fruits of Caladenia are ellipsoidal pods. The pods measure 12mm to 20mm in length by 9mm to 15mm in diameter. The pale lime-green longitudinal pods turn creamy fawn when ripe.

Wildlife:

Caladenia alata is the host to numerous small native bees and wasps when in flower.

Cultivation:

Caladenia are beautiful, yet very difficult orchid to succeed with in cultivation. It is possible to grow it in the garden. They prefer and flourish in periods when the summers are drier and the winter are wet. If are fortunate enough to have the orchids growing naturally then it is a matter of letting them do their own thing and supply a constant supply of natural local mulch to feed the mycorrhizal to which they have a symbiotic relationship.

The following notes are rewritten from an article supplied by Australian National Botanic Gardens.

Caladenia alata is rather demanding in cultivation because they rely rather heavily on mycorrhizal bacteria for a symbotic relationship. The mycorrhizal inoculation is restricted to the collar in a very narrow region of hypertrophic tissues just below the leaf. This swelling can be seen on the stem between the stem and the root just below the soil surface. The plants die back each year above this section as a result, when they emerge from dormancy the following season the fungus must be present in the soil at the right depth in the substrate for re inoculation to occur.

You should provide a damp soil and a drop in temperature at the mid to end of autumn and keep it from going dry until dormancy. Young plants at the seedling stage are best grown under 50mm shade cloth. Introduce them to dappled sunlight to full sunlight in the third or fourth year.

The capsule maturation takes between 3 and 8 weeks and normally coincides with the summer solstice and shortly after the leaf withers. Watering should commence on the first sight of the new leaf and be reduced when flowering has started. Let the soil dry as the leaf loses its colour; once it’s gone it’s time to prepare a container with a new medium. Let the tuber sit for an extra week or two to allow all the roots to shrivel, then harvest the tubers and move them to the new container. Start misting the soil halfway into autumn to trigger the tuber into new growth. The adult tubers need a dry medium during dormancy, juveniles and seedlings are best kept in a slightly damp soil.

The fibrous tunic that wraps the tuber acts as a first line of defines. Its function hasn’t been identified clearly but we can assume that it offers insulation from drought and fire-induced heath. Resist the urge to unwrap the tuber when repotting. A recent publication reports that the new shoot grows inside the previous shrivelled stem, keep it intact when transplanting.

Many species are stimulated to flower by fire in the preceding summer. This can be emulated by placing banbana peels or watering with smoked water.The small-flowered Caledonia can be reluctant to flower. Keep in mind that most of them take one or two years to recover from fire-induced flowering in the wild. Allow them to build up a reserve for 2 to 3 years before forcing them again.

Longevity in this genus is largely unknown, but the recorded cases lie between 15 and 20 years.

Propagation:

Seeds:

Caladenia alata seeds require treatment before sowing. Really Orchid seeds are meant for professionals with time, equipment and space. However if you wish to persevere then here are the basics and you are learning from an amateur. You will need the following, a flask, Chloros solution, boiled water, an eye dropper, paper bag, a warm sheltered position and a lot of patience and luck. This is a most difficult orchid to grow even by professionals as it detests root disturbance and being reoriented.

The mycorrhizal bacteria must be introduced to the media if growing them from seed is to be successful. This can be achieved by sacrificing an existing plant and inoculation the prepared solution prior to sowing the seeds or using some leaf litter immediately adjacent to the swollen gland.

1.Collecting the seed: seed can only be collected from fully ripe pods. You may need to watch a pod for several days or even weeks following the time it stops swelling for it to turn olive yellow. At this stage the pod must be watched carefully for the pod to commence spitting along the placenta. If possible place the paper bag over the pod and tie it off. If necessary place a plastic bag over the paper bag to prevent rain or moisture contacting the seeds.

  • Knowledge is very important now, as different species and genre have various numbers of viable seed in a pod. Viable seeds may be as few as 20 or as many as several million. Check the bag daily and remove once the seed begins to disperse. Shake all the seeds from the pod into the bag.
  • Purchase the appropriate agar solution from an orchid society as they will know what you want and which one will be best for your species. Prepare the agar solution and pour into the flask.
  • Remove some of the seeds by shaking them into a solution of 1 part chloros to 20 parts water and allow soaking for 10 minutes.
  • Remove the seeds with the eye dropper in the solution and spread evenly over the set agar.
  • Place the flasks in a room that is will lit with indirect light and the temperature is a consistent 25 to 30 degrees centigrade.
  • Wait 4 to 7 months for the seedlings to develop to a stage where they can be removed and planted on into a fine orchid mix. Do not remove the seedlings from their environment of light or temperature for at least another two months. Even at this stage it is best to place the seedlings in a hot house where their environment can be controlled.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Caladenia carnea

Classification

Class: Monocots

Order: Asparagales

Family: Orcidaceae

Subfamily: Orchidoideae

Sub Tribe:

Genus: From Kalos/Kallis, which are Ancient Greek for beautiful and from Aden which is Ancient Greek for a gland. It refers to the glandular discs on the labellum.

Specie: From Carnea, which is Latin for flesh colour. It refers to flowers, which are flesh coloured.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Pink fairy or Pink Fingers.

Distribution:

Caladenia carnea is found south from Starcke National Park in far north eastern Queensland on Cape York Peninsular to Minnipa on Ayre Peninsular in southern South Australia.

It is also found on the eastern two thirds of Tasmania and the eastern Bass Straight Islands.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Caladenia+carnea#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Caladenia carnea prefers medium shade to light dappled sunlight. It grows in coastal heaths, coastal scrubs to moist schlerophyll forest and woodlands and has been found recolonizing reforested areas following clearing. The altitude ranges from 6 meters ASL to 500 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 2 degree in July to 40 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 350mm to 3000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Caladenia carnea prefer white, grey, red or brown sandy soils to fatty sands. The soils are usually derived from decomposed sandstone. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.2m to 0.24m by 0.1m to 0.15 when in flower.

Characteristics:

Caladenia carnea forms small colonies on the forest floor. The off white to pale grey roots form a long, vertical, elongated tuber. There is a mycorrhizal swelling on the collar of the orchids just below the layer mulch.

The 1 or at times 2 linear leaves ofCaladenia carneahave clasping bases while the apexes are acute. The erect leaves measures 100mm to 150mm in length by 2.5mm to 4mm in width. The concolourous laminas are grass-green to mid green, dull and glabrous or sparsely covered in white hirsute hairs. The laminas flat while the midvein is slightly prominent on the lower lamina. The margins are entire. The leaves emerge from mid-autumn to mid-winter.

The inflorescences of Caladenia carneaare 1 to 3 flowers on a spike. The 1 to 3 flowers are born on a long slender spike which measures 180mm to 240mmin length. The ovary is smooth and glabrous. The reddish sheath acute apex ends just below the ovary. The short lived flowers have a sweet to musky scent.

The outer surfaces are covered in white glandular hairs or at times faintly striped while the inner surfaces are pastel pink, greenish-white or greenish-pink. The broad linear to narrow elliptical lateral sepals have an acute tapering to obtuse or mucronate apex. The lateral sepals measure 8mm to 15mm in length by 4mm to 6mm in width.

The dorsal sepal is erect or rarely hooding the column. The labellum is obovate and measures 8mm to 10mm in length by 8mm to 10mm in width. The sepals are divaricate and decurve or recurve near the apex. The margins are entire and flat to slightly undulating.

The petals are white, pink, mauve to deep pink with the colour intensifying as it approaches the apexes. The broad linear to narrow elliptical slightly falcate lateral petals have an acute tapering to obtuse or mucronate apex. The lateral petals measure 4mm to 8mm in length by 2mm to 3mm in width. The petals are divaricate and decurve or recurve near the apex. The margins are entire and flat to slightly undulating.

The 3 lobed white to mid pink labellum has 4 to 5 distinct transversal red bands on the basal half and a pastel yellow to pastel  yellow-orange apex. The lateral lobes are entire with the mid lobe being broad triangular. The margins usually have a row of fine short teeth or rarely entire. The central calli are in 2 rows with smooth stalks and clubbed with yellow heads which are distributed on the basal half of the mid lobe. The nodding column measures 6mm to 8mm in length and is incurved. The column is reddish-green with reddish transverse bands internally while the apical wings are narrow acute with obtuse apexes. The flowers appear from September to November.

The fruits of Caladenia carnea are ellipsoidal pods. The pods measure 12mm to 20mm in length by 9mm to 15mm in diameter. The pale lime-green longitudinal pods turn creamy fawn when ripe.

Wildlife:

Caladenia carnea is the host to numerous small native bees and wasps when in flower.

Cultivation:

Caladenia carnea is a beautiful yet very difficult orchid to succeed with in cultivation. It is possible to grow it in the garden. They prefer and flourish in periods when the summers are drier and the winter are wet. If are fortunate enough to have the orchids growing naturally then it is a matter of letting them do their own thing and supply a constant supply of natural local mulch to feed the mycorrhizal to which they have a symbiotic relationship.

The following notes are rewritten from an article supplied by Australian National Botanic Gardens.

Caladenia carnea is rather demanding in cultivation because they rely rather heavily on mycorrhizal bacteria for a bacterial symbiotic relationship. The mycorrhizal inoculation is restricted to the collar in a very narrow region of hypertrophic tissues just below the leaf. This swelling can be seen on the stem between the stem and the root just below the soil surface. The plants die back each year above this section as a result, when they emerge from dormancy the following season the fungus must be present in the soil at the right depth in the substrate for re inoculation to occur.

You should provide a damp soil and a drop in temperature at the mid to end of autumn and keep it from going dry until dormancy. Young plants at the seedling stage are best grown under 50mm shade cloth. Introduce them to dappled sunlight to full sunlight in the third or fourth year.

The capsule maturation takes between 3 and 8 weeks and normally coincides with the summer solstice and shortly after the leaf withers. Watering should commence on the first sight of the new leaf and be reduced when flowering has started. Let the soil dry as the leaf loses its colour; once it’s gone it’s time to prepare a container with a new medium. Let the tuber sit for an extra week or two to allow all the roots to shrivel, then harvest the tubers and move them to the new container. Start misting the soil halfway into autumn to trigger the tuber into new growth. The adult tubers need a dry medium during dormancy, juveniles and seedlings are best kept in a slightly damp soil.

The fibrous tunic that wraps the tuber acts as a first line of defines. Its function hasn’t been identified clearly but we can assume that it offers insulation from drought and fire-induced heath. Resist the urge to unwrap the tuber when repotting. A recent publication reports that the new shoot grows inside the previous shrivelled stem, keep it intact when transplanting.

Many species are stimulated to flower by fire in the preceding summer. This can be emulated by placing bananan peels or watering withsmoked water. Especially the small-flowered Caledonia can be reluctant to flower. Keep in mind that most of them take one or two years to recover from fire-induced flowering in the wild. Allow them to build up a reserve for 2 to 3 years before forcing them again.

Longevity in this genus is largely unknown, but the recorded cases lie between 15 and 20 years.

Propagation:

Seeds:

Caladenia carnea seeds require treatment before sowing. Really Orchid seeds are meant for professionals with time, equipment and space. However if you wish to persevere then here are the basics and you are learning from an amateur. You will need the following, a flask, Chloros solution, boiled water, an eye dropper, paper bag, a warm sheltered position and a lot of patience and luck. This is a most difficult orchid to grow even by professionals as it detests root disturbance and being reoriented.

The mycorrhizal bacteria must be introduced to the media if growing them from seed is to be successful. This can be achieved by sacrificing an existing plant and inoculation the prepared solution prior to sowing the seeds or using some leaf litter immediately adjacent to the swollen gland.

1.Collecting the seed: seed can only be collected from fully ripe pods. You may need to watch a pod for several days or even weeks following the time it stops swelling for it to turn olive yellow. At this stage the pod must be watched carefully for the pod to commence spitting along the placenta. If possible place the paper bag over the pod and tie it off. If necessary place a plastic bag over the paper bag to prevent rain or moisture contacting the seeds.

  • Knowledge is very important now, as different species and genre have various numbers of viable seed in a pod. Viable seeds may be as few as 20 or as many as several million. Check the bag daily and remove once the seed begins to disperse. Shake all the seeds from the pod into the bag.
  • Purchase the appropriate agar solution from an orchid society as they will know what you want and which one will be best for your species. Prepare the agar solution and pour into the flask.
  • Remove some of the seeds by shaking them into a solution of 1 part chloros to 20 parts water and allow soaking for 10 minutes.
  • Remove the seeds with the eye dropper in the solution and spread evenly over the set agar.
  • Place the flasks in a room that is will lit with indirect light and the temperature is a consistent 25 to 30 degrees centigrade.
  • Wait 4 to 7 months for the seedlings to develop to a stage where they can be removed and planted on into a fine orchid mix. Do not remove the seedlings from their environment of light or temperature for at least another two months. Even at this stage it is best to place the seedlings in a hot house where their environment can be controlled.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Caladenia catenata

Classification

Class: Monocots

Order: Asparagales

Family: Orcidaceae

Subfamily: Orchidoideae

Genus: From Kalos/Kallis, which are Ancient Greek for beautiful and from Aden which is Ancient Greek for a gland. It refers to the glandular discs on the labellum.

Specie: From Catēnāta, which is Latin for forming a chain or joined together. It refers to tepals, which are joined together at the base.

Sub specie:

Common Name: White Caladenia or White Fingers.

Distribution:

Caladenia catenata is found south from Fraser Island in central coastal Queensland to Geelong south west of Melbourne in Victoria. There are several disjunct populations as far north as Port Douglas in far northern Queensland on Cape York Peninsular and in the south, west to Fairview Conservation Park in South Australia. There is an isolated population in south eastern South Australia in the Flinders Ranges and in Tasmania at Storm Bay. It is mainly found on the western slopes, on and east of the Great Dividing Range.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Caladenia+catenata#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Caladenia catenata prefers medium shade to light dappled shade. It is a terrestrial orchid that is almost entirely found on good quality catena soils with copious quantities of mulch. The altitude ranges from sea level to 400 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degree in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 300mm to 3000mm average per annum. The rainfall varies considerably with some populations like those in Carnarvon Gorge and the Bunya Mountains relying on additional moisture from orographic precipitation. Then there are the populations in the Flinders Ranges that receive very little rain and orographic precipitation would also be very low.

Soil Requirements:

Caladenia catenata grows on very good quality catena soils that are formed from similar parent rock but doesn’t have the same soil characteristics because of the differences in drainage, relief or organic matter. The soils are usually light clays. The soils are usually derived from sandstone, metasandstones, metashales and accumulated sands. The pH of the soils on our block at Nana Glen where the orchids were found were all very close to neutral and varied from 6.1pH to 6.4pH. The soils also displayed high levels of worm activity. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.2m to 0.3m by 0.02m to 0.015 when in flower.

Characteristics:

Caladenia catenata forms small colonies on the forest floor. The off white to pale grey roots form a long, vertical, elongated tuber. There is a mycorrhizal swelling on the collar of the orchids just below the layer mulch.

The 1 or at times 2 linear leaves of Caladenia catenata have clasping bases while the apexes are acute. The erect leaves measures 90mm to 120mm in length by 2.5mm to 4mm in width. The concolourous laminas are grass-green to mid green, dull and are sparsely covered in white hirsute hairs. The laminas flat while the midvein is slightly prominent on the lower lamina. The margins are entire. The leaves emerge from mid-autumn to mid-winter.

The inflorescences of Caladenia catenataare a single flower spike. The single or rarely 2 flowers are born on a long slender spike which measures 260mm to 300mmin length. The ovary is smooth and glabrous. The reddish sheath acute apex ends just below the ovary. The flowers are short lived.

The lateral sepals are brilliant white or rarely pastel pink tinge intensifying slightly towards the apex. The narrow elliptical lateral sepals have an obtuse apex with a mucronate tip. The lateral sepals measure 16mm to 20mm in length by 5mm to 7mm in width. The margins are entire with a covering of short white ciliate hairs.

The dorsal sepal is brilliant white or rarely pastel pink tinge intensifying slightly towards the apex. The narrow elliptical dorsal sepal has an obtuse apex. The dorsal sepal measure 16mm to 20mm in length by 4mm to 5.5mm in width. The margins are entire with a covering of short white ciliate hairs.

The lateral petals are brilliant white or rarely with a pastel pink tinge intensifying slightly towards the apex. The narrow elliptical lateral petals have a broad acute apex. The lateral sepals measure 16mm to 20mm in length by 5mm to 6.5mm in width. The margins are entire with a covering of short white ciliate hairs.

The labellum is brilliant white or rarely pastel pink tinge intensifying slightly towards the apex with reddish-purple transverse bands internally within the confines of the 2lateral lobes. The lateral lobes are entire with the mid lobe being oblong with an acute apex. The margins usually have a row of short, blunt, triangular teeth. The central calli are in 2 rows with smooth stalks and clubbed with yellow heads which are distributed on the basal half within the confines of the 2 lateral lobes. The nodding column measures 6mm to 8mm in length and is incurved. The column is pale reddish-green with reddish-purple transverse bands internally while the apical wings are greenish-yellow, narrow acute with obtuse apexes. The flowers appear from September to November.

The fruits of Caladenia catenata are ellipsoidal pods. The pods measure 12mm to 20mm in length by 9mm to 15mm in diameter. The pale lime-green longitudinal pods turn creamy fawn when ripe.

Wildlife:

Caladenia catenata is the host to numerous small native bees and wasps when in flower.

Cultivation:

Caladenia catenata is a beautiful yet very difficult orchid to succeed with in cultivation. It is possible to grow it in the garden. They prefer and flourish in periods when the summers are drier and the winter are wet. If are fortunate enough to have the orchids growing naturally then it is a matter of letting them do their own thing and supply a constant supply of natural local mulch to feed the mycorrhizal to which they have a symbiotic relationship.

The following notes are rewritten from an article supplied by Australian National Botanic Gardens.

Caladenia catenata is rather demanding in cultivation because it relies rather heavily on mycorrhizal bacteria for a symbiotic relationship. The mycorrhizal inoculation is restricted to the collar in a very narrow region of hypertrophic tissues just below the leaf. This swelling can be seen on the stem between the stem and the root just below the soil surface. The plants die back each year above this section as a result, when they emerge from dormancy the following season the fungus must be present in the soil at the right depth in the substrate for re inoculation to occur.

You should provide a damp soil and a drop in temperature at the mid to end of autumn and keep it from going dry until dormancy. Young plants at the seedling stage are best grown under 50mm shade cloth. Introduce them to dappled sunlight to full sunlight in the third or fourth year.

The capsule maturation takes between 3 and 8 weeks and normally coincides with the summer solstice and shortly after the leaf withers. Watering should commence on the first sight of the new leaf and be reduced when flowering has started. Let the soil dry as the leaf loses its colour; once it’s gone it’s time to prepare a container with a new medium. Let the tuber sit for an extra week or two to allow all the roots to shrivel, then harvest the tubers and move them to the new container. Start misting the soil halfway into autumn to trigger the tuber into new growth. The adult tubers need a dry medium during dormancy, juveniles and seedlings are best kept in a slightly damp soil.

The fibrous tunic that wraps the tuber acts as a first line of defines. Its function hasn’t been identified clearly but we can assume that it offers insulation from drought and fire-induced heath. Resist the urge to unwrap the tuber when repotting. A recent publication reports that the new shoot grows inside the previous shrivelled stem, keep it intact when transplanting.

Many species are stimulated to flower by fire in the preceding summer. This can be emulated by placing banana peels or watering with smoked water. Especially the small-flowered Caledonia can be reluctant to flower. Keep in mind that most of them take one or two years to recover from fire-induced flowering in the wild. Allow them to build up a reserve for 2 to 3 years before forcing them again.

Longevity in this genus is largely unknown, but the recorded cases lie between 15 and 20 years.

Propagation:

Seeds:

Caladenia catenata seeds require treatment before sowing. Really Orchid seeds are meant for professionals with time, equipment and space. However if you wish to persevere then here are the basics and you are learning from an amateur. You will need the following, a flask, Chloros solution, boiled water, an eye dropper, paper bag, a warm sheltered position and a lot of patience and luck. This is a most difficult orchid to grow even by professionals as it detests root disturbance and being reoriented.

  1. Collecting the seed: seed can only be collected from fully ripe pods. You may need to watch a pod for several days or even weeks following the time it stops swelling for it to turn olive yellow. At this stage the pod must be watched carefully for the pod to commence spitting along the placenta. If possible place the paper bag over the pod and tie it off. If necessary place a plastic bag over the paper bag to prevent rain or moisture contacting the seeds.
  • Knowledge is very important now, as different species and genre have various numbers of viable seed in a pod. Viable seeds may be as few as 20 or as many as several million. Check the bag daily and remove once the seed begins to disperse. Shake all the seeds from the pod into the bag.
  • Purchase the appropriate agar solution from an orchid society as they will know what you want and which one will be best for your species. Prepare the agar solution and pour into the flask.
  • Remove some of the seeds by shaking them into a solution of 1 part chloros to 20 parts water and allow soaking for 10 minutes.
  • Remove the seeds with the eye dropper in the solution and spread evenly over the set agar.
  • Place the flasks in a room that is will lit with indirect light and the temperature is a consistent 25 to 30 degrees centigrade.
  • Wait 4 to 7 months for the seedlings to develop to a stage where they can be removed and planted on into a fine orchid mix. Do not remove the seedlings from their environment of light or temperature for at least another two months. Even at this stage it is best to place the seedlings in a hot house where their environment can be controlled.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Caladenia picta

Classification

Class: Monocots

Order: Asparagales

Family: Orcidaceae

Subfamily: Orchidoideae

Genus: From Kalos/Kallis, which are Ancient Greek for beautiful and from Aden which is Ancient Greek for a gland. It refers to the glandular discs on the labellum.

Specie: From Pictum, which is Latin for to paint or decorate. It refers to flowers, which are appear to have been painted.

Common Name: Painted fingers.

Distribution:

is found south from Wide Bay is south eastern, coastal Queensland to Dalmeny in south eastern New South Wales The re is an isolated population further south at Locksport in east Gipsland in Victoria and three disjunct populations further north in Queensland on the central Highlands. Apart from the Central Highlands population it is found on and east of the Great Dividing Range.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Caladenia+picta#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Caladenia picta prefers medium shade to light dappled shade. It is a terrestrial orchid that is almost entirely found in moist sclerophyll forest in shallow depressions where moister prevails for longer periods. The altitude ranges from sea level to 400 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degree in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 550mm to 1200mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Caladenia picta grows on better quality clay based soils with copious quantities of organic matter. The soils are usually derived from sandstone, metashales anor brown basalt. The pH of the soils on our block at Nana Glen where the orchids were found were all very close to neutral and varied from 6.1pH to 6.4pH. The soils also displayed high levels of worm activity. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.2m to 0.3m by 0.02m to 0.015 when in flower.

Characteristics:

Caladenia picta forms small colonies on the forest floor. The off white to pale grey roots form a long, vertical, elongated tuber. There is a mycorrhizal swelling on the collar of the orchids just below the layer mulch.

The 1 or at times 2 linear leaves of Caladenia pictahave clasping bases while the apexes are acute. The erect leaves measures 50mm to 120mm in length by 2.5mm to 4mm in width. The concolourous laminas are mid green to deep green and are glabrous or sparsely covered in white hirsute hairs. The laminas flat while the midvein is slightly prominent on the lower lamina. The margins are entire. The leaves emerge from mid-autumn to mid-winter.

The single inflorescence or rarely two flowered grow to 150mm in height. The white, often with pastel pink apexes or margins on the sepals and lateral petals measure 20mm in length by 4mm to 5mm in width. The dorsal sepal is erect while the lateral sepals and petals are all well below the column. The 3 lobed labellum is white to pastel pink with a yellow to orange tip. The long midlobe margins have short, coarse, broad teeth, while the Central calli are in 2 rows with smooth stalks and clubbed-golf stick heads, yellow, distributed only up to the base of the midlobe. The column is well marked on the inner surface by a bright red-maroon blotches, while the upper surface has bright lime-green bands and bearing relatively large obtuse apical wings.

Wildlife:

Caladenia picta is the host to numerous small native bees and wasps when in flower.

Cultivation:

Caladenia picta is a beautiful yet very difficult orchid to succeed with in cultivation. It is possible to grow it in the garden. They prefer and flourish in periods when the summers are drier and the winter are wet. If are fortunate enough to have the orchids growing naturally then it is a matter of letting them do their own thing and supply a constant supply of natural local mulch to feed the mycorrhizal to which they have a symbiotic relationship.

The following notes are rewritten from an article supplied by Australian National Botanic Gardens.

Caladenia picta is rather demanding in cultivation because it relies rather heavily on mycorrhizal bacteria for a symbiotic relationship.

The mycorrhizal inoculation is restricted to the collar in a very narrow region of hypertrophic tissues just below the leaf. This swelling can be seen on the stem between the stem and the root just below the soil surface. The plants die back each year above this section as a result, when they emerge from dormancy the following season the fungus must be present in the soil at the right depth in the substrate for re inoculation to occur.

You should provide a damp soil and a drop in temperature at the mid to end of autumn and keep it from going dry until dormancy. Young plants at the seedling stage are best grown under 50mm shade cloth. Introduce them to dappled sunlight to full sunlight in the third or fourth year.

The capsule maturation takes between 3 and 8 weeks and normally coincides with the summer solstice and shortly after the leaf withers. Watering should commence on the first sight of the new leaf and be reduced when flowering has started. Let the soil dry as the leaf loses its colour; once it’s gone it’s time to prepare a container with a new medium. Let the tuber sit for an extra week or two to allow all the roots to shrivel, then harvest the tubers and move them to the new container. Start misting the soil halfway into autumn to trigger the tuber into new growth. The adult tubers need a dry medium during dormancy, juveniles and seedlings are best kept in a slightly damp soil.

The fibrous tunic that wraps the tuber acts as a first line of defines. Its function hasn’t been identified clearly but we can assume that it offers insulation from drought and fire-induced heath. Resist the urge to unwrap the tuber when repotting. A recent publication reports that the new shoot grows inside the previous shrivelled stem, keep it intact when transplanting.

Many species are stimulated to flower by fire in the preceding summer. This can be emulated by placing banana peels or watering with smoked water. Especially the small-flowered Caledonia can be reluctant to flower. Keep in mind that most of them take one or two years to recover from fire-induced flowering in the wild. Allow them to build up a reserve for 2 to 3 years before forcing them again.

Longevity in this genus is largely unknown, but the recorded cases lie between 15 and 20 years.

Propagation:

Seeds: Caladenia picta seeds require treatment before sowing. Really Orchid seeds are meant for professionals with time, equipment and space. However if you wish to persevere then here are the basics and you are learning from an amateur. You will need the following, a flask, Chloros solution, boiled water, an eye dropper, paper bag, a warm sheltered position and a lot of patience and luck. This is a most difficult orchid to grow even by professionals as it detests root disturbance and being reoriented.

1.Collecting the seed: seed can only be collected from fully ripe pods. You may need to watch a pod for several days or even weeks following the time it stops swelling for it to turn olive yellow. At this stage the pod must be watched carefully for the pod to commence spitting along the placenta. If possible place the paper bag over the pod and tie it off. If necessary place a plastic bag over the paper bag to prevent rain or moisture contacting the seeds.

  • Knowledge is very important now, as different species and genre have various numbers of viable seed in a pod. Viable seeds may be as few as 20 or as many as several million. Check the bag daily and remove once the seed begins to disperse. Shake all the seeds from the pod into the bag.
  • Purchase the appropriate agar solution from an orchid society as they will know what you want and which one will be best for your species. Prepare the agar solution and pour into the flask.
  • Remove some of the seeds by shaking them into a solution of 1 part chloros to 20 parts water and allow soaking for 10 minutes.
  • Remove the seeds with the eye dropper in the solution and spread evenly over the set agar.
  • Place the flasks in a room that is will lit with indirect light and the temperature is a consistent 25 to 30 degrees centigrade.
  • Wait 4 to 7 months for the seedlings to develop to a stage where they can be removed and planted on into a fine orchid mix. Do not remove the seedlings from their environment of light or temperature for at least another two months. Even at this stage it is best to place the seedlings in a hot house where their environment can be controlled.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calamus australis

Classification:

Class: Commelinids

Order: Arecales

Family: Arecaceae

Subfamily: Calamoideae

Genus: From Kalamos, which is Ancient Greek for to be reed like. It refers to the stems being long and thin similar to the culms on many reeds.

Specie: From Terra Australis, which is Latin for land of the south. It refers to plants, which were first discovered from the land down under.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Lawyer Vine.

Distribution:

Calamus muelleri

is found from the tip of Cape York Peninsular to Stoney Creek near Mount Parnassus near Rockhampton in coastal Queensland.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calamus+australis#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calamus australis prefers full shade to light shade. It grows in Grows in gallery forests,, littoral rainforests and well developed lowland riverine rainforests and moist mountain rain forests. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 1600 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 4 degrees in July to 32 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 900mm to 3200mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Calamus australis prefers a wide range of soils derived from partially decomposed or decomposed black basalts, brown basalts, shales, alluvial deposits and accumulated beach sands with copious quantities of peat. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to 7.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils however the soils are always moist with some periodic flooding during storms where it grows near streams. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:35m to 60m by 1m to 1.2m.

Characteristics:

Calamus australis is a strong climbing member of the palm family. It has a long cane like green with a glossy, glabrous stem while the flagella are densely covered in long, sharp spines. The stem or cane measures 15mm to 25mm in diameter.

The long mid to deep green, compound alternate leaves have 34 to 40 leaflets. The leaflets measures 60mm to 300mm in length by 10mm to 30mm in width. The leaf sheath and petiole are covered in golden-brown, straight spines while the rachis also has some hooked spines. The base leaflets are the longest becoming shorter towards the apex. The apical leaflet is deeply bilobed or are two opposite leaflets. The compound leaf axis has numerous straight spines on the upper surface mainly along the midvein especially near the base and many recurved spines on the lower lamina. The mid vein and 6 parallel, longitudinal veins are prominent on the lower lamina. The margins are usually finely toothed.

The flagella like tendrils arise from the sheathing bases of the petioles and armed with long golden-brown recurved spines.

The inflorescences of Calamus australis are held on long panicles which are attached to the sheathing leaf base opposite the compound leaf petiole and measure 1000mm to 1200mm in length.

The male flowers are densely packed along the arms and measure 2.5mm to 3.2mm in diameter.  The greenish to greenish-maroon outer tepals measure 2mm to 3mm in length and are fused near the base. The inner tepals are greenish to greenish-maroon on the outer surface and olive-green on the inner surface and are free. They measure 3mm to 4mm in length. The 6 white tapering filaments measure 1.5mm  to 2mm in length while the cream, dorsifixed anthers measure 1mm to 1.5mm in length. The opaque white rudimentary styles measure 0.5mm in length.

The budding inflorescences consist of female and sterile male flowers which are aborted prior to anthesis. The female flowers are loosely packed along the inflorescences following anthesis. The maroon outer tepals measure 2mm to 3mm in length. The oblong, greenish inner tepals measure 2mm to 3mm in length while the 6 staminodes measure 1.5mm to 2mm in length. The ovary measures 2mm in length with a single ovule in each locule. The tri styles are white.

The green, globular drupes turn white when ripe and measure 14mm to 16mm in length by 10mm to 11mm in diameter. The fruits are covered in white diamond shaped, shingle like scales. The style is persistent on the ripe fruits at the apex. The depressed globular seeds measure 8mm to 10mm in diameter.

Wildlife:

The fruits of Calamus australis are eaten by the Cassowary (Casuarius unappendiculatus) many native pigeons including the Brown pigeon (Macropygia amboinensis), White headed Pigeon (Columba leucomela), Wompoo Pigeon (Leucosarcia melanoleuca) and Emerald Pigeon (Chalcophaps indica).

Cultivation:

Calamus australis makes a fantastic indoor plant and will last inside for 2 or 3 years or more depending on its age. Darker conditions will slow it down but sooner or later the palm will throw a cane out and commence growing rapidly up the wall. When this happens the spines will become very problematic and will have to be placed out doors in the garden or given a way.

Just remember the spines when placing the plants out in the garden.

This is a plant that can only be planted as an adjunct to a rainforest and definitely out of the reach of pets and people. If using this Calamus spp. It is best mass planted in an area to give the best effect or singularly as a specimen plant. It is reasonably fast growing once established on rich humus moisture retentive soils. Once the plants develop a trunk the spines are not a problem.

Propagation:

Seeds: Sow into a seed raising mix and cover with 10mm of mix. Fertile seeds will germinate within 3 months. When the seedlings are at the two to three leaf stages, prick them out and plant them into 75mm native tubes using a good organic mix.

Once the seedlings reach 250mm to 300mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Where mass plantings of Calamus australis are required, as a feature; plant them at 1 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calamus muelleri

Classification

Class: Commelinids

Order: Arecales

Family: Arecaceae

Subfamily: Calamoideae

Genus: From Kalamos, which is Ancient Greek for to be reed like. It refers to the stems being long and thin similar to the culms on many reeds.

Specie: Is named in honour of Ferdinand Von Mueller; 1825-1896, who was a German born Australian Botanist who named over 2000 new species and was director of the Melbourne Botanic Gardens.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Lawyer Vine.

Distribution:

Calamus muelleri is restricted to three disjunct populations south from near Maryborough in south eastern coastal Queensland to the Bellinger River in north eastern New South Wales.

If my memory serves correct in the mid-seventies there was an outlying population on the coastal side of southern Stradbroke Island. This colony may be extinct and it is interesting that probably apart from a few of the local elders of the Noonuccal Aborigines and myself there are no records of it being documented from the Island. This outlying population is still within the longitude and latitude of real possibilities except for the soil which are accumulated peaty sands behind the frontal dunes.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calamus+muelleri#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calamus muelleri prefers full shade to light shade. It grows in warm subtropical well developed rainforests. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 900 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 4 degrees in July to 29 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 900mm to 1900mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Calamus muelleri prefers light clays to medium clays derived from partially decomposed or decomposed black basalts. The soils pH ranges from 6pH to 6.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils however the soils are always moist with some periodic flooding during storms where it grows near streams. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:35m to 100m by 1m to 1.2m

Characteristics:

Calamus muelleri is a strong climbing member of the palm family. It has a long cane like green stem and flagella which are densely covered in sharp spines. The stem or cane measures 20mm to 30mm in diameter and is densely covered in chestnut coloured, hooked spines which measure 10mm to 20mm in length.

The long mid to dark green feather alternate leaves are glabrous and have a stem which measures 400mm to 550mm long. The leaf sheath and rachis are covered in hooked golden spines. The rachises measure 160mm to 250mm in length while the laminas range from 90mm to 120mm in length. The individual leaflets are oblanceolate and measure 100mm to 250mm in length by 30mm to 60mm in width. The first or base leaflets are the longest becoming shorter towards the apex. The discolourous laminas are deep green to deep sea-green and glabrous on the upper laminas slightly while the lower laminas are slightly paler. The laminas decurve downwards slightly from the mid vein to the margins and decurve downwards on the apical third. The margins are entire. The mid vein is prominent on the lower lamina and is sparsely covered in recurved prickles. The apex tapers to a point.

Inflorescences of Calamus muelleri are held on long panicles and are sterile or fertile. Sterile inflorescence measure 1200mm while the fertile inflorescence has 2 or 3 panicles which measure 1000mmin length ending without spines or flowers. Both male and female flowers are greenish cream. The male perianth measure 2mm in length with the 3 inner tepals measure 4mm to 5mm in length. The tepals are glabrous. The female perianth measure 1mm to 2mm in length with the 3 inner tepals measure 3mm in length. The 3 locular ovaries are covered in imbricate scales.

The green drupes turn yellow to cream when ripe. The drupes of Calamus muelleri measure 12mm to 14mm in diameter and are covered in scales. The thin skins peel to reveal a thin layer of flesh which tastes like sweet lemon. The brown seeds measure 6mm to 10mm in diameter.

Wildlife:

The fruits of Calamus muelleri are eaten by many native pigeons including the Brown pigeon (Macropygia amboinensis), White headed Pigeon (Columba leucomela), Wompoo Pigeon (Leucosarcia melanoleuca) and Emerald Pigeon (Chalcophaps indica).

Cultivation:

Calamus muelleri makes a fantastic indoor plant and will last inside for 2 or 3 years or more depending on its age. Darker conditions will slow it down but sooner or later the palm will throw a cane out and commence growing rapidly up the wall. When this happens the spines will become very problematic and will have to be placed out doors in the garden or given a way.

Just remember the thorns when placing the plants out in the garden.

This is a plant that can only be planted as an adjunct to a rainforest and definitely out of the reach of pets and people. If using Calamus species they are best mass planted in an area to give the best effect. They are reasonably fast growing once established on rich humus moisture retentive soils. Once the plants develop a decent size trunk the spines are not a problem.

Propagation:

Seeds: Sow into a seed raising mix and cover with 10mm of mix. Fertile seeds will germinate within 3 months. When the seedlings are at the two to three leaf stages, prick them out and plant them into 75mm native tubes using a good organic mix.

Once the seedlings reach 250mm to 300mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Where mass plantings of Calamus muelleri are required, as a feature; plant them at 1 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.


Caladrinia pickeringii

Classification

Class: Equisetopsida

Subclass: Magnoliidae

Superorder: Caryophyllanae

Order: Caryophyllales

Family: Portulacaceae

Genus: From Kallis/Kalos, which is Ancient Greek for very beautiful and ántha/ánthos, which are Ancient Greek for the male reproductive organ of a flower or the flower. It refers to flowers, which are very beautiful.

Specie: Is probably named in honour of Charles Pickering; 1805–878, who was an American anthropologist and botanist.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Calandrinia pickeringii is found south from Ross River dam south of Townsville in central coastal Queensland south to Moruya in coastal southern New South Wales. It is found on both sides of the Great Dividing Range however on the western side it is mainly associated riparian zones.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calandrinia+pickeringii#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calandrinia pickeringii prefers full sun to dappled shade. It grows in lowland mountain open Eucalyptus forests and open woodlands. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 700 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in July to 35 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 400mm to 1600mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Calandrinia pickeringii prefers sandy loams to light fatty clays that are derived from decomposed sandstone and granite. The soils pH. ranges from 5pH to 6pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:0.15m to 0.2m by 0.2m to 0.3m

Characteristics:

Calandrinia pickeringii grows as a decumbent to ascending perennial herb. The stems are pale grass-green and glabrous.

The leaves are sub opposite near the base and disjunct alternate as they approach the apexes. The succulent to fleshy lanceolate leaves measure 15mm to 70mm in length by 2mm to 80mm in width. The base is tapering while the apex is acute. The concolourous laminas are pale grass-grass green and semi glossy on the upper lamina while the lower laminas are dull. The laminas are slightly recurved from the mid vein to the margins and decurve from the bases through to the apexes. The leaf margins are entire. The mid veins are not visible however a rounded or convex ridge is formed on the lower laminas. The margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Calandrinia pickeringii are born as fleshy racemes from the leaf axils or terminal. There are 4 to 15 flowers on each raceme. The rachises measure 130mm to 200mm in length while the pedicels measure 4mm to 5mm in length. The 4 grass-green sepals are ovate and measure 2mm to 3mm in length. The 4 pale pink to mid pink orbicular petals measures 2.5mm to 4.5mm in length.

The 3 to 6 yellow stamens measure 1 mm to 2mm in length.

The white to yellow style measures 1mm to 2mm in length. The flowers appear from October to April.

Calandrinia pickeringii fruits are capsules. The capsules measure 2.6mm to 2.8mm in length. The numerous deep red-brown seeds are obovoidea to lenticular and are papillate to punctuate.

Wildlife:

Calandrinia pickeringii’s wildlife is unknown to the author.

Cultivation:

Calandrinia pickeringii is a much forgotten small succulent that deserves a place in east coast gardens. They are easy to grow. They are ideal in small sheltered rockeries especially in arid areas and around swimming pools.

When you design a miniature arid garden, use contours to display the plants to their best. If the soil is heavy incorporate course sand into the top 200mm at a rate of 50mm. Scatter plant a few small shrubs with very fine green leaves or use plants with soft greys where the leaves are larger between rocks to give the affect that this is a harsh dry environment.

Another method would be to cover slopes with larger rocks and repeat as above.

Propagation:

Seeds: Calandrinia pickeringii seeds do not require treatment before sowing. Remove the seeds from the capsules and sow the fresh seeds directly into a seed raising mix and cover with 1mm of the mix. Place them in a warm place under 30mm shade which is airy. When the seedlings are 40mm to 60mm tall, prick them out and plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved by planting them at 200mm centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calanthe triplicata

Classification

Unranked: Magnoliids

Order: Alaurales

Family: Lauraceae

Genus: From Kallis/Kalos, which are Ancient Greek for beautiful and ántha/ánthos, which are Ancient Greek for the male reproductive organ in a flower or the flower. It refers to flowers, which are very beautiful.

Specie: From Treîs/Tría, which are Ancient Greek or Tri, which is Latin for three and Plicātum, which is Latin for to fold or a pleat. It refers to structures or organs, which have three pleats or folds.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Christmas Orchid.

Distribution:

Calanthe triplicata is found in several disjunct populations south from near Cowen on Cape York Peninsular in far north Queensland south to the Illawarra district in central coastal New South Wales. The plant is becoming increasing scarce due to poaching. It is found on and east of the Great Dividing Range.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calanthe+triplicata#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calanthe triplicata prefer moderate shade to heavy shade on the floor of well-developed cool tropical rainforests, sub-tropical rainforests or occasionally in wet sclerophyll forest, gallery forests or occasionally better quality littoral rainforests. The altitude ranges from 50 meters ASL to 1250 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 3 degrees in July to 34 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 900mm to 3000mm average per annum. The rainfall is seasonal mainly summer and autumn with dry winters and springs and humid with some orographic precipitation in the dry season occurs.

Soil Requirements:

Calanthe triplicata grows on better quality soils that have copious quantities of leaf litter on the forest floor. The soils are light clays to gravelly medium clays derived from decomposed brown basalt and black basalt. The soil’s pH ranges from 4.5pH to 6.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. None saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 1m to 1.5m by 0.9m to 1.2m.

Characteristics:

Calanthe triplicata forms clumps from large grass-green pseudobulbs. The pseudobulbs measure 30mm to 80mm in length by 15mm to 40mm in diameter.

The 4 to 10 narrow obovate leaves of Calanthe triplicata measure 250mm to 900mm in length by 60mm to 180mm in width. The bases are tapering with the oldest leaves clasping from the base of the pseudobulbs while the apexes are acute to acuminate. The concolourous laminas are grass-green to deep grass–green and glabrous. The thin fleshy laminas have 3 to 5 prominent parallel veins either side of the midvein. The parallel veins are clearly visible on the upper laminas. The margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Calanthe triplicata are racemes born singularly or in pairs from the axils of the lower leaves. The racemes measure 300mm to 1500mm long and have from 18 to 40 individual flowers. The pure white narrow ovate to obovate lateral sepals measure 6mm to 19mm in length by 3.5mm 8mm in width. The pure white ovate dorsal sepal measures 8mm to 16mm in length by 8mm 15mm in width. The pure white lateral petals measure 5mm to 15mm in length by 2mm to 6mm in width. The pure white labellum has pure white lobes and a yellow calli and measures 26mm to 28mm in length. The upper lobes situated beneath the calli measure 4mm to 12 mm in length by 2mm to 5mm in width. The lower or apex lobes measure 8mm to 15mm in length by 5mm to 10mm in width. The apex is obtuse and plicate. The pure white spur measures 10mm to 30mm in length. The flowers appear from late October to early January.

The fruits of Calanthe triplicataare ovoidal to cylindrical capsules. The capsules measure 28mm to 40mm in length by 15mm to 27mm in diameter. The pale grass-green pods turn creamy fawn and split longitudinally but remain joined at the base and apex. The cream winged seeds are minute.

Wildlife:

Calanthe triplicata is the host to numerous small native bees when in flower and pollen flies when in flower.

Cultivation:

Calanthe triplicata is a beautiful orchid which is hardy and easy to grow and to propagate at least from division, as far south as Melbourne in Victoria along the coast. It does very well either in the bush house, in a humus rich soil in frost free locations. Be aware, if they are planted in the ground they must have plenty of shade, be protected from drying winds and have all year round moisture.

The flowers of these orchids bruise very easily and turn grey prematurely on handling or from wind. The flowers turn black on drying or if pressed.

They make a beautiful addition on the ground cover in rainforest gardens.

Propagation:

Seeds: Calanthe triplicata seeds require treatment before sowing. Really Orchid seeds are meant for professionals with time, equipment and space. However if you wish to persevere then here are the basics and you are learning from an amateur. You will need the following, a flask, Chloros solution, boiled water, an eye dropper, paper bag, a warm sheltered position and a lot of patience and luck. This is a most difficult orchid to grow even by professionals as it detests root disturbance and being reorientated.

1.Collecting the seed: seed can only be collected from fully ripe pods. You may need to watch a pod for several days or even weeks following the time it stops swelling for it to turn olive yellow. At this stage the pod must be watched carefully for the pod to commence spitting along the placenta. If possible place the paper bag over the pod and tie it off. If necessary place a plastic bag over the paper bag to prevent rain or moisture contacting the seeds.

  • Knowledge is very important now, as different species and genre have various numbers of viable seed in a pod. Viable seeds may be as few as 20 or as many as several million. Check the bag daily and remove once the seed begins to disperse. Shake all the seeds from the pod into the bag.
  • Purchase the appropriate agar solution from an orchid society as they will know what you want and which one will be best for your species. Prepare the agar solution and pour into the flask.
  • Remove some of the seeds by shaking them into a solution of 1 part chloros to 20 parts water and allow soaking for 10 minutes.
  • Remove the seeds with the eye dropper in the solution and spread evenly over the set agar.
  • Place the flasks in a room that is will lit with indirect light and the temperature is a consistent 25 to 30 degrees centigrade.
  • Wait 4 to 7 months for the seedlings to develop to a stage where they can be removed and planted on into a fine orchid mix. Do not remove the seedlings from their environment of light or temperature for at least another two months. Even at this stage it is best to place the seedlings in a hot house where their environment can be controlled.

Division: When growing orchids from divisions divide them in early spring or early autumn. Make 2 to 4 equal parts, first down the middle then halve those sections again ensuring that there are sufficient pseudobulbs on each division with healthy eyes. A good guide for Calanthe triplicata is to allow each division to have at least 2 pseudobulbs and 2 back or 3 back bulbs. Remove unwanted dead leaves and any old small clumps that look weak or dead. Repot the new plants into a fresh mix and water thoroughly with a seaweed mix.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Caleana major

Classification

Class: Monocots

Order: Asparagales

Family: Orcidaceae

Subfamily: Orchidoideae

Tribe: Diurideae

Sub Tribe: Incertae sedis

Genus: Is probably named in honour of George Caley; 1770-1829 who was an English born collector of plants for Sir Joseph Banks in New South Wales.

Specie: From Magnus, which is Latin for larger, bigger or greater. It refers to plant structures, organs or the complete plant, which are of great size.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Wild Duck orchid or Large Duck orchid.

Distribution:

Caleana major is found south from Fraser Island in central coastal Queensland to the south Australian Victorian border. There are several disjunct populations as far north as Livingston to Bauhinia in central coastal Queensland and from southern Adelaide to Victor Harbour in South Australia. In Tasmania it is found on Cape Barren Island and in a line east from the north west corner to the south east corner of the state. It is mainly found on and east of the Great Dividing Range.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Caleana+major#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Caleana major prefer medium shade to light dappled shade. It is usually found in small colonies to a few plants on flats or gentle slopes in schlerophyll Eucalyptus forests, coastal or adjacent to wallums, moist scrubland and heath lands on the tablelands. The altitude ranges from near sea level to 1200 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degree in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 500mm to 1650mm average per annum. The rainfall varies considerably with some populations like those in and Ebor which gain additional moisture from orographic precipitation.

Soil Requirements:

Caleana major grows as a terrestrial orchid that is almost entirely found on better quality fatty sandy to fatty gravelly soils with copious quantities of mulch. The soils are usually derived from sandstone or at times granite. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.3m to 0.4m by 0.1m to 0.15 when in flower.

Characteristics:

Caleana major usually forms small colonies however old colonies can comprise of hundreds of individual plants. The rhizomes structure is unknown to the author.

The single, elliptical to ovate leaves of major have a clasping base while the apexes are acute to broad acute to acute. The prostrate narrow lanceolate leaves are flat and measure 100mm to 120mm in length by 6mm to 8mm in width. The discolourous laminas are grass-green tinged purple to mid green tinged purple or greenish-purple and irregularly spotted and glabrous on the upper lamina while the lower laminas are dull and slightly paler. The laminas are flat with a strongly prominent midvein while the 2 secondary veins are slightly prominent on the upper lamina. The margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Caleana majorare 1 to 5 flowers. The flowers are on a single spike from beneath the ground. The erect spike measures 300mm to 400mm in height. The grass–green pedicels are often spotted white and measure 14mm to 17mm in length including the ovary which appears to be part of the pedicel but is swollen. The ovary has 4 distinct ribs and is greenish purple turning deep purple to burgundy as it approaches the labellum. The ovary measures 5mm to 6mm in length.

The lateral sepals are deep glossy reddish-brown with white spots to deep glossy maroon-purple with white spots or rarely olive-green with deeper spots. The narrow linear lateral sepals are often channelled and measure 12mm to 15mm in length by 2mm to 2.5mm in width.

The dorsal sepal is clasping or reflexed against the column and measure 6mm to 8mm in length.

The lateral petals are deep glossy reddish-brown with white spots to deep glossy maroon-purple with white spots or rarely olive-green with deeper spots. The narrow linear lateral petals are obliquely erect and curve backwards from the labellum. The lateral petals measure 12mm to 15mm in length by 1.5mm to 2mm in width. There is a 6.5mm to 7.5mm by 1.5mm to 2mm wing which is attached to the basal half of the lateral petals.

The labellum claw is deep glossy reddish-brown with white spots to deep glossy maroon-purple with white spots or rarely olive-green with deeper spots with a yellow to yellow-orange apex. The labellum is prominently curved supporting the inverted and erect lamina and measures 6mm to 8mm in length by 4.5mm to 6mm in width and is attached to the basal half of the lateral sepals.

The column is deep glossy reddish-brown with white spots to deep glossy maroon-purple with white spots or rarely olive-green with deeper spots with a polished, smoothly sculptured ducks head like appearance born on top of strap-like appendage. The flowers appear from September to February.

The fruits of Caleana are ellipsoidal pods. The pods measure 12mm to 20mm in length by 9mm to 16mm in diameter. The pale lime-green pods turn creamy fawn.

Wildlife:

Caleana major is the host to a few small native wasps when in flower. The flowers attract the male wasps through specific scents to induce the males into pseudocopulation relationship.

Cultivation:

Caleana major is a beautiful yet very difficult orchid to succeed with in cultivation. It is possible to grow it in the garden. They prefer and flourish in periods when the summers are drier and the winter are wet. If are fortunate enough to have the orchids growing naturally then it is a matter of letting them do their own thing and supply a constant supply of natural local mulch to feed the mycorrhizal to which they have a symbiotic relationship.

Many species are stimulated to flower by fire in the preceding summer. This can be emulated by placing banana peels and watering the plants with smoked water. Keep in mind that most of them take one or two years to recover from fire-induced flowering in the wild. Allow them to build up a reserve for 2 to 3 years before forcing them again.

Longevity in this genus is largely unknown, but similar specie of ground orchids usually live for 6 to 20 years.

Propagation:

Seeds: Caleana major seeds require treatment before sowing. Really Orchid seeds are meant for professionals with time, equipment and space. However if you wish to persevere then here are the basics and you are learning from an amateur. You will need the following, a flask, Chloros solution, boiled water, an eye dropper, paper bag, a warm sheltered position and a lot of patience and luck. This is a most difficult orchid to grow even by professionals as it detests root disturbance and being reoriented.

1.Collecting the seed: seed can only be collected from fully ripe pods. You may need to watch a pod for several days or even weeks following the time it stops swelling for it to turn olive yellow. At this stage the pod must be watched carefully for the pod to commence spitting along the placenta. If possible place the paper bag over the pod and tie it off. If necessary place a plastic bag over the paper bag to prevent rain or moisture contacting the seeds.

  1. Knowledge is very important now, as different species and genre have various numbers of viable seed in a pod. Viable seeds may be as few as 20 or as many as several million. Check the bag daily and remove once the seed begins to disperse. Shake all the seeds from the pod into the bag.
  2. Purchase the appropriate agar solution from an orchid society as they will know what you want and which one will be best for your species. Prepare the agar solution and pour into the flask.
  3. Remove some of the seeds by shaking them into a solution of 1 part chloros to 20 parts water and allow soaking for 10 minutes.
  4. Remove the seeds with the eye dropper in the solution and spread evenly over the set agar.
  5. Place the flasks in a room that is will lit with indirect light and the temperature is a consistent 25 to 30 degrees centigrade.
  6. Wait 4 to 7 months for the seedlings to develop to a stage where they can be removed and planted on into a fine orchid mix. Do not remove the seedlings from their environment of light or temperature for at least another two months. Even at this stage it is best to place the seedlings in a hot house where their environment can be controlled.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Caleana minor

Classification:

Unranked: Monocots

Order: Asparagales

Family: Orcidaceae

Subfamily: Orchidoideae

Tribe: Diurideae

Genus: FromKaleana, which is Ancient Greek for a calamity. It may refer to the mix up with the uncanny similarity in appearance of a flying duck and an orchid together.

Species: FromMinor, which is Latin for smaller. It refers to plants, which are smaller than other species in the genus.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Small Duck Orchid.

Distribution:

minor is found on Mount Victoria on the Geraldton Sand plains in Western Australia.

In the east it is found in several disjunct populations south from the Blackdown Tablelands, Fraser Island and Carnarvon National Park Queensland to the Grampians in south western Victoria and Mount Gambier and the lower Flinders Ranges south of Adelaide in South eastern South Australia.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Caleana+minor#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Caleana minor prefers medium shade to dappled shade. It usually grows in small colonies on slopes and ridges in dry sclerophyll shrub lands, dry open woodlands, dry open forests or grasslands often in association with Pteridium esculatum (Bracken fern.) Its altitude ranges from 15 meters ASL to 960 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in August to 39 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 300mm to 2000mm average per annum.

Soil requirements:

Caleana minor grows as a terrestrial orchid on gravelly or storey soils often close to the pant rocks. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH are preferred. It does not tolerate water logged soils.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.1m to 0.2m by 0.6m to 0.1m.

Characteristics:

Caleana minor grows as a slender terrestrial orchid with 1 to several shoots in a tight clump.

Caleana minor has a single erect linear leaf. The leaves measure 30mm to 120mm in length by 2mm to 3mm in width. The base is clasping while the apex is acute. The concolourous, coriaceous lamina is grass-green and glabrous. The lamina is semi conduplicate while the margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Caleana minor are long stiff, erect to pendulant spikes. The spikes usually have 1 to 7 minute, individual flowers. The spikes measure 60mm to 200mm in length. The ovary is distinctly swollen compared to the pedicel and measure 3mm to 5mm in overall length while the pedicel measures 3mm to 5mm in length. The flowers are yellowish-green with maroon suffusions and markings.

The dorsal sepal clasps the column and measure 6mm to 8mm in length.

The broad linear sepals curve strongly downwards and measure 6mm to 8mm in length.

The narrow linear petals curve strongly downwards then forward on the apical half and measure 7mm to 9mm in length.

The labellum claw measures 2mm to 2.5mm in length by 1.5mm to 2mm in width. The lamina is erect or angled upwards and measures 5mm to 6mm in length by 2mm to 2.5mm in width. The lamina is compressed, lepidote with a narrowing bilobed beak on one end and are solitary strap like appendage on the other end. The column measures 5mm to 7mm length while the wings measure 4mm to 5mm in width. The flowers appear from November to January.

Caleana minor’s fruits are ellipsoidal capsules. The green capsules turn deep grey where ripe.

Wildlife:

Caleana minor is visited by native bees and several species of hover flies and pollen wasps.

Cultivation:

Caleana minor is an unusual terrestrial orchid to grow in the garden. If you are lucky enough to have them growing it is worthwhile preserving the area by marking it out. The best method to establish a colony is to mark the area with stakes where the plants are known to occur. Use organic mulch to lightly top dress the area on an annual basis.

Orchid enthusiasts have found this orchid to be less temperamental than most ground orchids to keep in the bush house. Caleana minor can be grown in pots in a free draining, sandy mix with organic matter incorporated. It requires good air circulation in a protected position beneath 30mm to 50mm shade cloth during the growing period from mid-winter to late summer. During the growing period the plants must be kept moist not wet at all times. After the leaves have died back to the tuber, the pots should be allowed to dry out completely and not watered until the following July.

Propagation:

Seeds: Caleana minor’s seeds are very difficult to acquire and qui treatment before sowing. Really Orchid seeds are meant for professionals with time, equipment and space. However if you wish to persevere then here are the basics and you are learning from an amateur. Once the orchids are large enough to handle treat it similarly to other ground orchids.

All ferns that are declared rare, vulnerable or endangered are protected by Federal and State Laws and must not be removed from the wild unless you are a land developer, mining company or main Roads department etc. This includes bulbs, roots, leaves and flowers. No part of any plant can be removed from Federal, State or Local Government land without the prior permission of the authority and this includes the spore.

1. Obtain relevant materials

The first step in growing orchid from seed will be sourcing and having at the ready all materials that will be required in the propagation process.

This includes all of the following:

Unripe orchid seed capsule. If there are 2 capsules secure the second capsule immediately after the first capsule splits or if only one capsule as soon as it changes colour.

Orchid gelling medium with agar which can be purchased from an orchid society or a specialist nursery.

Distilled water

Cooking pot

Spoon

Oven-safe glass or polypropylene containers with lids

Sealable bags

Clean, sterilized cutting board

Rubber gloves

Paper towels

Tweezers or forceps

70 percent ethanol

Bleach

Scalpel or sharp knife

Planting pot

Orchid compost

Length of wire metal

Plastic spray bottle.

deep petri dishes or sterile jars.

2. Prepare agar medium

The agar medium is a special orchid gelling mixture that distilled water will be added to distilled water.

To prepare the medium, mix equal parts of orchid gelling medium with distilled water in a cooking pot.

Place the pot on a stove and bring the mixture to boil for while stirring continuously for two minutes.

Pour the mixture into the petri dishes glass or propylene containers while ensuring not to fill the containers above 20 percent of their volume.

Loosely replace the lids to the containers. Sterilize the containers by heating them up in a microwave oven for between 2 to 3 minutes.

Spray 70 percent ethanol into a sealable bag to create a sterile environment. Transfer the heated containers into the sealable bag.

Allow the containers to cool a bit before tightening their lids and then sealing the bag. Leave the containers to stand for a few days until the mixture solidifies.

3. Prepare seed capsule and work surface

Place an open pot of water on a stove and bring to boil. Place the cutting board in the oven and sterilize.

Put on rubber gloves and sterilize the forceps, and scalpel with 70 percent ethanol.

Insert the seed capsule into a bowel filled with bleach for about fifteen minutes.

Sterilize seed capsule again with 70 percent ethanol and place on grill.

Using the sterilized scalpel, cut open the seed capsule to reveal the seeds. Using a scalpel or sharp knife, scrape out the seeds from the capsule unto an ethanol soaked paper towel.

4. Flasking of the seed

Take out the petri dishes or glass jars containers holding the agar medium. Over the steam, open up the containers and transfer seeds from the ethanol soaked paper towel into the individual containers using the sterilized forceps.

The amount of seeds will determine the number of containers required.  Replace the lid of the containers and place them on  a window sill that receives indirect sunlight.

5. Wait and exercise patience

All that can be done at this point is to wait until the seeds germinate. The amount of time that this might take varies and is dependent on the particular species.

Generally, the time can range from a few months to a few years. During this period of waiting, ensure the containers are free from contamination to ensure that germination is not disrupted.

6. Emergence of protocorms

Protocorms are tuber-shaped bodies with rhizoids that are produced by the young seedlings of various orchids. Protocorms represent the embryonic form of the orchid plant.

Their emergence after the period of waiting at an affirmation that everything in the propagation process is on track.

7. Transflask orchid seedlings is done after they have developed roots

Upon the emergence of the protocorms, consistently observe the growth of the seedlings. At the point when the seedlings appear to overcrowd the flask, transflasking should be carried out, typically within 30 and 60 days.

* This is done by removing individual seedlings using sterilized tweezers from the original containers and placing them in new containers also filled, in a proportion similar to the original, with agar medium. 6 to 8 in a standard petri dish or 1or 2 to a test tube

8. Transplant seedlings into planting pots

On the presumption that there are no disruptions to the plant growth, the seedlings will eventually outgrow the containers.

At this point, they are to be transplanted into planting pots. A good rule of thumb to determine when they are ready to be transplanted is when the seedlings have developed roots that have grown up to the length of one-quarter of an inch.

To transplant, prepare a planting pot or other container for receiving the seedling by majorly filling it up with coarse fir bark and possibly some slightly moist orchid compost mixture containing perlite, fine charcoal, redwood bark shavings, etc.

To extract the seedlings, submerge the containers in warm water to help loosen the agar gel.

Once the agar medium is softened, twist a piece of metal to form a loop and in turn, use it to carefully pull out the seedlings from the container. It is best done if the agar and seedling can be removed together.

The seedlings can be further rinsed in lukewarm water to remove any excess agar mixture still stuck to them.

Following this, the seedlings can now be planted into the prepared pot with at least 50mm of space between each individual seedling.

9. Positioning the orchid

The seedling once fully transplanted should be placed in a location that is warm with good indirect sun light.

Slowly position the pots into an area that closely assimilates the conditions it will be growing under.

The choice as to whether the plant should be exposed to full sun or in direct sunlight will be dependent on the particular orchid specie.

10. Subsequent care of the plant

After the first week, the seedling can be misted several times a day and watered just once a week.

A guide in watering the plant will be using the dryness of the fir back that is, water the plant until the fir back is completely moistened and wait till it has completely dried out before watering again.

Do not fertilize until the seedlings have fully established themselves.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Callicarpa brevistyla

Classification

Unranked: Rosids

Class: Eudicots

Order: Lamiales

Family: Lamiaceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Karpós, which is Ancient Greek for a fruit. It refers to the fruits being rather beautiful.

Specie: From Brevis, which is Latin for short and Stŷlos, which is Ancient Greek for a part of the female reproductive organ between the ovaries and the stigma. It refers to flowers, which have much shorter styles than other species in the genus.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Beauty Berry or Native Lantana.

Distribution: Callicarpa

brevistyla is found north from the Endeavour River National Park to the tip of Cape York Peninsular and the Torres Straight Islands in far north Queensland.

It is also found south from Gove to Groote Eylandt and between Kakadu and Jabiru in Kakadu National Park in the Northern Territory.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Callicarpa+brevistyla#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Callicarpa brevistyla prefer dappled shade to full sun. It grows adjacent or along creeks streams and rivers adjacent to warm tropical, monsoonal vine forests and littoral rain forests. The altitude ranges from 50 meters ASL to 250 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 10 degree in July to 40 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 1000mm to 3000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Callicarpa brevistyla prefers soils light gravelly clays to medium clays. The soils are derived from decomposed sandstone and eroded lateritic clays. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to 7pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:6m to 10m by 6m to 8m.

Characteristics:

Callicarpa brevistyla grows as a dense shrub or small tree with scabrous, flaky to coriaceous, longitudinal tessellated grey bark is a pale fawn on older branches. The branchlets are pale grey-brown to mid brown, glabrous and sparsely covered with paler coloured oblong lenticels. The old leaf nodes are distinctly swollen. The new growth and juvenile stems are sparsely to very densely covered in pale golden-brown to pale golden puberulent or pulverulent and tomentose hairs.

The leaves of Callicarpa brevistyla are oblong-elliptical, elliptical to ovate and measure 80mm to 170mm in length by 40mm to 100mm in width. The olive–yellow petioles are sparsely to moderately covered in rusty-brown, golden-brown or golden pubescent hairs and measure 15mm to 27mm in length. The bases are cuneate usually with an attenuate section partway along the petiole while the apex is acuminate to caudate. The discolourous laminas are mid grass-green to mid olive-green, scabrous and sparsely to moderately covered in rusty-brown, golden-brown or golden puberulent to pulverulent hairs on the upper lamina while the lower laminas are paler. The laminas are flat or slightly decurve as they approach the margins and are slightly convex between the main vein and the lateral veins. The leaf margins are finely toothed. The olive-yellow mid vein and 7 to 11 lateral veins are prominent on the lower lamina and are distinctly visible from the upper laminas and are usually are purple.

The inflorescences of Callicarpa brevistyla are compound corymbs with 50 to 90 flowers in a head. The corymbs are born in the leaf axils and terminal axils. The corymbs measure 40mm to 70mm in diameter. The rachises, peduncles and pedicels are sparsely to moderately covered in rusty-brown, golden-brown or golden puberulent to pulverulent hairs. The rachises measure 8mm to 15mm in length while the peduncles measure 6mm to 14mm in length and the pedicels measure 1.5mm to 2.5mm in length.

The pale yellow-green calyx tubes measures 2mm to 3mm in length. The corolla measures 2.5mm to 3.5mm in length. The 4 oblong to ovate lobes have obtuse apexes and measure 2.5mm to 3.5mm in length. The corollas are mauve to purple pink.

The 4 mauve to pink filiform stamens measure 7mm to 9mm in length while the pale yellow oblong adnately fixed anthers measure 2mm to 2.5mm in length.

The mauve to pink style and stigma measures 7mm to 9mm in length. Flowering occurs in November to March.

The fruits of Callicarpa brevistyla are globose drupes. The green drupes turn lilac or bright purple when ripe and measure 2mm to 4mm in diameter. The fleshy drupes contain small round black seeds.

Wildlife:

Callicarpa brevistyla are eaten by numerous small honey eaters including the silver eyes and pigeons.

The fruits are edible when fully ripe. I believe they have quite an unpleasant flavour when you are not hungry and are best left to the birds.

Cultivation:

Callicarpa brevistyla is a beautiful large shrub or small tree that looks great in the garden in rockeries or on the edge of garden beds or bush land where they can be seen when in flower and fruit.

They respond well to pruning and pruning is necessary to keep the plants in a bushy state. If they become straggly or drop their leaves due to stress cut them back and apply a double dose of our fertilizer. Repeat the watering and fertilizing again a week later and the plants will recover to their former beauty very quickly. They are ideal for all gardens from the tropics to warm temperate areas in Australia. Plants in cultivation that are grown in full sun, mulched and have been lightly tip pruned will grow 4 meters to 6 meters in height by 4 meters to 6 meters in diameter and remain quite bushy.

They are fast growing and can be used to start a small suburban rain forest. The bark contrasts beautifully when mixed with other small trees like Tristaniopsis laurina, Meliocope elleryana or Meliocope micrococca if a contrast in flower colours is wanted.

Propagation:

Seeds: Callicarpa brevistyla seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix. Cover the seeds with 2mm of fine sand and water carefully so as not to disperse the seeds.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 40mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved with planting them at 1.5 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Callicarpa pedunculata

Classification

Unranked: Rosids

Class: Eudicots

Order: Lamiales

Family: Lamiaceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Karpós, which is Ancient Greek for a fruit. It refers to the fruits being rather beautiful.

Specie: From Pous, which is Ancient Greek or Pes/Pedi, which is Latin for a foot or feet. It refers to flowers, which have a peduncle and pedicel. The primary or main stalk which all the pedicels are derived.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Beauty Berry or Native Lantana.

Distribution:

Callicarpa pedunculata is found south from near Weipa on the western side of Cape York Peninsular in far north Queensland to Port Macquarrie in central New South Wales.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Callicarpa+peduncula#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

These shrubs prefer dappled shade to heavy shade. It is found adjacent or along creeks streams and rivers adjacent to warm sub-tropical and cool tropical rainforests. The altitude ranges from 10 meters ASL to 1050 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 1 degree in July to 34 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 800mm to 2000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Callicarpa pedunculata prefers light gravelly clays to medium clays. The soils are derived from decomposed basalts or decomposed shales. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to 6.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:3m to 6m by 2m to 4m.

Characteristics:

Callicarpa pedunculata grows as a dense shrub to 3 meters scabrous or rough bark fawn to the older branches. The branchlets are fawn and covered in white villous hairs. Young growth and juvenile stems are densely covered in white villous hairs.

The leaves of Callicarpa pedunculata are narrow ovate to oblong ovate and measure 50mm to 150mm in length by 30mm to 60mm in width. The bases are rounded to cordate while the apexes are acuminate. The discolourous laminas are mid grass-green and sparsely covered in fawn-brown tomentose hairs on the upper laminas while the lower laminas are fawn and moderately covered in brown tomentose hairs. The leaf margins are serrulate or evenly toothed. Juvenile leaves are paler. The petioles are covered in brown tomentose hairs and measure 5mm to 10mm in length.

Inflorescences of Callicarpa pedunculata are compound corymbs with 40 to 60 flowers in a head. The pedicels are born in the leaf axis or a little above the axis. The corymb measures 20mm to 30mm in diameter. Thepeduncle and pedicels are covered in white villous or tomentose hairs. The rachises, peduncles and pedicels are sparsely covered in white to fawn tomentose hairs. The rachises measure 10mm to 20mm in length, the peduncules measure 6mm to 10mm in length and pedicels measure 0.5mm to 1mm in length.

The calyx tubes measure 1mm to 2mm in length. The corolla measures 1.5mm to 2mm in length while the 4 lobes have an obtuse apexes and measure 1.5mm to 2mm in length. The corollas are mauve to purple pink.

The 4 mauve to pink filiform filaments measure 7mm to 10mm in length while the deep yellow anthers 1.5mm to 2mm in length.

The mauve to pink style and stigma measures 10mm to 15mm in length. The flowers appear from November to March.

The fruits of Callicarpa pedunculata are globose drupes. The green drupes turn white, lilac or bright purple when ripe and measure 2mm to 4mm in diameter. The fleshy drupes contain small round black seeds. Fruits ripen in December to April.

Wildlife:

Callicarpa pedunculata is the host to numerous beetles, native flies, midget wasps, butterflies and native bees when in flower. Many small birds are attracted to the shrubs due to the large number of small insects congregating around the flowers and later to eat the fruits. Silver eyes are a particularly common sight as the drupes ripen.

The fruits are edible when fully ripe, have a sweet but unpleasant flavour when you are not hungry. The drupes are best left to the birds.

Cultivation:

Callicarpa pedunculata is a beautiful small shrub that looks great in the garden in rockeries or on the edge of garden beds or bush land where they can be seen. They make excellent plants for court yards and pool sides as they can be pruned hard or tip pruned to any shape that is desired. They respond well to pruning and pruning is necessary to keep the plants in a bushy state. If they become straggly or drop their leaves due to stress cut them back and apply a double dose of our fertilizer. Repeat the watering and fertilizing again a week later and the plants will recover to their former beauty very quickly. It is ideal for all gardens from the tropics to temperate Australia. Plants in cultivation that are grown in full sun, mulched and have been lightly tip pruned will grow 2 meters to 3 meters in height by 2 meters to 3 meters in diameter and remain quite bushy.

They are best used adjacent to small areas of bush close to paths or the house so their colourful fruits can attract birds into view. They are great in small bush gardens as a fill in plant. Here they can be planted in small groups of 2 or 3 or as a standalone plant to create a dense understory to an open forest or autumn or early winter colour. If they are surrounded by shorter plants with fine foliage and yellow or white flowers they will dominate at the center giving an expansive look to the bed especially when they are in fruit. This is one plant that benefits highly from being scattered planted in small clumps. There small size enables this to be achieved even in small and medium size gardens.

Six or more planted back from a bend will become a very strong congregating place for small honeyeaters and other small fruit eating birds and rainforest pigeons. Even in times of drought a little water will see them flower and produce fruit. Plants that are well maintained and fertilized will produce more flowers and produce them over a longer period of time. Place them in the foreground with other fine leaf ground covers and very small shrubs. To the rear, use large leaf taller plants. Plants with white flowers from mid-summer through to early winter will complement the flowers and fruits so avoid deeper coloured flowering plants during this period. Deep red, yellow, orange or purple flowers can be used in both the mid ground and background at other times.

They often reach their full potential in just 2 years and flower from the second year. Callicarpa pedunculata should be replaced every 5 or 6 years to maintain vitality and vigour in flowering however I have had plants in Nana Glen and the Pinnacles that are over 10 years old. Tip pruning will assist in keeping the shrubs vigorous and in good health.

Propagation:

Seeds: Callicarpa pedunculata seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix. Cover the seeds with 2mm of fine sand and water carefully so as not to disperse the seeds.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 40 mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved with planting them at 1.5 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Callicoma serratifolia

Classification

Class: Magnoliopsid

Order: Oxalidales

Family: Cunoniaceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Coma which is Ancient Greek for a hair. It refers to the flowers resembling a head with a very neat and beautiful hair style.

Specie: From Serra/Serras, which are Latin for the teeth of a saw and Folium, which is Latin for foliage. It refers to margins, which resemble the cutting edge of a saw.

Common Name: Black Wattle or Butter Wood.

Distribution:

Callicoma serratifolia

is mainly found on the eastern side of the Great Dividing Range from Gladstone in southern coastal Queensland to Batemans Bay in the south of New South Wales.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Callicoma+serratifolia#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Callicoma serratifolia grows in dense shade to full sun. It is found on gentle slopes and river flats near streams, creeks and rivers in riverine rainforests, to well develop rainforests and their margins and wet closed Eucalyptus forests. The altitude ranges from 50 meters ASL to 750 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from lows of minus 2 degrees in August to 27 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from a low of 800mm to an average of 2050mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Callicoma serratifolia prefers better quality medium clays. The soils are usually derived from brown basalts or black basalts. The soil’s pH ranges from 4.5pH to 6.5pH. It tolerates seasonal water logged soils and flooding with rainforest debris often collecting 2 meters to 4 meters up the trunks and branches where it grows in riparian zones. None saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:12m to 20m by 3m to 6m.

Characteristics:

Callicoma serratifolia grows as a multi trunked or single trunked small tree. The bark of the trunk is deep grey to deep brown or even deep brown-black is rough or scabrous. The upper trunk and larger branches are glabrous and heavily encrusted with silver patches from lichen s growing on the bark. Branchlets are reddish brown and glossy while the juvenile branchlets are pinkish-red and covered in pinkish-red pilose caduceous hairs.

The elliptic to lanceolate leaves of Callicoma serratifolia are 40mm to 120mm in length and 30mm to 50mm in width. The margins are coarsely toothed. The discolours upper lamina is deep sea green glabrous or sparsely covered in white tomentose hairs while the lower lamina is white and densely covered in white to pale brown tomentose hairs. The mid vein is prominent on the lower surface as are the lateral veins and is distinctly visible on the upper lamina. The base is cuneate to round-cuneate in some plants while the apex is broad acute. The petiole is 10mm to 20 mm long with two prominent 5mm long stipules. Seedling petioles are 1mm to 3mm in length.

The inflorescence of Callicoma serratifolia heads are densely globose corymbs of 60 to 100 flowers. Each flower head is 12mm to 22mm in diameter. The Sepals are pale creamy yellow and measure 2mm in length. The stamens are the most prominent part of the flower and measure 5mm to 9mm in length. The peduncle measures 10mm to 30mm in length. Flowering occurs from early October to late December. In good seasons there may be the odd flower throughout the year.

The fruits of Callicoma serratifolia are small compact capsules clustered together in a head. The head measures 14mm to 18mm in diameter. The style is persistent on the ripening capsules. Each capsule contains one seed. The capsules ripen from late February.

Wildlife:

Callicoma serratifolia is smothered in thousands of beetles, native flies, midget wasps, butterflies and native bees when in flower. I have seen several small parrots on the trees when the fruits are ripe but cannot verify whether the birds were eating the seeds.

Cultivation:

Callicoma serratifolia is a beautiful small tree or large shrub that looks great in the garden as a feature plant or in the center of a bush garden. The very showy leaves make them a sought after addition to add colour throughout the year especially when there is a small breeze blowing to ruffle the leaves.

They often reach their full potential of 6 meters by 4 meters in around 5 years in cultivation. They will flower from the second year. It flowers best where the ground has even moisture and temperatures remain above 4 degrees.

Callicoma serratifolia can be used as a shrub or small tree. If a shrub is required they must be pruned on an annual basis or a leader shoot will emerge and endeavour to grow as a tree. We tip prune our tree and this helps keep the tree bushy and assists in more prolific blooming.

Applications of a double strength fertilizers like the ones suggested below in late winter will also benefit the tree and help produce larger flowering stems.

Callicoma serratifolia make excellent subjects for starting a rainforest garden, shelter belts or erosion control on sandy soils where light frosts occur. Trees grown at Nana Glen have been subjected to minus 6 degree temperatures with damage being restricted to young growth and lower flower spikes older trees. Young trees have been badly burnt off, only to resprout from the trunk at ground level.

The trees are relative short lived being pioneering specie so it is best to replace trees that are 10 to 12 years of age. In saying that on good fertile land we have had trees in for nearly 20 years and they still look very healthy and growing strong.

Propagation:

Seeds: Sow fresh seeds into a seed raising mix and cover with 2mm of the mix in early spring once the last frosts have subsided. Keep the mix moist not wet and in a semi shaded position.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved by planting them at 4 meters or closer if they are being used in reforestation denigrated land. The trees can be thinned once the braches start to touch each other to allow the strongest plants to survive. The culled plants can be further used as mulch or laid out to assist in erosion control. The stems even 15mm to 30mm in diameter will decompose in a season.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Callitriche muelleri

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Asterids

Order: Lamiales

Family: Plantaginaceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Thrix, which is Ancient Greek for a hair. It refers to the single stamen which somewhat resembles a beautiful hair.

Specie:Is named in honour of Ferdinand Von Mueller; 1825-1896, who was a German born Australian Botanist who named over 2000 new species and was director of the Melbourne Botanic Gardens.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Callitriche muelleri is found south from the Sunshine Coast in southern coastal Queensland to the Glenelg River in southern western Victoria. It is also found entirely on and east of the Great Dividing Range except for an isolated population in the Carnarvon Gorge in central Queensland. There are 2 further populations to the north in Mount Archer National Park and North of Mareeba to north of Innisfail.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Callitriche+muelleri#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Callitriche muelleri prefer dappled shade to full shade. It is found in wet depressions and drainage lines in schlerophyll forests, woodlands, moist heaths, wet gallery forests and often along streams and creeks. The altitude ranges from 100 meters ASL to 1200 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degree in July to 37 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 700mm to 3200mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Callitriche muelleri prefer grey, red or brown sandy soils to fatty sands or light clays. The soils are derived from decomposed sandstone, brown basalts, black basalts and metamorphic rocks. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. It tolerates water logged soils especially those where the soils are always moist or wet from seepages or depressions where water percolates following rain. It however is weakened substantially when submerged for prolonged periods. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:0.02m to 0.1m by 1m to several square meters.

Characteristics:

Callitriche muelleri grows as a prostrate spreading annual. The rhizomes are extensively branched forming filiform, succulent stems which root from the nodes. The stems and nodes are pale grass-green to pale lime-green and glabrous.

The leaves of Callitriche muelleriare rhomboid to rounded deltoid and measure 5mm to 8mm in length by 5mm to 8mm in width. The bases are truncate to broadly rounded while the apex obtuse to broad acute often with a short apiculate tip. The concolourous or discolourous laminas are mid grass-green to mid lime-green and glabrous on the upper laminas while the lower laminas maybe slightly paler. The leaf margins are entire or with one or 2 small rounded teeth on each side.

Inflorescences of Callitriche muelleriare produced in pairs from the leaf nodes. 1 is male and the other is a pistillate female flower from each pair. The flowers are sessile to shortly pedicillate and measure 0.3mm to 0.5mm in diameter. The female flower has 2 carpals.

The white filaments measure 0.1mm to 0.2mm in length and have yellow anthers. The pistils measure 0.1mm to 0.2mm in length.

The white pistil is uniform colour throughout its length and measures 4.5mm to 5.5mm in length. The flowers appear from October to December.

Fruit sub sessile fruits usually measure 1mm to 1.2 in length by 1.2mm to 1.3mm in width with 2 to 4 broad pale papery wings.

Wildlife:

Callitriche muelleri is unknown to the author.

The leaves and young stems are edible raw having a sweet lettuce taste. The plants are ideal chopped and used in tossed salads or potato salad. The location of plants to be used as a culinary delight should be free of septic or animal wastes or sprays due to contamination.

Cultivation:

Callitriche muelleri is an easy to grow small herb for moist areas in shady to semi shady positions in the garden. They make an excellent rockery plants especially when planted between moisture loving ferns and lilies. They always look green and fresh especially where adequate ground moisture is retained whether they are grown in light shade or full sun. They are very suitable on sandy soils to heavy clays.

Around a formal small fish or frog pond they can be used as the main plant. Imagine a small pond with fish swimming. Beside it is a mass planting of Callitriche muelleri with Adiantum aethiopicum, and above them is water cascading down over small rocks. This is very powerful yet formal and relaxing. They can partially surround such a scene and still look effective. Use them in small groups with smaller rocks or in front of a small log feature. The vertical stems and linear leaves of plants like Lomandra leucocephala or Bulbostylis densa crowded with Callitriche muelleri will create a totally different look to the ferns and yet still make longer looking logs, larger rocks and ponds that have greater diameter. Very small prostrate plants are about the only compatible plants required so not to overpower the Callitriche muelleri so use dwarf plants like Viola betonicifolia or Ajuga australis.

Propagation:

Seeds: Callitriche muelleri seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix. Cover the seeds with 2mm of fine sand and water carefully so as not to disperse the seeds.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 40mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved with planting them at 1.5 meter centers.

Runners: The best and easiest method of propagation is to cut squares from an existing block where the plants are growing vigorously. Water the area if it is not wet and remove the clumps in the evening and place on loosened ground partially covering the plants with fine sand. Water the clumps thoroughly, keep moist and stand back. Though the plants are easy to propagate using runners they are never problem-some in the garden.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Callitris baileyi

Classification:

Class: Pinophyta

Order: Pinopsida

Family: Cupressaceae

Subfamily: Mimosoideae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Tri/Treis which is Ancient Greek for three. It refers to fruiting cones, which have three large and three small scales.

Specie: Is named in honour of Frederick Mason Bailey; 1827-1915, who was an English born Australian seed collector and curator of the Queensland Museum.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Bailey’s Cypress

Distribution:

Callitris baileyi

is from northern New South Wales near the border north to Goomeri and North West to Queensland’s Bunya Mountains.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Callitris+baileyi#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Callitris baileyi prefer full sun to dappled shade. It grows in dry open Eucalyptus forests on rocky mountainous slopes, rocky hillsides and rocky ridges. The altitude ranges from 150 meters ASL to 900 meters ASL.

The temperature ranges from 1 degree in July to 37 degrees in January.

The rainfalls range from lows of 450mm to 1200mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Callitris baileyi prefers soils that are shallow and have high clay content to shallow clays dominated by rocky substrates. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. It is not tolerant of water logging. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:15m to 20m by 4m to 6m

Characteristics:

Callitris baileyi grows as a slender multi trunked small conifer. The bark is grey to grey-fawn with rough longitudinal scabrous furrows on the lower part of the trunk. The upper sections of the trunk become more glabrous. This extends to the larger branches. Smaller branches are glabrous, light grey and bear rings from the old leaf base on the stem. Juvenile branchlets are deep blue-green to grass-green and glabrous.

The deep blue-green leaves measure 2mm to 5mm in length. They are glabrous and are arranged in threes around the young stems. There is a prominent acute keel along the lower lamina.

Callitris baileyi are dioecious with male and female cones appearing on separate trees. Male cones measure 2mm to 3mm in length and appear at the end of the branchlets.

The oblong to ovoid glabrous female cones measure 13mm to 20mm in length by 8mm by 11mm in diameter. Female Cones are born singularly on special fruiting branchlets. The adjacent scales on the cones are shorter and narrower. There is a dorsal point just below the apex of the scales. Fruits ripen to a light fawn grey colour and produce 6 to 10 seeds per cone. The columella is stout and greatly narrowed at the base.

The fawn-brown seeds measure 3mm in length. One wing measures 3mm in length while the other wing measures 8mm in length. Cones are produced throughout the year.

Wildlife:

Callitris baileyi wildlife is unknown to the author; however I would think that larger rosellas and parrots would feed on the seeds as they do on other Callitris.

Cultivation:

Callitris baileyi is a beautiful small columular tree that looks great in the garden where a formal look is required or along long driveways. They can be used very effectively on rocky sites with heavy clay soils provided the drainage is good. Good specimens in cultivation will grow 12 meters to 15 meters tall by 4 meters in diameter when grown in the open. Plants grown in partial shade tend to spread out more and become sparser in foliage. This conifer should be more widely grown on heavier clay soils and poor decomposed shales or where saline conditions prevail close to the coast. They are also drought resistant once established.

A Specimen growing at Coramba on shale, in northern New South Wales grew relatively fast for a Callitris specie, maintained its shape and colour without being fertilized following its initial planting out.

The trees can be used to highlight architectural lines on buildings to great effect because of the trees tall pyramidal shape.

Callitris baileyi is ideal for planting near buildings as it helps break up boring straight lines yet take up very little room. It would be good in formal gardens and certainly could replace many of the exotic conifers grown in the sub tropics which lose their leaves and never really look strong and healthy. It is also ideal in warm temperate zones.

Placed in a formal garden bed they can be surrounded by ground covers that prefer acid soils as the fallen leaves will acidify the soil. Most Grevillea specie are compatible and prefer acid soils. Use Grevillea specie with larger deep green leaves for contrast. Avoid plants with yellow flowers and blue or grey foliage. This is a Callitris of moister soils than most so it can be planted below with ferns that prefer drier conditions. Asplenium australis, Dryandra, Platycerium bifurcatum or Davallia species all look really natural when planted on rocks or logs or tied to the trunk of Callitris baileyi.

Propagation:

Seeds: Callitris baileyi seeds do not need treatment but special care should be taken not to overwater and place them where there is a lot of filtered light.

Sow the seeds directly into a seed raising mix and cover them with 5mm of the mix. Keep moist but not wet. When the seedlings emerge allow them to dry out between watering and place them where they can receive a good amount of daily sun light.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good potting mix with good drainage.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings along driveways or hedge rows can be achieved by planting them at 6 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health and vitality.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Callitris columellaris

Classification

Class: Pinophyta

Order: Pinales

Family: Cupressaceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Tri/Treis which is Ancient Greek for three. It refers to fruiting cones, which have three large and three small scales.

Specie: From Columnar which is Latin for a column or pillar. It refers to a small column of tissue which runs up vertical through the centre of a spore or seed capsule.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Coastal Cypress.

Distribution

Callitris columellaris is a wide spread specie found all over Australia except for the true deserts, eastern monsoonal zones and the tropical zones. It is probably more wide spread than indicated on the map due to the isolation of many areas in central Australia.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Callitris+columellaris#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Callitris columellaris prefers full sun on open plains and back dunes on the coast and flat plains in the west. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 450 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in July to 38 degrees in January.

The rainfalls range from a low of 200mm to an average of 1600mm annually. It is more prevalent in the lower rainfall areas where rainfall is between 350mm to 600mm per year.

Soil Requirements:

Callitris columellaris prefers to grow on coastal skeletal sands and inland skeletal sands and decomposed sandstones. The soils are mainly sandy loams, sandy clays, sandy clays with laterite and gravelly clays. The soils pH ranges from 6pH to 7.5pH. It is not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 12m to 18m by 3m to 5m

Characteristics:

Callitris columellaris is single or multi trunk tree. It has deeply furrowed scabrous grey trunk with erect branches is the norm for this conifer. The trunk is deep brown to almost black and has deep longitudinal fissures. The bark is tessellated between the furrows and is rough. This extends to the larger branches. Smaller branches are glabrous to rough, light grey brown and bear rings from the old leaf base on the stem. Juvenile branchlets are a bright green occasionally glaucous-green and glabrous.

The small acute leaves of Callitris columellaris measure 1mm to 3mm in length are glabrous and are arranged in threes or fours around the young stems. There is no dorsal keel along the lower lamina.

Callitris columellaris are monoecious with male and female cones appearing separately on the same trees. The male cones measure 2mm to 3mm in length and appear at the ends of the branchlets.

The round, ovoidal to depressed globose, glabrous female cones measure 17mm to 20mm in length by 15mm by 20mm in diameter. Female Cones are born on special fruiting branchlets. The adjacent scales on the cones are very short and much narrower. There dorsal point is absent or very faint. If the dorsal point is visible it is just below the apex of the scales.

The scales split almost to the base when ripe. The 3 larger scales measure 19mm to 22mm in length while the 3 smaller scales measure 15mm to 17mm in length.

The columella is variable, thick angled and measures 5mm to 7mm in length.

Fruits ripen to a light fawn grey colour. The flattened ovate seeds measure 3mm to 5 mm in diameter. The wings on the seeds measure a 6mm on each side. Cones and pollen appear from September to February.

Wildlife:

Callitris columellaris’s wildlife is unknown to the author; however I would think that larger rosellas and parrots would feed on the seeds as they do on other Callitris specie.

Cultivation:

Callitris columellaris is a beautiful small columular tree that looks great in the garden where a formal look is required or along long driveways. They can be used very effectively on sandy sites close to the coast. Good specimens in cultivation will grow 8 meters to 10 meters tall by 4 meters to 5 meters in diameter when grown in the open. Plants grown in partial shade tend to become very twiggy. This conifer should be more widely grown on poor, skeletal soils. They are very drought resistant once established.

They can be used in coastal districts as a wind break where salt laden winds are a problem. They also have the advantage that they can be used in areas where soil salinity is a problem and other more sensitive plants cannot be grown successfully.

The bark is suitable for epiphytic ferns and orchids once the trees are established. When you use epiphytes use those that can cope with more exposure to the elements. Platycerium bifurcatum, Pyrrosia rupestre and Durabaculum undulatum (Dendrobium discolor) are a few that come instantly to mind.

Specimens growing at Nana Glen on old gold mining tailings, where severe frosts occur with temperatures down to minus 6 and at the top of a dry windswept rise saw these trees take several years to establish. Once they had established themselves they grew rather quickly for a Callitris, maintained their shape and colour without being fertilized following its initial planting out.

The trees can be used to highlight architectural lines on buildings to great effect because of the trees excellent pyramidal shape.

Callitris columellaris is ideal for planting near buildings as they help break up boring straight lines yet take up very little room they would be good in formal gardens and certainly could replace many of the exotic conifers grown in the sub tropics which lose their leaves and never really look strong and healthy. They are also ideal in warm temperate zones.

Placed in a formal garden bed they can be surrounded by ground covers that prefer acid soils as the fallen leaves will acidify the soil. Most Grevillea specie are compatible and prefer acid soils. Use Grevillea specie with larger deep green or glaucous leaves for contrast. Avoid plants with glaucous leaves if the Callitris is a form that has blue or grey foliage.

They also make very good bonsai plants and are easy to work.

Propagation:

Seeds: Callitris columellaris seeds do not need treatment but special care should be taken not to over water and place them where there is a lot of sun.

Sow the seeds directly into a seed raising mix and cover them with 5mm of the mix. Keep moist but not wet. When the seedlings emerge allow them to dry out between watering and place them where they can receive a good amount of daily sun light.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good potting mix with good drainage.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved by planting the plants at 6 meters.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health and vitality.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Callitris endlicheri

Classification

Class: Pinophyta

Order: Pinales

Family: Cupressaceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Tri/Treis which is Ancient Greek for three. It refers to fruiting cones, which have three large and three small scales.

Specie: Is named after Stephen Ladisuas Enderlicher; 1805-1849, who was an Austrian botanist who formulated a major plant classification system.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Black Cypress

Distribution:

Callitris endlicheri is found south from Rockhampton to the Victorian New South Wales border. It is mainly found on the Western Slopes of the Great Dividing Range.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Callitris+endlicheri#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Callitris endlicheri prefers full sun. It grows amongst medium trees in dry scrub lands often on steep slopes ridges and plateaus. The altitude ranges from 100 meters ASL to 750 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 2 degrees in July to 38 degrees in January. The trees can tolerate light to medium size frosts even in their first year.

The rainfall is from a low of 300mm to an average of 1000mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Callitris endlicheri prefer deep medium clay soils, loam clays, sandy clays gravelly clays. The soils pH. ranges from 6pH to 7.5pH. It is not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:12m to 18m by 3m to 5m

Characteristics:

Callitris endlicheri is single or multi trunk tree. It has deeply furrowed scabrous grey trunk with erect branches is the norm for this conifer. The trunk is deep brown to almost black and has deep longitudinal furrows. The bark is flaky and tough to pull from the trunk. This extends to the larger branches. Smaller branches are glabrous to rough and scabrous, light grey brown and bear rings from the old leaf base on the stem. Juvenile branchlets are a bright glaucous green to glaucous and glabrous.

The broad acuminate leaves of Callitris endlicheri measure 2mm to 4mm in length. The leaves are glabrous and are arranged in threes or fours around the young stems. There is no prominent ridge along the lower lamina.

Callitris endlicheri are monoecious with male and female cones appearing on the same trees.

Male cones measure 10mm to 13mm in length and appear at the end of the branchlets. Pollen is khaki to yellow-brown.

The globose or depressed globose to ovoid glabrous female cones are born singularly or in small clusters of 2, 3 or 4 and measure 15mm to 20mm in length by 15mm by 20mm in diameter. Female Cones are born on special fruiting branchlets. The adjacent smaller scales are oblong and narrower while the longer scales are club shape. There is a triangular dorsal point just below the apex of the scales.

The scales split almost to the base when ripe. The 3 larger scales measure 17mm to 22mm in length while the 3 smaller scales measure 12mm to 15mm in length.

The columella is variable, thick angled and measures 1.5mm to 3mm in length.

Fruits ripen to a light grey colour. The seeds which measure 3mm to 4mm and have a 6mm wing. Cones and pollen appear from September to February.

Wildlife:

Callitris endlicheri wildlife is unknown to the author; however it would be reasonable to believe that larger rosellas and parrots would feed on the seeds as they do on other Callitris specie.

Cultivation:

Callitris endlicheri is a beautiful small columular tree that looks great in the garden where a formal look is required or along long driveways. They can be used very effectively on heavier soils. Good specimens in cultivation will grow 10 meters to 12 meters tall by 4 meters to 5 meters in diameter in full sun. Plants grown in partial shade tend to spread out more and become very twiggy. This conifer should be more widely grown around homesteads in semi-arid and arid areas. They are also drought resistant once established.

Specimens growing at Nana Glen on old gold mining tailings, where severe frosts occur cope with temperatures down to minus 6 and at the top of a dry windswept rise saw these trees take several years to establish. Once they had established themselves they grew rather quickly without being fertilized following their initial planting out.

The trees can be used to highlight architectural lines on buildings to great effect because of the trees excellent pyramidal shape especially in semi-arid areas of Australia.

Callitris endlicheri is ideal for planting near buildings as they help break up boring straight lines yet take up very little room they would be good in formal gardens and certainly could replace many of the exotic conifers grown in the sub tropics which lose their leaves and never really look strong and healthy. They are also ideal in temperate zones.

Placed in a formal garden bed they can be surrounded by ground covers that prefer acid soils as the fallen leaves will acidify the soil. Most Grevilleas are compatible and prefer acid soils. Use Grevilleas with larger deep green leaves for contrast. Avoid plants with yellow flowers and blue or grey foliage.

It also makes very good bonsai plants and are easy to work.

Propagation:

Seeds: Callitris endelicheri seeds do not need treatment but special care should be taken not to over water, place them where it is airy and there is a lot of sun.

Sow the seeds directly into a seed raising mix and cover them with 5mm of the mix. Keep moist but not wet. When the seedlings emerge allow them to dry out between watering and place them where they can receive a good amount of daily sun light.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good potting mix with good drainage.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings along driveways and fence lines can be achieved by planting the plants at 6 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health and vitality.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Callitris glaucophylla

Classification

Class: Pinophyta

Order: Pinales

Family: Cupressaceae

Genus:From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Tri/Treis which is Ancient Greek for three. It refers to fruiting cones, which have three large and three small scales.

Specie: From Glaucous, which is Latin for a filmy blueish or greyish white powdery covering and Phullon/Phýllon, which is Ancient Greek for a leaf. It refers to leaves or phyllodes, which are covered in a blueish-grey, powdery film.

Sub specie:

Common Name: White Cypress

Distribution:

Callitris glaucophylla is widespread south of the Tropic of Capricorn in all mainland states. It is a plant of arid and semi-arid areas. Callitris glaucophylla will not be found growing in any of the true deserts of Australia except for three isolated areas between The Great Sandy desert and the Victoria Desert in the Gibson Desert. It is not found in the Simpson Desert, or the deserts on the border regions of the Northern Territory, Queensland and South Australia.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Callitris+glaucophylla#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Callitris glaucophylla prefers full sun. It grows on gentle slopes and flats. The altitude ranges from 5 meters BSL to 500 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 6 to in excess of 40 degrees.

The rainfalls range from lows of 180mm to an average of 900mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Callitris glaucophylla prefer to grow red, orange or white sand and fatty sands through to sandy loams and sandy loams and light gravelly clays. The soils pH ranges from 6pH to 7.5pH. It is not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 12m to 20m by 5m to 6m

Characteristics:

Callitris glaucophylla is a single trunked tree which has a rough deeply furrowed, grey-brown bark with erect branches. This extends to the larger branches. Smaller branches are glabrous light grey brown. Juvenile branchlets are a blue green to glaucous, glabrous.

The leaves of Callitris glaucophylla are not keeled and measure 1.5mm to 3mm in length. They are glabrous and are arranged in threes or fours in whirls around the young stems.

Callitris glaucophylla are monoecious with male and female cones appearing on the same trees. The pollen is khaki to yellow-brown.

The globose or depressed globose to ovoid glabrous female cones are born singularly and measure 15mm to 25mm in length by 15mm by 20mm in diameter. Female Cones are born on special fruiting branchlets. The adjacent smaller scales are oblong and narrower while the longer scales are club shape. There is a triangular dorsal point just below the apex of the scales.

The scales split almost to the base when ripe. The 3 larger scales measure 17mm to 27mm in length while the 3 smaller scales measure 15mm to 21mm in length.

The columella is slender and measures 5mm to 9mm in length.

Fruits ripen to a light grey colour and are discarded shortly after ripening. The seeds which measure 3mm to 4mm and have a 6mm wing. Cones and pollen appear from September to February.

Wildlife:

Callitris glaucophylla wildlife is unknown to the author; however it would be reasonable to believe that larger rosellas and parrots would feed on the seeds as they do on other Callitris specie.

Cultivation:

Callitris glaucophylla is a beautiful small columular tree that looks great in the garden where a formal look is required or along long driveways. They can be used very effectively on heavier soils. Good specimens in cultivation will grow 10 meters to 12 meters tall by 4 meters to 5 meters in diameter in full sun. Plants grown in partial shade tend to spread out more and become very twiggy. This conifer should be more widely grown around homesteads in semi-arid and arid areas. They are also drought resistant once established.

Specimens grown at Nana Glen on old gold mining tailings, where severe frosts occur cope with temperatures down to minus 6 and at the top of a dry windswept rise saw these trees take several years to establish. Once they had established themselves they grew rather quickly without being fertilized following their initial planting out.

The trees can be used to highlight architectural lines on buildings to great effect because of the trees excellent pyramidal shape especially in semi-arid areas of Australia.

Callitris glaucophylla is ideal for planting near buildings as they help break up boring straight lines yet take up very little room they would be good in formal gardens and certainly could replace many of the exotic conifers grown in the sub tropics which lose their leaves and never really look strong and healthy. They are also ideal in temperate zones.

Placed in a formal garden bed they can be surrounded by ground covers that prefer acid soils as the fallen leaves will acidify the soil. Most Grevilleas are compatible and prefer acid soils. Use Grevillea with larger deep green leaves for contrast. Avoid plants with yellow flowers and blue or grey foliage.

They also make very good bonsai plants and are easy to work.

Propagation:

Seeds: Callitris glaucophylla seeds do not need treatment but special care should be taken not to over water, place them where it is airy and there is a lot of sun.

Sow the seeds directly into a seed raising mix and cover them with 5mm of the mix. Keep moist but not wet. When the seedlings emerge allow them to dry out between watering and place them where they can receive a good amount of daily sun light.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good potting mix with good drainage.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings along driveways and fence lines can be achieved by planting the plants at 6 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health and vitality.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Callitris macleayana

Classification

Class: Pinophyta

Order: Pinales

Family: Cupressaceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Tri/Treis which is Ancient Greek for three. It refers to fruiting cones, which have three large and three small scales.

Specie: Is named in honour of Sir William Macleay; 1767–1848, who first collected the seeds in which the type specimen was grown.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Stringy Bark Pine or Stringy Bark Cypress.

Distribution:

Callitris macleayana is found in several disjunct populations south from the Daintree River National Park in far north Queensland to the Hawksberry River in central coastal New South Wales. It is found on the eastern side of the Great Dividing Range.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Callitris+macleayana#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Callitris macleayana prefers full sun. It is found growing amongst tall trees adjacent to dry rainforests, wet schlerophyll forests and littoral rainforests. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 250 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 2 degrees in July to 34 degrees in January.

The rainfall is from a low of 900mm to an average of 2000mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Callitris macleayana prefer white sand to white peaty sandy soils types to sandy loams derived from decomposed sandstone, granite and at times shale or accumulated sands. The soils pH ranges from 6pH to 7.5pH. It is not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated as are salt laden winds.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 20m to 28m by 6m to 15m.

Characteristics:

Callitris macleayana is a single or multi trunked tree with spreading branches and reddish to reddish-brown sub fibrous, furrowed bark on the trunk a and larger branches. Smaller branches are glabrous resinous to slightly scabrous and pale grey brown. New growth and juvenile branchlets are grass-green, glabrous with thin chartaceous, longitudinal wings between the juvenile leaves.

The mature appressed leaves of Callitris macleayana measure 2mm to 3mm in length. The lower lamina is acutely keeled. They are glabrous and are arranged in fours around the young stems. The juvenile leaves measure 10mm to 15mm in length and are retained on the branchlets while they bear cones.

Callitris macleayana are dioecious with male and female cones appearing on the same trees. Male cones measure 3mm to 5mm in length and are rusty brown. They appear at the end of the branchlets and produce golden yellow-brown pollen.

The globose to depressed globose, glabrous female cones measure 20mm to 30mm in length by 20mm by 32mm in diameter. The female Cones are born singularly or in small clusters of three to 5 on thick woody pedicels. The pedicels measure 6mm to 10mm in length. The 6 or 8 scales are of equal size and shape and have a small dorsal point near the apex.

The scales split almost to the base when ripe. The 3 larger scales measure 22mm to 32mm in length while the 3 smaller scales measure 22mm to 32mm in length.

The 3 lobed columular are very short or 4-lobed in cones on juvenile branches.

The green fruits ripen to deep semi glossy grey cones. The deep brown seeds measure 4mm to 5mm in length by 2.5mm to 3mm in diameter and have an apex triangular wing which measures 10mm to 14mm in length by 5mm to 7mm in width. Cones and pollen appear throughout the year while the ripe cones remain on the trees well after maturing.

Wildlife:

Callitris macleayana wildlife is unknown to the author; however I would think that larger rosellas and parrots would feed on the seeds as they do on other Callitris.

Cultivation:

Callitris macleayana is a beautiful tall columular tree that looks great in the garden where a formal look is required or along long driveways. They can be used very effectively on heavy soils provided drainage is good. Good specimens in cultivation will grow 10 meters to 18 meters tall by 5 meters to 9 meters in diameter in an open situation. Plants grown in partial shade tend to spread out more and become less bushy. They are also drought resistant once established in their zones.

Specimens growing naturally at Nana Glen, where severe frosts occur with temperatures down to minus 6 and at the top of a heavily eroded hill on dry brown basalt grew very slowly over the time we were there. Once they had established themselves they still only managed 300mm a year.

The trees can be used to highlight architectural lines on buildings to great effect because of the trees excellent pyramidal shape when grown in open sunny positions.

Callitris macleayana is ideal for planting near buildings as they help break up boring straight lines yet take up very little room they would be good in formal gardens and certainly could replace many of the exotic conifers grown in the sub tropics which lose their leaves and never really look strong and healthy. They are also ideal in temperate zones.

Placed in a formal garden bed they can be surrounded by ground covers that prefer acid soils as the fallen leaves will acidify the soil. Most Grevilleas and Cassias are compatible and prefer acid soils. Use Grevilleas with larger deep green leaves for contrast.

They also make very good bonsai plants and are easy to work.

Propagation:

Seeds: Callitris macleayana seeds do not need treatment but special care should be taken not to overwater them. Place them in an airy position and where there is good filtered light or beneath 30mm shade cloth. Consistent night temperatures over 12 degrees are a must for good germination.

Sow the seeds directly into a seed raising mix and cover them with 5mm of the mix. Keep moist but not wet. When the seedlings emerge allow them to dry out between watering and place them where they can receive a good amount of daily sun light.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good potting mix with good drainage.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings along driveways, fence lines around farm sheds or windbreaks can be achieved by planting them at 4 meters for trees or 6 meters for shrubs.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health and vitality.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Callitris monticola

Classification

Class: Pinophyta

Order: Pinales

Family: Cupressaceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Tri/Treis which is Ancient Greek for three. It refers to fruiting cones, which have three large and three small scales.

Specie: From Montana which is Latinized from the Spanish word for a mountain and Kola, which is Ancient Greek or Cola which is Latin for to dwell or reside at. It refers to plants, which prefer environments that are high in the mountains.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Steelhead.

Distribution:

Callitris monticola is found in several disjunct populations south from the Carnarvon Gorge in central Queensland to near Tenterfield, along the Gilbralta Range National Park in New South Wales. It is mainly found on the Western plains and Western Slopes of the Great Dividing Range.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Callitris+monticola#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Callitris monticola prefers full sun. It is found growing amongst medium trees or low trees or high land heaths, in dry woodlands at higher altitudes. The altitude ranges from 350 meters ASL to 950 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 5 degrees in August to 32 degrees in January.

The rainfall is from a low of 600mm to an average of 1000mm annually. In areas where it is found growing orographic precipitation is high.

Soil Requirements:

Callitris monticola prefer white course sandy soils to fatty loams derived from decomposed granite or sandstone. The soils pH ranges from 5.5pH to 6pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 1.5m to 2.5m by 1.5m to 2m

Characteristics:

Callitris monticola is a multi-trunked bushy, glaucous shrub which has glabrous deep grey and tan bark with erect branches. Smaller branchlets are glabrous and brown to grey-brown. New growth and juvenile stems are glaucous.

The leaves of Callitris monticolameasure 2mm to 4mm in length. The lower lamina is prominent but not acutely keeled. They are glabrous and are arranged in threes around the young stems.

Callitris monticola are dioecious with male and female cones appearing on the same trees. Male cones measure 2mm to 3mm in length and are rusty brown. They appear at the end of the branchlets and produce golden yellow-brown pollen.

The widely ovoidal, glabrous female cones measure 10mm to 20mm in length by 15mm by 25mm in diameter. The female Cones are born solitary or in clusters of 3 to 15 on short stout fruiting branchlets. The larger scales are oblong with obtuse apexes and are rounded at the bases while the smaller adjacent scales on the cones are triangular. The dorsal points are very distinctive and large on the larger scales and very noticeable on the smaller scales.

The scales split well above the base when ripe. The 3 larger scales measure 17mm to 27mm in length while the 3 smaller scales measure 15mm to 21mm in length. The 3.5mm to 5mm columellate are large with 3 broad lobes. The lobes measure 4mm to 5mm in length.

The glaucous fruits ripen to a deep brown with cream papillate edges. Cones and pollen appear all year while the ripe cones remain on the trees until a fire or the branch dies before dispersing the seeds.

The deep brown seeds measure 2mm to 3mm in length while the wings measure 4mm to 5mm in length.

Wildlife:

Callitris monticola wildlife is unknown to the author; however I would think that larger rosellas and parrots would feed on the seeds as they do on other Callitris.

Cultivation:

Callitris monticola is a beautiful slender that offers the gardener a new vision in landscaping in the garden. Formal looks along driveways can be achieved easily in cultivation where they will grow 2 meters to 2.8 meters tall by 1 meter to 1.5 meters in diameter when grown in the open. Sandy and sandy fatty sandy loams are usually difficult to accommodate especially when something small is required. They are drought resistant once established.

Callitris monticola can be used as a large shrub with continual nipping of the growing shoots and just allowing side shoots to develop. If this is done plants can be kept to 1 meter in height by 2 meters in diameter.

This can form the basis of a very unusual rockery or heath land setting. Trees pruned like this can be used as an interesting feature on a large dry bank to great effect. To add further they could be trained to grow in one direction so that a strong wind swept heath land scene is created. If this is the theme then the windward side effect should be trimmed very low and allow it to grow out the leeward side to 1 meter in height. On the windward side use fine leaf plants smaller or equal in height to the low side of Callitris monticola. On the leeward side plants can be arranged so they become taller as they progress further away from the Callitris monticola. Again start with finer leaf plants but broader than Callitris monticola and progressively make the leaves broader and with deeper colours as you move further away. This would mean planting Callitris monticola to the far left or right of the bed or bank.

The trees can be used to highlight architectural lines on low set buildings to great effect because of the trees excellent pyramidal shape especially in smaller gardens.

Callitris monticola is ideal for planting near buildings as they help break up boring straight lines yet take up very little room they would be good in formal gardens and certainly could replace many of the exotic conifers grown in the sub tropics which lose their leaves and never really look strong and healthy. They are also ideal in temperate zones.

They can be placed informal garden beds replacing the conifers of the northern hemisphere where they compete admirably for attention. They can be surrounded by ground covers that prefer acid soils as the fallen leaves will acidify the soil. Most Grevillea specie, Cassia specie and coastal heath land plants would suffice beautifully giving colour and leaf variation as not to become boring, are compatible and prefer acid soils. Use heath dwellers with larger deep green leaves adjacent to Callitris monticola for the best foliage contrast.

Propagation:

Seeds: Callitris monticola seeds do not need treatment but special care should be taken not to over water them. Place them where there is a lot of sun or beneath 30mm shade cloth. Consistent night temperatures over 10 degrees are a must for good germination.

Sow the seeds directly into a seed raising mix and cover them with 5mm of the mix. Keep moist but not wet. When the seedlings emerge allow them to dry out between watering and place them where they can receive a good amount of daily sun light.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good potting mix with good drainage.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings along driveways, fence lines around farm sheds or windbreaks can be achieved by planting them at 4 meters for trees or 6 meters for shrubs.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health and vitality.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Callitris oblonga

Classification

Class: Pinophyta

Order: Pinales

Family: Cupressaceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Tri/Treis which is Ancient Greek for three. It refers to fruiting cones, which have three large and three small scales.

Specie: From Oblongitia, which is Latin for an ovate shape. It refers to a leaves, which are several times longer than it is wide where the blades on either side of the midvein are equal in all aspects.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Callitris oblonga is found in five separate disjunct populations south from Tenterfield in north eastern New South Wales to the Strzelecki Ranges in south eastern Victoria and the eastern half of Tasmania to as far south as Hobart. It is found on the Great Dividing Range.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Callitris+oblonga#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Callitris oblonga prefers full sun to light dappled shade. It is found growing amongst medium trees or low trees or tall heaths, in dry woodlands at higher altitudes along creeks and rivers. The altitude ranges from 50 meters ASL to 1250 meters ASL. The higher altitudes are found in the north of its range while those in the south are much lower.

The temperatures range from minus 7 degrees in August to 34 degrees in January.

The rainfall is from a low of 600mm to an average of 1250mm annually. In areas where it is found growing orographic precipitation is high and the creeks and rivers would also keep the soils moist.

Soil Requirements:

Callitris oblonga prefer white course sandy soils to gritty fatty loams derived from decomposed granite. The soils pH ranges from 5.5pH to 6pH. It tolerates water logged soils. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 3m to 5m by 2m to 3m

Characteristics:

Callitris oblonga is usually a multi trunked bushy, glaucous small tree which has a glabrous deep grey, deeply furrowed bark with erect branches. The smaller branchlets are glabrous or scaly and grey-brown. New growth and juvenile stems are glaucous.

The deep green leaves of Callitris oblonga are triangular and measure 4mm to 5mm in length. The lower lamina is prominent but not acutely keeled. They are glabrous and are arranged in fours around the young stems.

Callitris oblonga are dioecious with male and female cones appearing on the same trees. Male cones measure 2mm to 3mm in length and are rusty brown. They appear at the end of the branchlets and produce golden yellow-brown pollen.

The oblong glabrous female cones measure 12mm to 24mm in length by 10mm by 24mm in diameter. The female cones are sessile or are on short stout fruiting branchlets. They occur singly or in dense clusters on the branches. The cone scales are thick with each one tapering above to an apex usually thickened by a short woody tapering mucronate tip. The alternate scales are very much reduced to about 40mm of the size of the larger scales. The columella has short 3 lobed.

The glaucous, green fruits ripen to a glossy, deep brown to deep reddish-brown. Cones and pollen appear all year while the ripe cones remain on the trees until a fire or the branch dies before dispersing the seeds.

The deep brown seeds measure 2mm to 3mm in length while the wings measure 4mm to 5mm in length.

Wildlife:

Callitris oblonga’s wildlife is unknown to the author; however I would think that larger rosellas and parrots would feed on the seeds as they do on other Callitris.

Cultivation:

Callitris oblonga is a beautiful slender small conifer like tree that has been overlooked by the nursery trade. It offers the gardener a new vision in landscaping in cool temperate gardens. Formal looks along driveways can be achieved easily in cultivation where they will grow 3 meters to 4 meters tall by 1 meter to 1.5 meters in diameter when grown in the open. Sandy and sandy fatty loams are usually difficult to accommodate especially when something small is required. It is drought tolerant and frost resistant once established.

Callitris oblonga is best used as a large formal manner even on hedge rows that need to be kept at around 2 meters. This can be easily maintained with continual nipping of the growing shoots and just allowing side shoots to develop. If this is done plants can be kept to 1.5 meters in height by 1.5 meters in diameter.

This small tree can form the basis of a very unusual rockery or heath land setting. To add further they could be trained to grow in one direction so that a strong wind swept heath land scene is created. If this is the theme then the windward side effect should be trimmed very low and allow it to grow out the leeward side to 1 meter in height. On the windward side use fine leaf plants smaller or equal in height to the low side of Callitris oblonga. On the leeward side plants can be arranged so they become taller as they progress further away from the Callitris oblonga. Again start with finer leaf plants but broader than Callitris oblonga and progressively make the leaves broader and with deeper colours as you move further away.

The trees can be used to highlight architectural lines on low set buildings to great effect because of the trees excellent pyramidal shape and small size.

Callitris oblonga is ideal for planting near buildings as they help break up boring straight lines yet take up very little room they would be good in formal gardens and certainly could replace many of the exotic conifers grown in the sub tropics which lose their leaves and never really look strong and healthy.

If it is placed in informal garden beds replacing the conifers of the northern hemisphere they will gain all the attention. They can be surrounded by ground covers that prefer acid soils as the fallen leaves will acidify the soil. Most Grevilleas, Cassias and coastal heath land plants would suffice beautifully giving colour and leaf variation as not to become boring. Most Australian heath plants would be compatible and prefer acid soils anyway. Use heath dwellers with larger deep green leaves adjacent to Callitris oblonga for the best foliage contrast.

Propagation:

Seeds: Callitris oblonga seeds do not need treatment but special care should be taken not to over water them. Place them where there is a lot of sun or beneath 30mm shade cloth. Consistent night temperatures over 8 degrees are a must for good even germination.

Sow the seeds directly into a seed raising mix and cover them with 5mm of the mix. Keep moist but not wet. When the seedlings emerge allow them to dry out between watering and place them where they can receive a good amount of daily sun light.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good potting mix with good drainage.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings along driveways, fence lines around farm sheds or windbreaks can be achieved by planting them at 4 meters for trees or 6 meters for shrubs.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health and vitality.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Callitris rhomboidea

Classification

Class: Pinophyta

Order: Pinales

Family: Cupressaceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Tri/Treis which is Ancient Greek for three. It refers to fruiting cones, which have three large and three small scales.

Specie: From Rhómbos, which is Ancient Greek for a diamond shape. It refers to the scales on cones, which have a somewhat diamond shape.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Port Jackson Pine.

Distribution:

Callitris rhomboidea

is found scattered along the east coast on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast.

In the south it is found in the south west corner of Victoria the Murray River catchment in South Australia and on Kangaroo Island.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Callitris+rhomboidea#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Callitris rhomboidea prefers full sun. It is found growing amongst medium trees or low trees in dry woodlands behind the frontal dunes and dry scrubs adjacent to rainforests and littoral rainforests. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 450 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 2 degrees in July to 34 degrees in January.

The rainfall is from a low of 250mm to an average of 1600mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Callitris rhomboidea prefer coarse white sands, sandy loams to light fatty clays. The soils are derived from decomposed sandstone, granite or accumulated beach sands. The soils pH ranges from 6pH to 7.5pH. It is not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated as are salt laden winds.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 5m to 8m by 4m to 5m.

Characteristics:

Callitris rhomboidea is a single or multi trunked small tree or multi trunked large shrub which has a rough, deeply furrowed, grey bark with erect or spreading branches. This bark extends to the larger branches. Smaller branches are glabrous resinous to slightly scabrous and pale grey brown. Juvenile branchlets are sea green and glabrous.

The leaves of Callitris rhomboidea measure 1mm to 3mm in length. The lower lamina dorsally keeled. They are glabrous and are arranged in threes around the young stems.

Callitris rhomboidea are dioecious with male and female cones appearing on the same trees. Male cones measure 2mm to 3mm in length and are rusty brown. They appear at the end of the branchlets and produce golden yellow-brown pollen.

The globose to depressed globose, glabrous female cones measure 17mm to 22mm in length by 17mm by 22mm in diameter. The female Cones are born in small clusters of three to 5 on special fruiting branchlets. The larger scales are broad obtuse and taper to the base while the smaller adjacent scales on the cones are shorter, narrower and narrow obtuse. The dorsal points are very distinctive and large on the larger scales and very noticeable on the smaller scales.

The scales have fine longitudinal markings and acute apexes while the smaller scales have a strong longitudinal ridge. They split to the base when ripe. The 3 larger scales measure 19mm to 24mm in length while the 3 smaller scales measure 13mm to 18mm in length.

The columella is 3 lobed, short, stout and measures 2mm to 3mm in length.

The fruiting cones ripen to a deep brown colour. The flattened ovate seeds measure 3mm to 4mm in diameter and have a 6mm wing. Cones and pollen appear all year and remain on the trees until a fire or the branch dies before dispersing the seeds.

Wildlife:

Wildlife is unknown to the author; however I would think that larger rosellas and parrots would feed on the seeds as they do on other Callitris.

Cultivation:

Callitris rhomboidea is a beautiful tall columular tree that looks great in the garden where a formal look is required or along long driveways. They can be used very effectively on light soils provided drainage is good. Good specimens in cultivation will grow 5 meters to 10 meters tall by 5 meters to 6 meters in diameter in full sun. Plants grown in partial shade tend to spread out more and become twiggy. This conifer should be more widely grown on light to medium clay soils and poor decomposed shales in semi-arid areas of Australia. They are also drought resistant once established.

Specimens growing naturally at Nana Glen, where severe frosts occur with temperatures down to minus 6 and at the top of a heavily eroded hill on dry brown basalt grew very slowly over the time we were there. Once they had established themselves they still only managed 500 mm a year.

Callitris rhomboidea can be used as a large shrub with continual nipping of the growing shoots and just allowing side shoots to develop. If this is done plants can be kept to 1 meter to 2 meters tall by 3 meters to 6 meters in diameter.

This can form the basis of a very unusual rockery or heath land setting. Trees pruned like this can be used as an interesting feature on a large dry bank to great effect. To add further they could be trained to grow in one direction so that a strong wind swept heath land is created. If this is the theme then the windward side effect should be trimmed very low and allow it to grow out the leeward side to 1.5 meters in height. On the windward side use fine leaf plants smaller or equal in height to the low side of Callitris rhomboidea. On the leeward side plants can be arranged so they become taller as they progress further away from the Callitris rhomboidea.

The trees can be used to highlight architectural lines on buildings to great effect because of the trees excellent pyramidal shape especially in semi-arid areas of Australia.

Callitris rhomboidea is ideal for planting near buildings as they help break up boring straight lines yet take up very little room they would be good in formal gardens and certainly could replace many of the exotic conifers grown in the sub tropics which lose their leaves and never really look strong and healthy. They are also ideal in temperate zones.

Placed in a formal garden bed they can be surrounded by ground covers that prefer acid soils as the fallen leaves will acidify the soil. Most Grevilleas are compatible and prefer acid soils. Use Grevilleas with larger deep green leaves for contrast. Avoid plants with yellow flowers and blue or grey foliage.

It also makes very good bonsai plants and are easy to work.

Propagation:

Seeds: Callitris rhomboidea seeds do not need treatment but special care should be taken not to overwater or place them where there is a lot of shade. Consistent night temperatures over 20 degrees are a must for good germination.

Sow the seeds directly into a seed raising mix and cover them with 5mm of the mix. Keep moist but not wet. When the seedlings emerge allow them to dry out between watering and place them where they can receive a good amount of daily sun light.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good potting mix with good drainage.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings along driveways, fence lines around farm sheds or windbreaks can be achieved by planting them at 4 meters for trees or 6 meters for shrubs.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health and vitality.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calochilus campestris

Classification

Class: Monocots

Order: Asparagales

Family: Orcidaceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Cheilos, which is Ancient Greek for a lip. It refers to the flower’s lips having a beautiful ray of colourful appendages.

Specie: From Campestre, which is Latin for a plain or other flat level ground. It refers to plants, which prefer flat open type country to grow on.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Copper Bearded Orchid.

Distribution:

Calochilus campestris is found in several disjunct populations in a line east and south of Blackdown Tablelands and the Carnarvon Gorge in central southern Queensland and south to Tamworth, then south south west to the Great Ottway National Park. There are several disjunct populations in northern Victoria near Hattah to Gypsum, The Grampians and Glenelg to Heywood. In South Australia it is found in Coffin Bay National Park on southern Eyre Peninsular, Mount Lofty Ranges and Victor Harbour. It is also found on Flinders Island and Hunter Island in Bass Straight, the Pieman River on the west coast and between Hobart and Kingston on the east coast of Tasmania.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calochilus+campestris#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calochilus campestris prefer light shade to dappled light. It is found growing in open schlerophyll forests and open woodlands on moist flat sites. The altitude ranges from 10 meters ASL to 770 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 2 degrees in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 700mm to 2000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Calochilus campestris prefer grey, red to brown sandy soils, fatty sands to light clays. The soils are derived from decomposed brown basalts, sandstone, granite, metashales, metasandstones, metamorphic rocks or accumulated sands. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to 6.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.08m to 0.1m by 0.0.2m to 0.03 when in flower.

Characteristics:

Calochilus campestris forms small colonies on the forest floor. The off white to pale grey roots forms a long, vertical, elongated tuber.

The 0 to 2 linear to lanceolate leaves have clasping bases while the apexes are acute. The erect leaves measures 250mm to 300mm in length by 7mm to 10mm in width. The concolourous laminas are pale grass-green to pale blue-green, dull and glabrous or sparsely covered in white hirsute hairs. The laminas recurve from the mid vein to the margins. The midvein is slightly prominent on the lower lamina. The margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Calochilus campestrisare a single flower spike. The 5 to 15 flowers are born on a long slender spike which measures 300mm to 600mmin length. The pale blue-green linear to narrow lanceolate sheath has a clasping base while the apex is acute. The pedicel is strongly ribbed and measures 2.5mm to 3.5mm in length. The flowers are short lived.

The lateral sepals are pale green with 7 to 10 purple stripes internally while the stripes are more smudged externally. The elliptical lateral sepals have a narrow acute apex. The lateral sepals measure 7mm to 9mm in length by 4mm to 5mm in width. The margins are entire.

The dorsal sepal is pale green with 7 to 10 purple stripes internally while the stripes are more smudged externally. The ovate-elliptical dorsal sepal has a mucronate apex. The lamina is strongly concaved internally especially near the apex. The dorsal sepal measures 6mm to 8mm in length by 5mm to 6mm in width.

The lateral petals are pale green with 5 to 7 purple stripes internally while the stripes are more smudged externally. The elliptical, slightly falcate lateral petals have an acute apex. The lateral petals measure 5mm to 7mm in length by 3mm to 4mm in width. The margins are entire.

The labellum is deep purple near the base turning deep maroon then pale yellow as it approaches the apex. The long ovate labellum measures 12mm to 17mm in length by 5mm to 8mm in width including the beard. The labellum has a crispate apex which is often involute. The lamina is densely covered in a long divaricate, purple to maroon beard near the base becoming pale creamy fawn at the apex. The base is raised with a pale metallic blue to pale purplish-brown speculum which lies below the column.

The column’s collars have a purple gland at the base while the rim interconnects with the collars are obscure or absent.

There are 5 strongly ribbed furrows on the ovary which extend down onto the pedicel. The flowers appear from September to January.

The fruits of Calochilus campestrisare ellipsoidal pods. The pods measure 12mm to 20mm in length by 9mm to 15mm in diameter. The pale blue-green pods turn creamy fawn to pale grey when ripe.

Wildlife:

Calochilus campestris is the host to numerous small native bees and wasps when in flower.

Cultivation:

Calochilus campestris is a beautiful yet very difficult orchid to succeed with in cultivation. It is possible to grow it in the garden. It prefers and flourish in periods when the summers are drier and the winters are wet. If you are fortunate enough to have the orchid growing naturally then it is a matter of letting them do their own thing and supply a constant supply of natural local mulch to feed the mycorrhizal to which it may have a symbiotic relationship with.

Longevity in this genus is largely unknown, but probably varies between 5 and 20 years along with other similar ground orchids.

Propagation:

Seeds:

Calochilus campestris seeds require treatment before sowing. Really Orchid seeds are meant for professionals with time, equipment and space. However if you wish to persevere then here are the basics and you are learning from an amateur. You will need the following, a flask, Chloros solution, boiled water, an eye dropper, paper bag, a warm sheltered position and a lot of patience and luck. This is a most difficult orchid to grow even by professionals as it detests root disturbance and being reoriented.

The mycorrhizal bacteria must be introduced to the media if growing them from seed is to be successful. This can be achieved by sacrificing an existing plant and inoculation the prepared solution prior to sowing the seeds or using some leaf litter immediately adjacent to the swollen gland.

1.Collecting the seed: seed can only be collected from fully ripe pods. You may need to watch a pod for several days or even weeks following the time it stops swelling for it to turn olive yellow. At this stage the pod must be watched carefully for the pod to commence spitting along the placenta. If possible place the paper bag over the pod and tie it off. If necessary place a plastic bag over the paper bag to prevent rain or moisture contacting the seeds.

  • Knowledge is very important now, as different species and genre have various numbers of viable seed in a pod. Viable seeds may be as few as 20 or as many as several million. Check the bag daily and remove once the seed begins to disperse. Shake all the seeds from the pod into the bag.
  • Purchase the appropriate agar solution from an orchid society as they will know what you want and which one will be best for your species. Prepare the agar solution and pour into the flask.
  • Remove some of the seeds by shaking them into a solution of 1 part chloros to 20 parts water and allow soaking for 10 minutes.
  • Remove the seeds with the eye dropper in the solution and spread evenly over the set agar.
  • Place the flasks in a room that is will lit with indirect light and the temperature is a consistent 25 to 30 degrees centigrade.
  • Wait 4 to 7 months for the seedlings to develop to a stage where they can be removed and planted on into a fine orchid mix. Do not remove the seedlings from their environment of light or temperature for at least another two months. Even at this stage it is best to place the seedlings in a hot house where their environment can be controlled.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calochilus gracillimus

Classification

Class: Monocots

Order: Asparagales

Family: Orcidaceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Cheilos, which is Ancient Greek for a lip. It refers to the flower’s lips having a beautiful ray of colourful appendages.

Specie: From Gracilis, which is Latin for slender and graceful and Um, which is Greek/Latin for the degree. It refers to plants, which are the more graceful and have more slender stems than other species in the genus.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Slender Bearded Orchid or Little Bearded Orchid.

Distribution:

Calochilus gracillimus is found in several disjunct populations south from Caboolture in south eastern Queensland to Horsham in Victoria and the Great Ottway National Park. There are 2 isolated populations in Carnarvon Gorge and on the Blackdown Tablelands in Queensland. It is mainly found on and east of the Great Dividing Range and on the western slopes of the range.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calochilus+gracillimus#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calochilus gracillimus prefers light shade to light dappled sunlight. It is found growing in open schlerophyll forests and open woodlands. The altitude ranges from 150 meters ASL to 660 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 2 degrees in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 450mm to 1600mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Calochilus gracillimus prefer grey, red to brown sandy soils to fatty sands. The soils are derived from decomposed sandstone or granite. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to 6.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.25m to 0.3m by 0.0.2m to 0.03 when in flower.

Characteristics:

Calochilus gracillimus forms small colonies on the forest floor. The off white to pale grey roots form a long, vertical, elongated tuber.

The 1 or at times 2 linear leaves of Calochilus gracillimus have clasping bases while the apexes are acute. The erect leaves measures 20mm to 30mm in length by 5mm to 8mm in width. The concolourous laminas are deep green with a reddish tinge near the base, dull and glabrous. The laminas recurve from the midvein to the margins. The midvein is slightly prominent on the lower lamina. The margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Calochilus gracillimusare a single flower spike. The 2 to 9 flowers are born on a long slender spike which measures 300mm to 450mmin length. The pale blue-green sheath has an acute apex. The flowers are short lived.

The lateral sepals are pale lime-green with 9 to 12 purple stripes internally while the stripes blend into each other externally. The lanceolate lateral sepals have a tapered to the acute apexes. The lateral sepals measure 16mm to 20mm in length by 5mm to 7mm in width near the base. The margins are entire.

The dorsal sepal is pale green with 10 to 14 purple stripes internally while the stripes blend into each other externally. The broad oblong dorsal sepal has a mucronate apex. The lamina is strongly concaved internally especially as it approaches the apex. The dorsal sepal measures 6mm to 8mm in length by 5mm to 6mm in width.

The lateral petals are pale green with 10 to 14 purple stripes internally and externally. The ovate-elliptical lateral petals are slightly falcate near the apexes. The lateral petals measure 10mm to 14mm in length by 5mm to 6mm in width. The margins are entire.

The labellum is deep purple near the base turning deep maroon then pale yellow as it approaches the apex. The long ovate labellum measures 30mm to 40mm in length by 24mm to 36mm in width including the beard. The calli is distinct and is shorter and warty towards base. The labellum has a crispate apex which is often involute. The lamina is densely covered in a long divaricate, purple to maroon beard near the base becoming pale creamy fawn at the apex. The base is raised with a white speculum which lies below the column.

The column’s collars have a purple gland at the base while the rim interconnects with the collars are obscure or absent. The hood is pale blue green externally with pale yellow margins.

There are 4 strongly ribbed furrows on the ovary which extend down onto the pedicel which is difficult to see where it begins. The ovary and pedicel measure 10mm to 12mm in length. The flowers appear from late October to early February.

The fruits of Calochilus gracillimusare ellipsoidal pods. The pods measure 12mm to 20mm in length by 9mm to 15mm in diameter. The pale lime-green longitudinal pods turn creamy fawn to pale grey when ripe.

Wildlife:

Calochilus gracillimus is the host to numerous small native bees and wasps when in flower.

Cultivation:

Calochilus gracillimus is a beautiful yet very difficult orchid to succeed with in cultivation. It is possible to grow it in the garden. They prefer and flourish in periods when the summers are drier and the winters are wet. If you are fortunate enough to have the orchids growing naturally then it is a matter of letting them do their own thing and supply a constant supply of natural local mulch to feed the mycorrhizal to which they have a symbiotic relationship with.

Longevity in this genus is largely unknown, but probably varies between 5 and 20 years along with other similar ground orchids.

Propagation:

Seeds:

Calochilus gracillimus seeds require treatment before sowing. Really Orchid seeds are meant for professionals with time, equipment and space. However if you wish to persevere then here are the basics and you are learning from an amateur. You will need the following, a flask, Chloros solution, boiled water, an eye dropper, paper bag, a warm sheltered position and a lot of patience and luck. This is a most difficult orchid to grow even by professionals as it detests root disturbance and being reoriented.

The mycorrhizal bacteria must be introduced to the media if growing them from seed is to be successful. This can be achieved by sacrificing an existing plant and inoculation the prepared solution prior to sowing the seeds or using some leaf litter immediately adjacent to the swollen gland.

1.Collecting the seed: seed can only be collected from fully ripe pods. You may need to watch a pod for several days or even weeks following the time it stops swelling for it to turn olive yellow. At this stage the pod must be watched carefully for the pod to commence spitting along the placenta. If possible place the paper bag over the pod and tie it off. If necessary place a plastic bag over the paper bag to prevent rain or moisture contacting the seeds.

  • Knowledge is very important now, as different species and genre have various numbers of viable seed in a pod. Viable seeds may be as few as 20 or as many as several million. Check the bag daily and remove once the seed begins to disperse. Shake all the seeds from the pod into the bag.
  • Purchase the appropriate agar solution from an orchid society as they will know what you want and which one will be best for your species. Prepare the agar solution and pour into the flask.
  • Remove some of the seeds by shaking them into a solution of 1 part chloros to 20 parts water and allow soaking for 10 minutes.
  • Remove the seeds with the eye dropper in the solution and spread evenly over the set agar.
  • Place the flasks in a room that is will lit with indirect light and the temperature is a consistent 25 to 30 degrees centigrade.
  • Wait 4 to 7 months for the seedlings to develop to a stage where they can be removed and planted on into a fine orchid mix. Do not remove the seedlings from their environment of light or temperature for at least another two months. Even at this stage it is best to place the seedlings in a hot house where their environment can be controlled.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calochilus grandiflorus

Classification

Class: Monocots

Order: Asparagales

Family: Orcidaceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Cheilos, which is Ancient Greek for a lip. It refers to the flower’s lips having a beautiful ray of colourful appendages.

Specie: From Grandis, which is Latin for large and Flōris, which is Latin for a flower or Flōs, which is the Roman goddess of spring and flowers. It refers to plants, which produce many large flowers.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Giant Bearded Orchid or Golden Bearded Orchid.

Distribution:

Calochilus grandiflorus is found south from Fraser Island in coastal Queensland to Cessnok in coastal central New South Wales. It is mainly found east of the Great Dividing Range. There is an isolated population in far north Queensland in the Gulf Country near Burke.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calochilus+grandiflorus#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calochilus grandiflorus prefers light shade to dappled light. It grows in coastal heaths adjacent to swamps and wallums. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 650 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 3 degrees in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 600mm to 2200mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Calochilus grandiflorus prefer white, grey, and red to brown peaty sandy soils to fatty sands. The soils are derived from decomposed sandstone, granite or accumulated sands. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to 6.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils but prefers even soil moisture during the growing season. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.08m to 0.1m by 0.0.2m to 0.03 when in flower.

Characteristics:

Calochilus grandiflorus forms small colonies on the forest floor. The off white to pale grey roots form a long, vertical, elongated tuber.

The 1 or at times 2 linear leaves of Calochilus gracillimus have clasping bases while the apexes are acute. The erect leaves measure 400mm to 500mm in length by 4mm to 5.5mm in width. The concolourous laminas are deep green with a reddish tinge near the base, dull and glabrous. The laminas recurve slightly from the midvein to the margins. The midvein is slightly prominent on the lower lamina. The margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Calochilus grandiflorusare a single flower spike. The 2 to 12 flowers are born on a long erect or straggly, slender spike which measures 300mm to 600mmin length. The pale blue-green sheath has an acute apex and measures 22mm to 33mm in length. The flowers are short lived.

The lateral sepals are pale blue-green often with a golden-bronze tinge with 7 to 9 interrupted to poorly formed, purple stripes internally while the stripes are slightly smudged externally. The lanceolate lateral sepals have a tapered to the acute apexes. The lateral sepals measure 25mm to 35mm in length by 8mm to 12mm in width near the base. The margins are entire.

The dorsal sepal is pale green with 7 to 9 purple stripes internally while the stripes are slightly smudged externally. The ovate dorsal sepal has an acute apex. The lamina is strongly concaved internally for its entire length. The dorsal sepal measures 20mm to 32mm in length by 6mm to 12mm in width.

The lateral petals are pale green with 9 to 12 purple stripes internally while they blend into each other externally. The broad elliptical lateral petals measure 10mm to 14mm in length by 5mm to 6mm in width. The margins are entire.

The labellum is long linear to narrow lanceolate and measures 35mm to 45mm length by 3.5mm to 4.5mm in width not including the beard. The purple-maroon beard measures 3mm to 11mm in length. The central calli shortens towards the base. The elongated apex is naked crisped and often strongly revolute.

The column’s collars have a purple gland at the base while the rim interconnects with the collars are obscure or absent. The hood is pale blue green externally with pale yellow margins and an obtuse apex extending almost to the apexes of the lateral petals.

There are 4 strongly ribbed furrows on the ovary extend down onto the apex of the pedicel. The pedicel measures 2.5mm to 4mm in length while the ovary measure 10mm to 13mm in length. The flowers appear from September to December.

The fruits of Calochilus grandiflorus are ellipsoidal pods. The pods measure 14mm to 22mm in length by 9mm to 15mm in diameter. The pale lime-green longitudinal pods turn creamy fawn when ripe.

Wildlife:

Calochilus grandiflorus is the host to numerous small native bees and wasps when in flower.

Cultivation:

Calochilus grandiflorus is a beautiful yet very difficult orchid to succeed with in cultivation. It is possible to grow it in the garden. They prefer and flourish in periods when the summers are drier and the winters are wet. If you are fortunate enough to have the orchids growing naturally then it is a matter of letting them do their own thing and supply a constant supply of natural local mulch to feed the mycorrhizal to which they have a symbiotic relationship with.

Longevity in this genus is largely unknown, but probably varies between 5 and 20 years along with other similar ground orchids.

Propagation:

Seeds:

Calochilus grandiflorus seeds require treatment before sowing. Really Orchid seeds are meant for professionals with time, equipment and space. However if you wish to persevere then here are the basics and you are learning from an amateur. You will need the following, a flask, Chloros solution, boiled water, an eye dropper, paper bag, a warm sheltered position and a lot of patience and luck. This is a most difficult orchid to grow even by professionals as it detests root disturbance and being reoriented.

The mycorrhizal bacteria must be introduced to the media if growing them from seed is to be successful. This can be achieved by sacrificing an existing plant and inoculation the prepared solution prior to sowing the seeds or using some leaf litter immediately adjacent to the swollen gland.

1.Collecting the seed: seed can only be collected from fully ripe pods. You may need to watch a pod for several days or even weeks following the time it stops swelling for it to turn olive yellow. At this stage the pod must be watched carefully for the pod to commence spitting along the placenta. If possible place the paper bag over the pod and tie it off. If necessary place a plastic bag over the paper bag to prevent rain or moisture contacting the seeds.

  • Knowledge is very important now, as different species and genre have various numbers of viable seed in a pod. Viable seeds may be as few as 20 or as many as several million. Check the bag daily and remove once the seed begins to disperse. Shake all the seeds from the pod into the bag.
  • Purchase the appropriate agar solution from an orchid society as they will know what you want and which one will be best for your species. Prepare the agar solution and pour into the flask.
  • Remove some of the seeds by shaking them into a solution of 1 part chloros to 20 parts water and allow soaking for 10 minutes.
  • Remove the seeds with the eye dropper in the solution and spread evenly over the set agar.
  • Place the flasks in a room that is will lit with indirect light and the temperature is a consistent 25 to 30 degrees centigrade.
  • Wait 4 to 7 months for the seedlings to develop to a stage where they can be removed and planted on into a fine orchid mix. Do not remove the seedlings from their environment of light or temperature for at least another two months. Even at this stage it is best to place the seedlings in a hot house where their environment can be controlled.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calochilus paludosus

Classification

Class: Monocots

Order: Asparagales

Family: Orcidaceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Cheilos, which is Ancient Greek for a lip. It refers to the flower’s lips having a beautiful ray of colourful appendages.

Specie: From Pēlós, which is Ancient Greek, for a muddy soil or wet clay or Palūdōsa, which is Latin for a swamp, marsh or wallum.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Copper Bearded swamp Orchid.

Distribution:

Calochilus paludosus is found south from the Sunshine Coast in southern Queensland to ayres peninsular and Kangaroo Island in southern South Australia. It is mainly found on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast.

It is also found on the Bass Straight Islands and throughout Tasmania.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calochilus+paludosus#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calochilus paludosus prefer light shade to dappled light. It is found growing in swampy heaths, damp peaty sands, soils with a lot of humus and at times in dry elevated ridges in montane forest and woodland in slight depressions. The altitude ranges from 10 meters ASL to 800 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 2 degrees in July to 38 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 650mm to 2000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Calochilus paludosus prefer sandy loams, fatty sands to light clays. The soils are derived from decomposed brown basalts, sandstone, granite, metashales, metasandstones, metamorphic rocks or accumulated sands. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to 7pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils however high water tables that keep the surface soils moist are preferred. Non saline soils to low saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.08m to 0.1m by 0.0.2m to 0.03 when in flower.

Characteristics:

Calochilus paludosus forms small colonies on the forest floor. The off white to pale grey roots forms a long, vertical, elongated tuber.

The 1 or 2 linear to lanceolate leaves of Calochilus paludosus have clasping bases while the apexes are acute. The erect leaves measures 120mm to 180mm in length by 3mm to 5mm in width. The concolourous laminas are pale grass-green to pale blue-green, dull and glabrous or with a maroon base. The laminas recurve from the mid vein to the margins. The midvein is slightly prominent on the lower lamina. The margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Calochilus paludosus are a single flower spike. The 1 to 9 flowers are born on a long slender spike which measures 200mm to 350mmin length. The pale blue-green linear to narrow lanceolate sheath has a clasping base while the apex is acute. The rachis and pedicels are strongly ribbed, with the pedicel measuring 2mm to 4mm in length. The flowers are short lived.

The lateral sepals are pale blue-green with reddish-purple striations. The elliptical lateral sepals have a narrow acute apex. The lateral sepals measure 7mm to 9mm in length by 4mm to 5mm in width. The margins are entire.

The ovate labellum is deep purple near the base turning deep maroon then pale yellow as it approaches the apex and measures 25mm to 30mm in length by 9mm to 12mm in width including the reddish-copperbeard. The labellum has a crispate apex which is often involute. The lamina is densely covered in a long divaricate, purple to maroon beard near the base becoming pale creamy fawn at the apex. The base is raised with a pale metallic blue to pale purplish-brown speculum which lies below the column.

The column’s collars have a purple gland at the base while the rim interconnects with the collars are obscure or absent.

There are 5 strongly ribbed furrows on the ovary which extend down onto the pedicel. The flowers appear from August to October.

The fruits of Calochilus paludosus are ellipsoidal to spindle shaped capsules. The capsules measure 12mm to 20mm in length by 9mm to 15mm in diameter. The pale blue-green capsules turn creamy fawn to pale grey when ripe.

Wildlife:

Calochilus paludosus is the host to numerous small native bees and wasps when in flower.

Cultivation:

Calochilus paludosus is a beautiful yet very difficult orchid to succeed with in cultivation. It is possible to grow it in the garden. It prefers and flourish in periods when the summers are drier and the winters are wet. If you are fortunate enough to have the orchid growing naturally then it is a matter of letting them do their own thing and supply a constant supply of natural local mulch to feed the mycorrhizal to which it may have a symbiotic relationship with.

Longevity in this genus is largely unknown, but probably varies between 5 and 20 years along with other similar ground orchids.

Propagation:

Seeds:

Calochilus paludosus seeds require treatment before sowing. Really Orchid seeds are meant for professionals with time, equipment and space. However if you wish to persevere then here are the basics and you are learning from an amateur. You will need the following, a flask, Chloros solution, boiled water, an eye dropper, paper bag, a warm sheltered position and a lot of patience and luck. This is a most difficult orchid to grow even by professionals as it detests root disturbance and being reoriented.

The mycorrhizal bacteria must be introduced to the media if growing them from seed is to be successful. This can be achieved by sacrificing an existing plant and inoculation the prepared solution prior to sowing the seeds or using some leaf litter immediately adjacent to the swollen gland.

1.Collecting the seed: seed can only be collected from fully ripe pods. You may need to watch a pod for several days or even weeks following the time it stops swelling for it to turn olive yellow. At this stage the pod must be watched carefully for the pod to commence spitting along the placenta. If possible place the paper bag over the pod and tie it off. If necessary place a plastic bag over the paper bag to prevent rain or moisture contacting the seeds.

  • Knowledge is very important now, as different species and genre have various numbers of viable seed in a pod. Viable seeds may be as few as 20 or as many as several million. Check the bag daily and remove once the seed begins to disperse. Shake all the seeds from the pod into the bag.
  • Purchase the appropriate agar solution from an orchid society as they will know what you want and which one will be best for your species. Prepare the agar solution and pour into the flask.
  • Remove some of the seeds by shaking them into a solution of 1 part chloros to 20 parts water and allow soaking for 10 minutes.
  • Remove the seeds with the eye dropper in the solution and spread evenly over the set agar.
  • Place the flasks in a room that is will lit with indirect light and the temperature is a consistent 25 to 30 degrees centigrade.
  • Wait 4 to 7 months for the seedlings to develop to a stage where they can be removed and planted on into a fine orchid mix. Do not remove the seedlings from their environment of light or temperature for at least another two months. Even at this stage it is best to place the seedlings in a hot house where their environment can be controlled.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calochilus robertsonii

Classification

Class: Monocots

Order: Asparagales

Family: Orcidaceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Cheilos, which is Ancient Greek for a lip. It refers to the flower’s lips having a beautiful ray of colourful appendages

Specie: Is named in honour of John George Robertson; 1803–1862, who was a Scottish born Australian naturalist and botanist who discovered the type specimen.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Calochilus robertsonii is found south and east of a line from Cooloola in Queensland south west to Cocopara Nature Reserve, then south to Wagga Wagga then south west to Rushworth and west to Mount Gambier and The Glenelg River in south eastern South Australia, western Victoria. It is also found on the Bass Straight Islands and the northern third and southern third of Tasmania. In Western Australia it is found in the south western corner from Perth in the north west to Albury with a disjunct population in The Fitzgerald River National Park. In South Australia it is found south from the Mount Lofty Ranges to Victor Harbour and Kangaroo Island. There is an isolated population in the Carnarvon Gorge in central Queensland.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calochilus+robertsonii#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calochilus robertsonii prefer light shade to dappled light. It is found growing in dry schlerophyll forests and woodlands on moist flat sites, adjacent to swamps and wallums. It is found from 10 meters ASL to 800 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 500mm to 2000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Calochilus robertsonii prefer grey, red to brown sandy soils to fatty sands and light gritty clays. The soils are usually derived from decomposed sandstone or granite or at times alluviums along creeks and streams. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to 6.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.25m to 0.3m by 0.02m to 0.03 when in flower.

Characteristics:

Calochilus robertsonii forms small colonies on the forest floor. The off white to pale grey roots form a long, vertical, elongated tuber.

The single linear leaves of Calochilus robertsoniihave clasping bases while the apexes are acute. The erect leaves measure 200mm to 300mm in length by 10mm to 13mm in width. The concolourous laminas are deep green with a reddish tinge near the base, dull and glabrous. The laminas recurve slightly upwards from the midvein to the margins. The margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Calochilus robertsoniiare a single flower spike. The 2 to 7 flowers are born on a long erect or straggly, slender spike which measures 300mm to 460mmin length. The pale blue-green or olive–green sheath often has a reddish tinge and has an acute apex. The sheaths measures 12mm to 20mm in length. The flowers are short lived.

The lateral sepals are pale creamy yellow-green often with a golden-bronze tinge. There are 7 to 15 uninterrupted maroon stripes internally and externally. The broad lanceolate lateral sepals have tapered acute apexes. The lateral sepals measure 7mm to 9mm in length by 3mm to 4mm in width near the base. The margins are entire. There is an all green form which is pale lime–green and has deeper green stripes.

The dorsal sepal is pale green with 9 to 15 purple stripes internally and externally. The ovate to deltoid dorsal sepal has a mucronate apex. The lamina is strongly concaved internally for its entire length. The dorsal sepal measures 5mm to 7.5mm in length by 5mm to 7.5mm in width. There is an all green form which is pale lime–green and has deeper green stripes.

The lateral petals are pale green with 9 to 12 purple to maroon stripes internally and externally. The elliptical lateral petals measure 5mm to 6mm in length by 4mm to 5mm in width. The margins are entire. There is an all green form which is pale lime–green and has deeper green stripes.

The labellum is long linear to narrow lanceolate and measures 12mm to 15mm length by 7mm to 8.5mm in width including the beard. The glossy lamina is whitish mauve, purple-maroon or bronzy with a similar coloured beard. The calli shortens and is tuberculate towards base while the elongated apex is crisped and bearing calli on at least half its surface. Column collars each with purple gland at base; rim interconnecting collars prominent, purplish

The column’s collars each have a maroon gland at the base while the rim’s interconnecting collars are prominent and pale creamy pink. The hood is pale blue green externally with pale yellow margins and an obtuse apex extending almost to the apexes of the lateral petals.

There are 4 strongly ribs on the ovary which extend down onto the apex of the pedicel. The pedicel measures 3mm to 5mm in length while the ovary measure 3mm to 5mm in length. The flowers appear from September to November.

The fruits of Calochilus robertsoniiare ellipsoidal pods. The pods measure 12mm to 15mm in length by 9mm to 12mm in diameter. The pale lime-green longitudinal pods turn creamy fawn when ripe.

Wildlife:

Calochilus robertsonii is the host to numerous small native bees and wasps when in flower.

Cultivation:

Calochilus robertsonii is a beautiful yet very difficult orchid to succeed with in cultivation. It is possible to grow it in the garden. They prefer and flourish in periods when the summers are drier and the winters are wet. If you are fortunate enough to have the orchids growing naturally then it is a matter of letting them do their own thing and supply a constant supply of natural local mulch to feed the mycorrhizal to which they have a symbiotic relationship with.

Longevity in this genus is largely unknown, but probably varies between 5 and 20 years along with other similar ground orchids.

Longevity in this genus is largely unknown, but probably varies between 5 and 20 years along with other similar ground orchids.

Propagation:

Seeds:

Calochilus robertsonii seeds require treatment before sowing. Really Orchid seeds are meant for professionals with time, equipment and space. However if you wish to persevere then here are the basics and you are learning from an amateur. You will need the following, a flask, Chloros solution, boiled water, an eye dropper, paper bag, a warm sheltered position and a lot of patience and luck. This is a most difficult orchid to grow even by professionals as it detests root disturbance and being reoriented.

The mycorrhizal bacteria must be introduced to the media if growing them from seed is to be successful. This can be achieved by sacrificing an existing plant and inoculation the prepared solution prior to sowing the seeds or using some leaf litter immediately adjacent to the swollen gland.

1.Collecting the seed: seed can only be collected from fully ripe pods. You may need to watch a pod for several days or even weeks following the time it stops swelling for it to turn olive yellow. At this stage the pod must be watched carefully for the pod to commence spitting along the placenta. If possible place the paper bag over the pod and tie it off. If necessary place a plastic bag over the paper bag to prevent rain or moisture contacting the seeds.

  • Knowledge is very important now, as different species and genre have various numbers of viable seed in a pod. Viable seeds may be as few as 20 or as many as several million. Check the bag daily and remove once the seed begins to disperse. Shake all the seeds from the pod into the bag.
  • Purchase the appropriate agar solution from an orchid society as they will know what you want and which one will be best for your species. Prepare the agar solution and pour into the flask.
  • Remove some of the seeds by shaking them into a solution of 1 part chloros to 20 parts water and allow soaking for 10 minutes.
  • Remove the seeds with the eye dropper in the solution and spread evenly over the set agar.
  • Place the flasks in a room that is will lit with indirect light and the temperature is a consistent 25 to 30 degrees centigrade.
  • Wait 4 to 7 months for the seedlings to develop to a stage where they can be removed and planted on into a fine orchid mix. Do not remove the seedlings from their environment of light or temperature for at least another two months. Even at this stage it is best to place the seedlings in a hot house where their environment can be controlled.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calochlaena dubia

Classification

Class: Pteridospida

Order: Cyatheales

Family: Dicksoniaceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Khaina, is Greek which is Ancient Greek for a cloak. It refers to the covering of dense white hairs which adorn the genus like a glistening overcoat.

Specie: From Dubious, which is Latin for some uncertainty, uncharacteristic or doubtful. It refers to the plants being similar to but displaying characteristics not usual of the family or genus to which it has been allocated.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Soft Bracken, False Bracken or Rainbow Fern.

Distribution:

Calochlaena dubia

is found south from the Blackdown Tablelands west of Rockhampton in Queensland to Wilson’s Promontory and east Gipsland in southern Victoria then west to the Grampians.

In Tasmania it is found the west coast, along the northern coast north east corner and south to Hobart.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calochlaena+dubia#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calochlaena dubia prefers light shade to dappled light. It grows in montane rainforests, littoral rainforests and moist Eucalyptus forests. Where conditions are ideal this fern can cover extensive areas. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 850 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 4 degrees in August to 32 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 320mm to 1600mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Calochlaena dubia prefers better quality fine sands, light sandy loams, light gravelly clays, medium gravelly clays or heavy gravelly clays. The soils are derived from brown basalts, black basalts, metamorphic rocks, shales or accumulated peaty beach sands. The soils pH ranges from 5.5pH to 7pH. It does tolerate water logged soils, but does best on soils which have good moisture retention. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants:300mm to 1500mm by 1500mm to several hundred meters.

Characteristics:

It would make a good fire retardant subshrub fern for semi shady moist areas .

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Calochlaena dubia has short to medium creeping rhizomes which are 15mm to 20mm in diameter. The rhizomes are covered short silvery hairs and longer red hairs.

The stipes are reddish black at the base turning brown and then to a blue green. They are 60mm to 80mm in length and 10mm to 12mm in diameter at the base with the rachis being a similar length.

Calochlaena dubia’s pale green fronds are large, broadly triangular and tripinnata. The fronds are covered in short silver hairs which are more crowded at the base thinning as they approach the apex. They measure 300mm to 800mm in length by 300mm to 800mm across. The alternate pinnae are asymmetrical being deeply lobed with a 0.5mm to 1.5mm decurrent base. The pinnae measure 10mm to 15mm in length by 9mm to 11mm in width.

The sori are small circular and are found irregularly along the lobes of the pinnae margins.

Wildlife:

An unidentified web caterpillar can strip the fronds at times. The ferns recover very quickly and seem to thrive on the annual cut backs.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant sub shrub fern for semi shaded moist areas.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Calochlaena dubia is a beautiful large fern for courtyards, around swimming pools or in the garden where moist lighter conditions prevail. Calochlaena dubiais excellent for around swimming pools where it can grow to its full potential. It breaks up hard fences and walls giving a pleasant soft look. If used correctly it can break up hard paving lines as its fronds droop over the edge. Some cleaning of spent fronds on an annual base is necessary and moisture is required to keep it at its best. They are drought tolerant so the occasional lapse in watering won’t affect them. If they do happen to look dead after a long holiday during a drought prune all the fronds off to a few centimetres of the rhizome and give them a good soaking with a double dose of our recommended fertilizer. Apply a single strength dose of our recommended fertilizer a week later and give them a good soaking and within two weeks they will be back to their former glory.

They often reach their full potential of 1500mm in just over 1 year from planting out.

This is an ideal large fern for creek bank stabilization and to reinforce that rainforest garden because they take over large areas and have a solid rhizome they will assist in retaining water run off during storms so it soaks into the ground.

Propagation:

Spores:

All ferns that are declared rare, vulnerable or endangered are protected by Federal and State Laws and must not be removed from the wild unless you are a land developer, mining company or main Roads department etc. This includes bulbs, roots, leaves and flowers. No part of any plant can be removed from Federal, State or Local Government land without the prior permission of the authority and this includes the spore.

Most people are put off at the thought of growing ferns from spore. Like all plants that produce their offspring from seed or spore the methods are basically the same. Remember nature has been doing this for millions of years and has been very successful. I have had excellent results growing over 200 different species of Australian ferns so don’t be afraid. Give it a go.

Step 1. Select spore from the fern fronds. Wait until the fern is just starting to release its spore. Rinse the fronds under clean running water and dry. This is to wash off any other spores from rogue ferns that may have settled onto the fronds. (There is nothing worse than having common brake or common soft bracken contaminating a prized tree fern or epiphyte.)

 Step 2. Place the dry fronds in a clean brown paper bag and keep them in a cool dark place like the linen closet for about a week to ten days before you are ready to sow the spore. The exception to this rule applies to ferns, which produce green spores. These must be sown immediately that they are released. Todea Barbara is a good example of a fern, which produces green spore.

 Step 3. Take a large ice cream container, a small ice cream container and a clean clear plastic bag large enough to seal the large ice cream container and three or four milk bottle tops.

 Step 4. Punch or drill 6 to 10 5mm holes in the bottom of the small ice cream container.

 Step 5. Wash both containers, tops and plastic bag so that they are very clean and sterile.

 Step 6. Use a clean fine seed raising mi. We used 30mm fine sand, 30mm peat and 30mm perlite and 10mm vermiculite. We used crushed basalt, crusher dust and peat in a 50:50 ratio for epiphytes. Moisten the mix enough that water does not run out when the mix is squeezed between the fingers.

 Step 7. Place the moisten mix (Enough to half fill the small ice cream container) in the microwave oven with a large glass of water for 7 or 8 minutes, until the water is boiling. Allow them to cool in the oven. You will need the water later so do not tip it out.

 Step 8. Take the brown paper bag out of the linen closet. Shake the bag and remove the fronds. You should have a yellow, brown, black or rarely greenish brown or ochre powder or very fine, small round pin head size spore depending on the specie involved.

 Step 9. Remove the mixture from the oven once it has cooled and place it in the small ice cream container and level.

 Step 10. Sprinkle the spore sparsely over the mixture in the small ice cream container.

 Step 11. Place the milk bottle tops in the large ice cream container with the flat surface facing down. Place the small ice cream container in the large ice cream container so that it is sitting on the milk bottle tops.

 Step 12. Remove the water from the microwave and pour it into the larger ice cream container so there is 25mm to 30mm of water in the bottom.

 Step 13. Place the ice cream containers in the plastic bag and seal.

 Step 14. Place the contents and bag in a warm shady place preferably 50mm to 70mm shade depending on the specie. Shade houses and some window sills are ideal.

 Step 15. The surface should turn green within a week to two weeks. The prothallus will then develop. From the prthalus the first true fronds will appear. Wait until the ferns are 20mm to 35mm in height before you attempt to transplant them. Once they are ready open the bag up slightly and allow the air to flow around the little ferns. Every 3 to 5 days open the bag a little further so the ferns get use to their new environment. Allow them a week to two weeks to harden off before you transplant them following the removal of the plastic bag. Carefully prick them out into 50mm standard squat tubes as you would any seedling.

Do not try to transplant them as single plants as they are still a little delicate still.

Once the smaller ones again reach 50mm to 70mm you may wish to divide the stronger and hardier individual plants into smaller clumps in 100mm squat pots.

Step 16. Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health and vitality.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calomeria amaranthoides

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Asterids

Order: Asterales

Family: Asteraceae

Genus: From Kallis/Kallos, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Meris, which is Ancient Greek for a part or number. It refers to a structure or organ, which is very beautiful.

Specie: From Amaranton, which is Ancient Greek for an everlasting flower, Antha/Anthos which is Ancient Greek for the male reproductive organ on a flower or the flower and Eîdos/Oides, which is Ancient Greek for alike or similar to. It refers to the plants, which are similar to the Amaranthus genus.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Native Amaranth or Plume Bush or Incense Plant.

Distribution:

Calomeria amaranthoides is found south from Hexam in coastal New South Wales to Wilson’s Promontory in southern Victoria. It is mainly found east of the Great Dividing Range. There are disjunct populations in western Victoria around the Grampians.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calomeria+amaranthoides#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calomeria amaranthoides prefer full sun to dappled shade. It grows below medium size trees, low trees, or in low dry scrub lands in the open riparian zones and on river flats especially on disturbed land. It can be found gentle slopes and elevated flats or sandstone ridges where it grows as a small shrub. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 500 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in July to 37 degrees in January.

The rainfalls range from lows of 500mm to an average of 1250mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Calomeria amaranthoides prefer growing on light stony clays to heavy silts, gravelly sandy clays or decomposed basalts and screes deposited at the base of cliffs near creeks and streams. Most the soils are derived from decomposed basalts, deposited as alluviums. The soils pH ranges from 5pH through to a 7pH are preferred where moisture is retained for long periods. They are not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 1m to 2.2m by 1m to 1.5m.

Characteristics:

Calomeria amaranthoides is a perennial with a straight stem and few branches. The main stem and main branches are square to round in cross section and densely covered in white villous hairs. The new growth and juvenile stems square to round in cross section and are densely covered in white villous hairs.

Calomeria amaranthoides’s alternate leaves are ovate to obovate and measure 110mm to 250mm in length by 75mm to 100mm in width. The semi orbicular stipule is off set to one side of the petiole and is horizontal to 75 degrees from the trunk or stems. The stipules measures 14mm to 26mm in diameter. The bases are rounded while the apexes are broad acuminate. The discolourous laminas are deep grass-green, dull and covered in white glandular hairs especially along the midvein on the upper lamina, while the lower lamina is densely covered in white glandular and villous hairs. The margins are entire. The mid vein and main lateral veins is prominent on the lower lamina and is distinctly visible from the upper lamina. The petioles are densely covered in white villous hairs and measure 10mm to 18mm in length. The foliage is sticky and highly aromatic similar to bananas and incense together.

The inflorescence of Calomeria amaranthoides are erect with pendulous branches. The compound panicles are born as terminal heads. The panicles measure 400mm to 600mm in length by 150mm to 200mm in diameter.

The outermost involucral bracts are small and increase in size towards the inner most bracts and measure 2mm to 4mm in length. The pale pinkish-brown are tinged with rose-pink, occasionally pinkish yellow or rarely almost colourless. The deep yellow to deep yellow-orange corollas are glabrous and are covered in short white glandular hairs near the base dark yellow. The flowers appear in December to May.

Calomeria amaranthoides fruits are small and orbicular. The green fruits are glabrous and turn black when ripe.

Wildlife:

Calomeria amaranthoides wildlife is all noted from acquaintances and not personal sightings but may include most warm blooded animals like the brush tail possum and the ring tail possum. The seed is eaten by most seed eating birds and possibly explains why the plants produce enormous quantities of seed and only live for two seasons.

Presently there is much research surrounding the plant since certain extracts from Calomeria amaranthoides exhibit potent and selective cytotoxic properties towards certain cell types exhibiting hyper proliferative cellular division and in particular to cancerous cells but not towards normal cells. In particular it stops and prevents pre-cancerous cells from developing into full blown cancers.

Cultivation:

Calomeria amaranthoides is a magnificent perennial that is frequently overlooked by gardeners in Australia but has gained great recognition overseas both in America and Europe. They are suitable for small to large gardens. Garden subjects will grow into large, dense herbs. In Native gardens they can be used to protect more delicate plants giving good shade and backdrop colour. In cultivation they will grow from 2 meters to 3 meters tall by 1.5 meters to 2 meters in diameter when grown in the open. They are best planted in small clumps or long meandering rows 2 or 3 deep.

Planted near paths they can be touched to release the incense or the leaves easily harvested for use later in pot pourri.

They are best placed at the front of a bush garden with towering trees behind or at the back of a formal garden bed. Their deep pink to red flowers will always draw the attention from passer-byes so they will want to investigate further. Plants with small white, lilac or yellow flowers and fine leaves can be used in the mid ground while small white, pink or mauve flowering prostrate shrubs are best in the front. When used in front of bush gardens the flowers are very strong against the vertical back drop of Eucalyptus trees or rainforests trees in a large garden.

I think of Calomeria amaranthoidesin large gardens I always think of small prostrate Acacia specie planted in the foreground which flower at the same time. In fact they make a very strong complementary contrast of yellow and pink especially if they are planted in patches to lead you in a particular direction. It surprises me that Australian Botanic Gardens have not yet considered this as a feature in their gardens.

In an open bush scene they are best scattered through the bush to give patches of colour on the ground. Plant them in small depressions so that the soil moisture remains more consistent for longer periods.

Propagation:

Seeds: Calomeria amaranthoides seeds may need to be treated as wild plants only regenerate after fire. I would assume from this not having grown the plants before that smoke may unlock the inhibitors preventing germination. This can be achieved by placing the seeds over a small smoky fire using semi dried gum leaves. Extinguish the fire with water and collect the water. Wash the ash in the water. Place the ash fines in the seed raising mix and sow the seeds into the seed trays. Water the mix using the smoked water.

Once the seedlings reach 60 to 80mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings plant them at 1 meter to 1.5 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calophyllum inophyllum

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Rosids

Order: Malpighiales

Family: lophyllaceae

Genus: From Kallis/Kallos, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Phyllum, which is Ancient Greek for a leaf or foliage. It refers to plants, which have beautiful leaves.

Specie: From Inos, which is Ancient Greek for a rib or ribs and Phyllum, which is Ancient Greek for a leaf or foliage. It refers to leaves, which have a number of visible ribs.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Native Amaranth or Plume Bush or Incense Plant.

Distribution:

Calophyllum inophyllum

is found across the top end close to the coast and off shore Islands to Cape York Peninsular then south to Moreton Island.

It is also found in eastern Africa, Madagasca, Indo China, Indonesia, Timor, New Guinee and the Pacific islands either side of the equator.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calophyllum+inophyllum#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calophyllum inophyllum prefer full sun to dappled shade. It grows below medium size trees, low trees, or in low dry scrub lands in the open riparian zones and on river flats especially on disturbed land. It can be found gentle slopes and elevated flats or sandstone ridges where it grows as a small shrub. The altitude ranges from 2 meters ASL to 200 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 6 degrees in July to 42 degrees in January.

The rainfalls range from lows of 900mm to an average of 3350mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Calophyllum inophyllum prefer growing on light stony clays to light silts, gravelly sandy clays or accumulated sands. Most the soils are derived from accumulated sands or river silts or at times silty muds. The soils pH ranges from 5pH through to a 7.5pH are preferred where moisture is retained for long periods. It is not tolerant of water logged soils however is often located where high seasonal water tables exist. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 8m to 35m by 6m to 15m.

Characteristics:

Calophyllum inophyllum is a low-branching, slow growing tree with a grey-brown, flaky bark on a twisted trunk. The trunk, branches, stems and petioles exude a thick, sticky, yellow sap when damaged.

The glabrous, ovate-elliptical leaves measure 80mm to 200mm in length by 45mm to 115mm in width. The glabrous petioles measure 3mm to 5mm in length. The mid vein is prominent on the lower lamina and is either slightly raised or depressed on the upper lamina and has numerous fine lateral veins, which extend from to the margin. The discolorous laminas are deep grass green on the upper lamina and paler on the lower lamina.

The racemose or paniculate inflorescences consisting of 4 to 15 flowers, which measure 24mm to 30mm in diameter.  The 8 white, broad ovate, spreading tepals measure 8mm to 16mm in length by 6mm to 13mm in width. There are 210 to 360 mid yellow satmens with pale yellow filaments that measure 5mm to 7mm in length and have cylindrical, basifixed anthers that measure 2.5mm to 3mm in length. It has the added bonus of having two flowering periods annualy in the north. Flowering in mid Spring and again in mid Autumn.

The smooth round, green drupe measures 20mm to 40mm in diameter and has a single large round seed. The drupe becomes wrinkled with age and turns yellow to brownish-red before becoming discarded.

Wildlife:

Calophyllum inophyllum apparently very attractive to nectar feeding birds, insectivorous birds and pollen and nectar eating insects.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant medium tree.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Calophyllum inophyllum is a magnificent tree that is frequently overlooked by gardeners in northern Australia but has gained great recognition overseas both in America and Europe. It is suitable for small, medium and large gardens. Garden subjects will grow into a small, many branched, densly canopied tree with a gnarled trunk. In Native gardens it can be used to protect more delicate plants giving good shade and backdrop colour. In cultivation it will grow from 6 meters to 8 meters tall by 6meters to 8 meters in diameter when grown in the open. It is best planted singularly as a specimen tree.

It best placed at the centre of a small bush garden with towering trees behind or at the back of a formal garden bed. Its gnarled trunk will help highlite colored flowers in the foreground.

I think of Calophyllum inophyllum in large gardens, I always think of small prostrate Acacia specie planted in the foreground which flower at the same time or one of the many small red flowering Grevilleas to contrast the white flowers.

It is well suited to beach front gardens where it is at home on the sand and gusty winds. It is one of the few trees that is cyclone reistant and termite resistant.

Propagation:

Seeds: Calophyllum inophyllum seeds may need to be treated by filing a nick into the outer testa. I have come to this conclusion following a failure to have 6 seeds germinate. – They all rotted while in the 50mm native tubes. They may need to be kept a little on the dry side too. A dry potting mix of 50mm sand 30mm perlite and 20mm peat maybe the answer.

Once the seedlings reach 90 to 120mm in height plant them out into 250mm pots or directly into their permanent position. For mass plantings plant them at 10 meter to 15 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calothamnus quadrifidus

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Rosids

Order: Myrtales

Family: Myrtaceae

Genus: From Kallis/Kallos, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and Thamnus, which is Ancient Greek for a shrub. It refers to plants, which have a beautiful overall appearance especially when in flower.

Specie: From Quad, which is Latin for four and Fidus which is latinfor faithful, Loyal or credible. It refers to an organ or structure being splite into four equal parts like the flower parts being in multiples of 4 rather than the usual 5.

Sub specie:

Common Name: One sided bottlebrush.

Distribution:

Calothamnus quadrifidus

is found south and west of a line from Shark Bayin the north west to Israelite Bay in the south east in Western Australia.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calothamnus+quadrifidus#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calothamnus quadrifidus prefer full sun to dappled shade. It grows below medium size trees, low trees, or in low dry scrub lands in the open riparian zones and on river flats especially on disturbed land. It can be found gentle slopes and elevated flats or sandstone ridges where it grows as a small shrub. The altitude ranges from 2 meters ASL to 200 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 3 degrees in July to 38 degrees in January.

The rainfalls range from lows of 900mm to an average of 3350mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Calothamnus quadrifidus prefer growing on fine or course sands. Most of the soils are derived from accumulated sands or river silts or at sands derived from decomposed sandstone. The soils pH ranges from 6pH through to a 7.5pH. It is not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 1.5m to 4m by 2m to 2.5m.

Characteristics:

Calothamnus quadrifidus is a low-branching, slow growing tree with a grey-brown, flaky bark on a twisted trunk. The trunk, branches, stems and petioles exude a thick, sticky, yellow sap when damaged.

The variable leaves depending on subspecies are concolourous and mid blue-green to grass green and measure 10mm to 50mm in length by 1mm to 10mm in width. The bases taper to the short petiole and measure 1.5mm to 2mm in length and have an acute apex. They are covered in stiff white hirsuit hairs.

The red or at times yellow or white flowers are arranged in clusters on one side of the stem amongst the older leaves. There are 4 caduceus sepals and petals. The broad oblong, blueish-grey sepals measure 4.5mm to 5.5mm in length while the ovate, pale yellow petals measure 3.5mm to 4mm. The feather like stamens are usually arranged in 4 claw like bundles, split with the yellow basally connected dorsifixed anthers are on the apical half to apical third. They measure 15mm to 20mm in length. Flowering occurs from September to November.

The woody, barrel-shaped capsules measure 6mm to 14mm in length.

Wildlife:

Calothamnus quadrifidus very attractive to nectar feeding birds including the brown honeyeater, Lichmera indistincta and the white cheeked honeyeater, Phylidonyris niger. It is also attractive to native bees and other nectar eating insects.

Cultivation:

Calothamnus quadrifidus is a magnificent large shrub that is frequently overlooked by gardeners in eastern and northern Australia but has gained great recognition overseas both in America and Europe. It is suitable for medium and large gardens. Garden subjects will grow into a small, many branched, shrub growing from 1 meter to 2.5 meters tall by 2meters to 3 meters in diameter when grown in the open or semi shaded position.

It is best planted singularly as a specimen shrub placed in a bush garden with towering trees behind or at the back of a more formal garden bed surrounded by smaller annuals and perenials with white or yellow flowers. It can be tip hard pruned to keep it bushy and more compact.

I think of Calothamnus quadrifidus in large gardens, I always think of small prostrate Acacia specie planted in the foreground or larger Acacia species planted in the background which flower at the same time or one of the many small red flowering Grevilleas to contrast the white flowers.

It is well suited to beach front gardens where it is at home on the sand and gusty winds. It is one of the few shrubs that is cyclone reistant.

Propagation:

Seeds: Calothamnus quadrifidus is very easy to grow from seed. Sprinkle seeds sparingly over the mi, cover with 2mm to 5mm of mix and keep moist. Place the tray in 30mm to 50mm shade.

Once the seedlings reach 50 to 70mm in height plant them out into native tubes. For mass plantings plant them at 3 meter to 5 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calotis cuneifolia

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Asterids

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Asterales

Family: Asteraceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and from Otis, which is Ancient Greek for an ear.

Specie: From Cuneatus, which is Latin for a wedge shape and Folium, which is Latin for foliage. It refers to leaves or phyllodes which are shaped like a wedge.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Purple Burr Daisy.

Distribution:

Calotis cuneifolia

is found from near Cloncurry and east to Townsville in northern Queensland south to Melbourne in Victoria and west along river channels to near Lake Alexandrina.

It is also found Watarrka National Park east to the Todd River in the Northern Territory.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calotis+cuneifolia#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calotis cuneifolia prefer full sun to light dappled shade. It grows below medium size trees, low trees, or in low dry open shrubby mulgas, on gentle slopes or elevated flats. The altitude ranges from 50 meters ASL to 650 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 2 degrees in July to 43 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 180mm to an average of 2000mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Calotis cuneifolia prefer light red, orange, grey, or brown sandy clays or gravelly sandy clays. The soils are derived from decomposed basalts, sandstone, granite, shale or metamorphic rocks. The soils pH ranges from 4.5pH to 7pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.3m to 0.6m by 0.4m to 0.6m.

Characteristics:

Calotis cuneifolia is an erect to semi prostrate perennial herb. The main stems are grey and woody at the base while the upper stems are grass-green and covered in white septate hairs.

Calotis cuneifolia’s alternate petiolate basal leaves are cuneate to spathulate. The basal leaves wither and die soon after the stems are produced. The cauline leaves are usually spathulate or at times elliptical and measure 8mm to 40mm in length by 5mm to 20mm in width. The base is cuneate with an auriculate appendage while the apex is broad obtuse with small lobes or a few teeth otherwise the margins are entire. The concolourous laminas are grass-green to sea-green, dull and sparsely covered in white septate hairs. The laminas are flat. The mid vein is prominent on the lower laminas and is visible on the upper laminas. The leaves are sessile.

The inflorescence of Calotis cuneifolia are solitary erect or in small leafy cymes of 2 or 3 individual flowers. They measure 8mm to 20mm in diameter.

The lanceolate involucral bracts measure 2mm to 3mm in length 1.5mm to 2mm in width. The bracts are scabrous and are sparsely covered in white glandular hairs with acute apexes. The receptacles are conical without scales. The florets are yellow-green to yellow while the ray ligules are lilac to purple or blue-purple. The 34 to 56 ligules measure 3.5mm to 9mm in length by 1.6mm to 2mm in width. Flowers appear throughout the year under favourable conditions with a peak from September to November.

Calotis cuneifolia fruits are linear achenes or burrs. The green achenes are glabrous with narrow marginal ridges and turn black when ripe. The pappus has 2 to 4 rigid awns which are barbed near the apexes. The 2 to 4 basal scales are incurved at the margins.

Wildlife:

Calotis cuneifolia is unknown to the author however seed dispersal is by haired or furred animals.

Cultivation:

It would make an good fire retardant ground cover annual for sunny to partly shaded areas.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Calotis cuneifolia is a very beautiful small herb for small to large bush or cottage gardens. Garden subjects will grow into dense small rounded herbs from 0.5 meters to 0.7 meters in height by 0.5 meters to 0.7 meters in diameter. In Native gardens they can be used as fill in plants edging plants in larger beds or the central plants in smaller beds.

They are best used adjacent to small areas of bush close to paths or the house so their blue-purple flowers can be viewed regularly. They are great in rockeries as that larger fill in plant. Here they can be planted in small groups of 2 or 3 as a standalone plant to create a harsh barren look with other arid plants. If they are surrounded by shorter plants with fine foliage and red flowers they will dominate at the center giving an expansive look to the bed especially when they are in flower which is most of the year. This is one plant that benefits highly from being mass planted or planted in scattered clumps.

There medium size enables them to be used as borders or to define barriers from one section of the garden to the next. Used adjacent to bush land on the northern or north western side they will achieve a defining line between the bush and the manicured or formal garden when planted in long rows. Don’t make the row straight or with informality but curve it and make it narrow and wide by having them go from single plants to 3 or 4 in depth.

It is most suitable for use around sunny swimming pools, courtyards, besides pathways, sunny rockeries, along sandy clay banks or along drive. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants even in small areas; really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Medium fish or frog ponds will benefit from Calotis cuneifolia. Remove spent flowers as soon as they start to wither to prolong flowering and to ensure maximum flower size.

If they are placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look against walls to help soften them. Using rocks and small boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis. The leaves and flowers can make a great start for the larger heath setting. When making a desert scene using Calotis cuneifolia use either large rocks with few plants or in a sandy desert plant those sparingly with them becoming more densely planted adjacent to the water feature. Be careful not to over plant as they will look out of place in such a scene.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use either side is limited only by size of the area to be landscaped and the size of your imagination but make sure none of the plants exceed no more than 150mm in height to emphasize the flowers and dome shape of Calotis cuneifolia.

In semi-arid gardens planted beneath a single crooked trunked mallee gum they can be mass planted for a natural bush setting using various coloured daisies of different genre.

Propagation:

Seeds: Calotis cuneifolia seeds can be sown directly into seed trays. Cover the seeds with 1 mm of fine mix and water carefully. Place the trays in a warm area with no more than 30mm shade and keep moist not wet at all times.

Once the seedlings reach 50 to 80mm in height pinch the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings plant them at 0.6 meters to 1 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the flower buds appear.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calotis glandulosa

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Asterids

Order: Asterales

Family: Asteraceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and from Otis, which is Ancient Greek for an ear.

Specie: From Gland/Glāns, which is Latin for a gland. It refers to a group of cells, which make an organ that produce a secretion and bearing numerous glands.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Purple Burr Daisy.

Distribution:

Calotis glandulosa is found from Dubbo in New South Wales south to the Snowy River in Victoria. It is mainly found south east of Canberra and on and west of the Great Dividing Range.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calotis+glandulosa#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calotis glandulosa prefer full sun to light dappled shade. It grows below medium size trees, low trees, or schlerophyll open scrub lands and pastures. It can be found on gentle to steep slopes or elevated flats. The best specimens are found growing in the open where adequate soil moisture is retained. The altitude ranges from 250 meters ASL to 1000 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 6 degrees in July to 40 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 450mm to an average of 1600mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Calotis glandulosa prefer to grow on most sandy soils to light medium clays. The soils are usually derived from decomposed sandstone, granite or shale. The soils pH ranges from 4.5pH to 7pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.2m to 0.35m by 0.4m to 0.8m.

Characteristics:

Calotis glandulosa is an erect to semi prostrate or ascending much branched long lived perennial herb. The main stems are woody near the base. The deep grass-green stems are moderately to densely covered in long, white hirsute hairs with short glandular hairs and scattered longer septate hairs.

Calotis glandulosa’s alternate cauline leaves are and measure 15mm to 30mm in length by 5mm to 9mm in width. The basal leaves are absent in this species. The bases are sessile and cuneate while the apexes are usually pinnatifida or at times mucronate to cuspidate. The margins are entire to pinnatifid. The concolourous laminas are deep grass-green, dull and moderately covered in sessile glands or at times short white glandular hairs. The laminas decurve strongly from the mid vein to the margins and slightly at the apexes. The mid vein is prominent on the lower laminas and is visible on the upper laminas.

The inflorescence of Calotis glandulosa born in solitary heads from the terminal stems. The heads measure 15mm to 22mm in diameter. The involucral bracts are ovate to lanceolate with an acute apex. The margins are entire while the surfaces are glandular. The receptacle is strongly conical, without scales while the ray florets are white, mauve to mid purple-blue. The ligule measure 5mm to 8mm in length. The flowers appear from December to February but may flower throughout the year under favourable conditions.

Calotis glandulosa fruits are flattened, linear achenes in a burr. The green achenes are glabrous with tuberculate lumps and turn red-brown when ripe. The achenes measure 1mm to 2.5mm in length. The 4 or 5 awn like pappus are of unequal length and measure 1.3mm to 5mm in length. The pappus are barbed towards the apex and are covered with long narrow ciliate scales.

Wildlife:

Calotis glandulosa is unknown to the author however seed dispersal could be by haired or furred animals as well as the wind.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant annual ground cover for sunny to semi shaded areas.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Calotis glandulosa is a very beautiful large herb for small to large bush or cottage gardens. Garden subjects will grow into dense small rounded herbs from 0.3 meters to 0.4 meters in height by 0.6 meters to 1 meter in diameter. In Native gardens they can be used as fill in plants edging plants in larger beds or the central plants in smaller beds.

It is best used adjacent to small areas of bush close to paths or the house so their blue-purple flowers can be viewed regularly. It is great in rockeries as that larger fill in plant. Here they can be planted in small groups of 2 or 3 as a standalone plant to create a harsh barren look with other arid plants. If it is surrounded by shorter plants with broader foliage and red flowers they will contrast extraordinarily well at the center giving an expansive look to the bed especially when it is in flower which is most of the year. This is one plant that benefits highly from being mass planted or planted in scattered clumps in high traffic areas.

Its medium size enables them to be used as borders or to define barriers from one section of the garden to the next. Used adjacent to bush land on the northern or north western side it will achieve a defining line between the bushes and the manicured or formal garden when planted in long rows. Don’t make the rows straight use curves make it narrow and wide by having them go from single plants to 3 or 4 in depth.

It is most suitable for use around sunny swimming pools, courtyards, besides pathways, sunny rockeries, along sandy clay banks or along drive. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants even in small areas; really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Medium fish or frog ponds will benefit from Calotis glandulosa. Remove spent flowers as soon as they start to wither to prolong flowering and to ensure maximum flower size.

If it is placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look against walls to help soften them. Using rocks and small boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis. The leaves and flowers can make a great start for the larger heath setting. When making a desert scene using Calotis glandulosa use either large rocks, with few plants or in a sandy desert, plant them sparingly with them becoming more densely planted adjacent to the water feature. Be careful not to over plant as they will look out of place in such a scene.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use either side is limited only by size of the area to be landscaped and the size of your imagination. It would have a great appeal if mixed in confined areas with Calotis cuneifolia.

In semi-arid gardens planted beneath a single, crooked, trunked, mallee gum they can be mass planted for a natural bush setting using various coloured daisies of different genre.

Propagation:

Seeds: Calotis glandulosa seeds can be sown directly into seed trays. Cover the seeds with 1 mm of fine mix and water carefully. Place the trays in a warm area with no more than 30mm shade and keep moist not wet at all times.

Once the seedlings reach 50 to 80mm in height pinch the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings plant them at 0.6 meters to 1 meter centres.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the flower buds appear.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calotis lappulacea

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Asterids

Order: Asterales

Family: Asteraceae

Genus: From Kallos/Kallis, which is Ancient Greek for beautiful or very beautiful and from Otis, which is Ancient Greek for an ear.

Specie: From Lappula, which is Latin for a burr. It refers to plants, which have many burrs or soft spines on their fruits.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Yellow Burr Daisy.

Distribution:

Calotis lappulacea is widespread south from near Rockhampton in the north east west to The Dimantina National Park in central Queensland south to the Murray River in Victoria mainly along river channels west of the Great Dividing Range. It is also found west of Adelaide, from Port Augusta to Gammon Range National Park and Lake Eyre in South Australia and in disjunct populations along the southern coast of Western Australia.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calotis+lappulacea#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calotis lappulacea prefer full sun to light dappled shade. It grows below medium size trees, low trees, or schlerophyll open scrub lands and pastures. It can be found on gentle slopes or elevated flats. The best specimens are found growing in the open where adequate soil moisture is retained. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 600 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 2 degrees in July to 44 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 50mm to an average of 1600mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Calotis lappulacea prefer to grow on most soil types associated with light red, orange, grey, or brown sandy loams to heavy gravelly clays and adjacent to salt pans which are derived from decomposed basalts, sandstone, granite, shale or metamorphic rocks. The soils pH ranges from 4.5pH to 7.7pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.3m to 0.5m by 0.4m to 0.6m.

Characteristics:

Calotis lappulacea is an erect to semi prostrate long lived perennial herb. The main stems are grey and woody at the base while the upper stems are grass-green and covered in white puberulent hairs. The plants develop a tuberous root

Calotis lappulacea’s alternate, erect petiolate basal leaves are cuneate to spathulate. The basal leaves wither and die soon after the stems are produced. The cauline leaves are linear to oblanceolate and measure 5mm to 25mm in length by 1mm to 4mm in width. The base is tapering while the apex is acute. The margins are entire to pinnatifid. The concolourous laminas are grass-green to deep grass-green, dull and sparsely to moderately covered in white pubescent hairs. The laminas are flat. The mid vein is prominent on the lower laminas and is visible on the upper laminas. The leaves are sessile.

The inflorescence of Calotis lappulacea are solitary erect or in small leafy cymes of 2 or 3 individual flowers. They measure 5mm to 15mm in diameter.

The linear, involucral bracts are grass-green and measure 1.5mm to 2mm in length 0.5mm to 1mm in width. The bracts are covered in white puberulent hairs with acute to obtuse apexes. The receptacles are conical scales. The florets and ligules are bright yellow. The 36 to 66 ligules measure 2mm to 3.5mm in length by 1mm to 1.6mm in width. Flowers appear throughout the year under favourable conditions.

Calotis lappulacea fruits are linear achenes or burrs. The green achenes are glabrous with tuberculate lumps and turn black when ripe. The achenes measure 1mm to 1.5mm in length. There are 2 pappus long 2 erect awns which measure 1.3mm to 2mm in length and 4 to 9 shorter spreading awns which measure 0.4mm to 0.9mm in length. The awns are covered in short, cream, hirsute hairs at the base and are barbed near the apexes.

Wildlife:

Calotis lappulacea is unknown to the author however seed dispersal is by haired or furred animals.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant annual for sunny to semi shaded areas.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Calotis lappulacea is a very beautiful small herb for small to large bush or cottage gardens. Garden subjects will grow into dense small rounded herbs from 0.3 meters to 0.5 meters in height by 0.6 meters to 0.8 meters in diameter. In Native gardens they can be used as fill in plants edging plants in larger beds or the central plants in smaller beds.

It is best used adjacent to small areas of bush close to paths or the house so their blue-purple flowers can be viewed regularly. They are great in rockeries as that larger fill in plant. Here they can be planted in small groups of 2 or 3 as a standalone plant to create a harsh barren look with other arid plants. If they are surrounded by shorter plants with broader foliage and red flowers they will contrast extraordinarily well at the center giving an expansive look to the bed especially when they are in flower which is most of the year. This is one plant that benefits highly from being mass planted or planted in scattered clumps.

There medium size enables them to be used as borders or to define barriers from one section of the garden to the next. Used adjacent to bush land on the northern or north western side they will achieve a defining line between the bush and the manicured or formal garden when planted in long rows. Don’t make the rows straight use curves make it narrow and wide by having them go from single plants to 3 or 4 in depth.

It is most suitable for use around sunny swimming pools, courtyards, besides pathways, sunny rockeries, along sandy clay banks or along drive. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants even in small areas; really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Medium fish or frog ponds will benefit from Calotis lappulacea. Remove spent flowers as soon as they start to wither to prolong flowering and to ensure maximum flower size.

If it is placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look against walls to help soften them. Using rocks and small boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis. The leaves and flowers can make a great start for the larger heath setting. When making a desert scene using Calotis lappulacea use either large rocks, with few plants or in a sandy desert, plant them sparingly with them becoming more densely planted adjacent to the water feature. Be careful not to over plant as they will look out of place in such a scene.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use either side is limited only by size of the area to be landscaped and the size of your imagination. They would have a great appeal if mixed in confined areas with Calotis cuneifolia.

In semi-arid gardens planted beneath a single, crooked, trunked, mallee gum they can be mass planted for a natural bush setting using various coloured daisies of different genre.

Propagation:

Seeds: Calotis lappulacea seeds can be sown directly into seed trays. Cover the seeds with 1 mm of fine mix and water carefully. Place the trays in a warm area with no more than 30mm shade and keep moist not wet at all times.

Once the seedlings reach 50 to 80mm in height pinch the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings plant them at 0.6 meters to 1 meter centres.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the flower buds appear.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calysegia marginata

Classification

Class: Equisetopsida

Subclass: Magnoliidae

Superorder: Asteranae

Order: Solanales

Family: Convulaceae

Genus: From Kályx/Kalýptein, which are Greek for a husk, cup or covering and Stégē, which is Ancient Greek for a roof or similar covering. It refers to flowers, which are covered by very large calyxes when in bud.

Specie: From Margin or Margo, which is Latin for a border or edge. It refers to the specific epithet as classified by Smith that has leaf margins that are very similar to those of another species. That is the plants were marginally similar to another species.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Forest Bindweed or Noogee.

Distribution:

Calystegia marginata is widespread on and eastern of the Great Dividing Range to the coast. It is found south from Gladstone in southern Queensland to the Great Ottway National Park and west to Cobden and The Grampians in Victoria.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calystegia+marginata#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calystegia marginata prefer full sun to dappled shade. It grows in moist gullies in sclerophyll forest and adjacent to littoral rainforest, sub-tropical rainforests and cool tropical rainforests. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 900 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 1 degree in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 600mm to an average of 1600mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Calystegia marginata prefers sandy loams to medium clays. The soils are derived from decomposed sandstone, granite, shale, accumulated peaty sands and alluvium. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to a 6pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 2m to 3m by 1m to 2m.

Characteristics:

Calystegia marginata’s is a glabrous perennial twinning climber with grass-green stems.

Calystegia marginata’s alternate leaves are ovate to lanceolate and measure 30mm to 100mm in length by 15mm to 80mm in width. The elliptical leaflets measure 30mm to 90mm in length by 15mm to 40mm in width. The petioles measure 20mm to 80mm in length. The bases are sagittate to hastate or sagittate-hastate while the apexes are acuminate to narrow acute. The discolourous laminas are grass-green to a deep grass-green or mid blue-green, glabrous and dull to semi glossy on the upper lamina while the lower lamina is similar or slightly paler with a purple tinge and dull. The laminas are flat or recurve slightly upwards from the mid vein to the margins and decurve slightly near the apexes. The margins are entire with the basal lobes toothed or shallowly lobed. The mid vein and lateral veins are prominent on the lower laminas while they are clearly visible from the upper laminas. The laminas are convex on the upper laminas between the mid vein and lateral veins. The new growth is glossy grass-green.

The inflorescence of Calystegia marginata are born singularly from the leaf axils. The slender pedicles measure 18mm to 80mm in length.

The concolourous or discolourous bracteoles are grass-green with the mid vein, lateral veins and network veins being grass-green to pale maroon on the Adaxial surface while the abaxial surfaces are similar or have deeper maroon. The ovate to orbicular bracteoles measure 6mm to 12mm in length and 6mm to 12mm in diameter. The apexes are obtuse with mucronulata tips. The grass-green calyxes are cupular and measure 5mm to 12mm in length. The white, lilac or mauve corolla is funnel form with shallow obtuse lobes. The corollas measure 18mm to 24mm in length overall by 13mm to 17mm in diameter at the apexes.

The 5 creamy pastel green filaments form a column around the style and measure 7mm to 12.5mm in length. The oblong pure white anthers measure 1.5mm to 2mm in length.

The creamy pastel green style measures 9mm to 15.5mm in length. The pure white oblong stigma measures 2mm to 3mm in length. The flowers appear throughout the year with a peak from October to April.

Calystegia marginata fruits are a globose capsule. The green capsules are glabrous and turn grey when ripe. They measure 5mm to 7mm in length.

Wildlife:

Calystegia marginata wildlife is unknown to the author.

Cultivation:

Calystegia marginata is a delicate small twiner for small trellises, pool fences or climbing over small features. It is suitable for small to large gardens. Garden subjects will grow in semi shade to dappled light and grow from 1 meter to 1.5 meters in height by 1 meter to 2 meters in width along a small fences or structures.

The sagittate pale blue-green leaves and white or pastel pink flowers are quite unusual and very attractive. It does well on rock walls or small rockeries when used as a ground cover and allowed to scramble between the boulders. It is an excellent coastal vine for beach properties where the only maintenance required is to ensure weed growth is eliminated as the plants will succumb to competition very quickly.

Propagation:

Seeds: Calystegia marginata are easy to grow from fresh seeds. The seeds can be sown directly into trays using a fine porous mix. Place the trays in a warm position under 30mm shade and keep moist not wet. Seeds usually germinate in 10 to 30 days.

When the seedlings reach the three to four leaf stages, prick them out and plant them into 75mm native tubes using a good organic mix. Be aware that they are twiners and should be given some distance to grow laterally.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chook pellets soaked in water and apply the liquid on an alternate basis. Fertilize every month. Once the seedlings reach 150 to 200mm in height nip the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position.

Where mass plantings of Calystegia marginata are required, as a feature; plant them at 1 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calystegia soldanella

Classification

Class: Equisetopsida

Subclass: Magnoliidae

Superorder: Asteranae

Order: Solanales

Family: Convulaceae

Genus: From Kályx/Kalýptein, which are Greek for a husk, cup or covering and Stégē, which is Ancient Greek for a roof or similar covering. It refers to flowers, which are covered by very large calyxes when in bud.

Specie: From Soldan, which is Latin for small coins and Ella, which is Greek/Latin for feminine. It usually refers to leaves, which are round like coins but daintier in appearance.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Coastal Bindweed.

Distribution:

Calystegia soldanella is found on the eastern side of the Great Dividing Range south from the Gold Coast in southern Queensland to Wilson’s Promontory in southern Victoria.

It is also found in several disjunct populations including Cape barren Island and Islands off the west coast of Flinders Island, along the east coast of Tasmania, Anderson Bay, near Port Sorell and Stanley Point in Tasmania.

There are 3 isolated populations in Western Australia near Margarette River, Walpole-Nornalop National park and Granite Peaks State Forest.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calystegia+soldanella#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calystegia soldanella prefer full sun to light dappled shade. It grows on coastal back dunes, headlands and above the high water marks along estuaries. It grows in open woodlands, sclerophyll forest and adjacent to littoral rainforest. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 150 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degree in August to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 800mm to an average of 1600mm annually.

The temperatures range from minus 1 degree in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 600mm to an average of 1200mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Calystegia soldanella prefers coarse sands, sandy loams to rocky light clays. The soils are derived from decomposed sandstones granites, accumulated peaty beach sands or alluvial deposits. The soils pH ranges from 5pH to a 7pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated as are salt laden winds.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 1m to 3m by 1m to 3m.

Characteristics:

Calystegia soldanella is a glabrous, repent, perennial with trailing, grass-green to olive or purple–green stems.

Calystegia soldanella’s alternate or clustered fleshy leaves are reniform to orbicular-cordate and measure 15mm to 40mm in length by 20mm to 60mm in width. The elliptical leaflets measure 30mm to 90mm in length by 15mm to 40mm in width. The petioles are deep grass-green to olive-yellow or purple–green and measure 10mm to 60mm in length. The bases are moderately to strongly cordate while the apexes are rounded to broadly obtuse. The discolourous laminas are sea-green to a deep grass-green, glabrous and dull on the upper lamina while the lower lamina is paler with a reddish-orange tinge and dull. The laminas recurve upwards from the mid vein to the margins or rarely decurve close to the margins. The margins are entire with a slight undulation. The mid vein and lateral veins are strongly prominent on the lower laminas and are clearly visible from the upper laminas. The new growth is glossy grass-green.

The inflorescence of Calystegia soldanellaare born singularly from the leaf axils. The pedicles measure 18mm to 80mm in length.

The often dimorphic, concolourous bracteoles are grass-green tinged red to maroon especially close to the margins, apexes and along the mid vein. The broad ovate to orbicular bracteoles measure 10mm to 15mm in length and 7mm to 12mm in width. The apexes are obtuse to broadly obtuse. The grass-green calyxes are cupular and turn red or maroon at the apexes. The calyxes measure 9mm to 15mm in length and have short obtuse lobes which measure 0.8mm to 1.2mm in length. The white, pink or pale purple corolla is funnel form with shallow, spreading, broadly obtuse lobes. The corollas measure 32mm to 50mm in length by 36mm to 58mm in diameter at the apexes.

The 5 creamy pink to creamy fawn filaments form a column around the style and measure 12mm to 21mm in length. The oblong pure white anthers measure 3mm to 4mm in length.

The creamy pink to creamy fawn style measure 14mm to 24mm in length. The pure white sagittate stigma measures 2mm to 3mm in length. The flowers appear throughout the year with a peak from October to April.

Calystegia soldanella fruits are an ovoidal capsule. The green capsules are glabrous and turn grey when ripe. They measure 10mm to 15mm in length.

Wildlife:

Calystegia soldanella wildlife is unknown to the author though it is fertilized by unknown small black beetles.

Cultivation:

Calystegia soldanella is a delicate looking small twiner for ground covers near swimming pools, beside driveways or between car tracks and rockeries. It is suitable for small to large gardens. Garden subjects need full sun on sandy loams or skeletal soils on well drained slopes. It grows from 1 meter to 2 meters in diameter.

The reniform to orbicular leaves and pascal funnel form flowers are quite unusual and make the plants very attractive when in flower. They do well on rock walls or small rockeries when used as a ground cover and allowed to scramble between the boulders. It is an excellent coastal vine for properties where the only maintenance required is to ensure weed growth is eliminated as the plants will succumb to competition very quickly.

Propagation:

Seeds: Calystegia soldanella are easy to grow from fresh seeds. The seeds can be sown directly into trays using a fine porous mix. Place the trays in a warm position under 30mm shade and keep moist not wet. Seeds usually germinate in 10 to 30 days.

When the seedlings reach the three to four leaf stages, prick them out and plant them into 75mm native tubes using a good organic mix. Be aware that they are twiners and should be given some distance to grow laterally.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height nip the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position.

Where mass plantings of Calystegia soldanella are required, as a feature; plant them at 1 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calytrix leschenaultii

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Rosids

Order: Myrtales

Family: Myrtaceae

Genus: From Kályx/Kalýptein, which are Greek for a husk, cup or covering and from Thrix or Tricos, which is Ancient Greek for a hair. It refers to the hairs on the apex and margins of the calyx.

Specie:Is named in honour of Jean-Baptiste Lechenault de la Tour 1773-1826, who was a French botanist who wrote about plants from New Holland and van Dieman’s Land.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Common Fringe Myrtle.

Distribution:

is widespread species found in south western Western Australia east and south of a line from Kalbarri National Park at the mouth of the Murchison River, to north of the Fraser Range and south to Israelite Bay.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calytrix+leschenaultii#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calytrix leschenaultii prefers full sun to dappled shade. It grows below medium size trees, low trees, or in low dry shrubby mulgas on gentle slopes, elevated flats in moist or dry sandplain heaths, dunes, depressions or exposed outcrops. The best specimens are found growing in shallow depressions. The altitude ranges from 5 meters BSL to 550 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 0 degrees in July to 42 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 250mm to an average of 1500mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Calytrix leschenaultii prefers sandy loams to medium clays. The soils are usually derived from decomposed granite, sandstone, laterites, limestone or accumulated sands behind the frontal dunes. The soils pH ranges from 5pH through to 7.5pH. It is not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.5m to 1.2m by 0.5m to 1.5m.

Characteristics:

Calytrix leschenaultii’s stems are pale grey-brown, dull and glabrous. The new growth and juvenile branchlets are pale rusty brown and glabrous.

Calytrix leschenaultii’s crowded leaves are scattered to loosely decussate along the stems. The fleshy, ovate leaves measure 2mm to 4mm in length by 1.5mm to 3.5mm in width. The glabrous petioles measure 0.3mm to 0.5mm in length. The bases are broad tapering to the petiole while the apexes are obtuse with an acute tip. The concolourous laminas are bright grass-green, glabrous and glossy. The margins are entire while the new growth has a maroon tinge.

The inflorescence of Calytrix leschenaultii are born single from the leaf axils and measure 9mm to 12mm in diameter. The green, glabrous bracteoles are fused and measure 1mm to 1.5mm in length. The 5 deep purple petals are elliptical while the apexes are cupular and acute. The petals measure 5mm to 6mm in length by 3mm to 3.5mm in width.

The 30 to 36 white filiform filaments turn purple to deep purple as the pass anthesis and measure 4mm to 5.5mm in length. The small, ovate, pale yellow, ovoidal anthers are dorsifixed and measure 0.5mm in length.

The pale yellow-green pistil measures 2.5mm to 3mm in length. The flowers appear from June to November.

Calytrix leschenaultii fruit is an ovoidal, serrate nut. The green nuts are finely ridged, glabrous and turn deep grey when ripe. The grass-green sepals and awn turn red to purple following anthesis and are persistent on the ripening fruit.

Wildlife:

Calytrix leschenaultii supports most native bees when in flower.

Cultivation:

Calytrix leschenaultii is a spectacular flowering heath shrub which is suitable for small to large gardens in arid to semi-arid areas. It is long lived as garden subjects and will grow into small dense shrubs with minimal maintenance. A light pruning in early autumn is all that is really needed to keep the shrubs bushy. In cultivation it grows from 1 meter to 2 meters in height by 1 meters to 2 meters in diameter when grown in the open.

In the formal or informal Garden it can be used as the fill in plants or as the main feature beside other features like a cascade or large boulders. Imagine a small pond with fish swimming. Beside it are several deep purple Calytrix leschenaultii and eriostemon australiensis. Above them is water cascading down over small rocks. This is extremely powerful, spectacular with its deep purple flowers contrasting against the white flowers, green foliage and habit yet offers some formality in an informal setting that is both stimulating and relaxing.

Use it in small groups with larger rocks or in front of a large log. The large log gives a strong horizontal affect with depth if placed on an angle. Right along the rear plant Calytrix leschenaultii. It can be a mixture of deep purple mixed with whites or a softening approach use pale pinks flowering together to add interest like Boronia umbellata or Boronia rosmarinifolia.

It could be used very successfully in bonsai collections with the branches bending easily into any desired shape.

Calytrix leschenaultii make outstanding contribution to dry heath gardens. When you design a flat heath garden which Calytrix tetragona is well suited don’t use contours to display the plants as heath lands are almost always flat or have a slight rise. Make the path narrow so you have to feel the plants as you walk through the garden bed. This gives an extra dimension which many people forget about when designing heath gardens. Plants must be planted close together and be short so you can see over the tallest ones with the exception of one or two plants at the most. These will be feature plants. The idea is to achieve a feeling of expansive flatness. This can be achieved with using the Calytrix leschenaultii’ssmall green linear leaves and having them contrasting with finer pale green or soft grey to glaucous coloured foliage. Use a lot of procumbent plants like Melaleuca pearsonii or Brachyloma daphnoides. Mix them with other smaller shrubs so none of them dominate the scene but blend in to give a mosaic of foliage colours that you oversee. Actinotis helianthi is a great addition with broader pale grey almost white foliage or Grevillea thelemanniana for a horizontal lime green affect with fine leaves. Grevillea masonii could be substituted if a broader foliaged plant is deemed necessary.

To the opposite extreme the plants look just at home in the wild natural heath type garden.

Propagation:

Seeds: Calytrix leschenaultii are not easy to grow from seeds. The seeds germinate sporadically and unreliably which is quite frustrating when you are looking forward to a great display in future years. Calytrix leschenaultii seeds may respond if treated as wild plants which only regenerate after fire. I would assume from this not having grown the plants using smoke, but it may unlock the inhibitors preventing germination. This can be achieved by placing the seeds over a small smoky fire using semi dried gum leaves. Extinguish the fire with water and collect the water. Wash the ash in the water. Place the ash fines in the seed raising mix and sow the seeds into the seed trays. Water the tray using the smoked water. Place the trays in a warm dry position under 30mm shade cloth. Keep the trays moist not wet as fungal problems may evolve.

Once the seedlings reach 35mm to 50mm in height they can be transplanted into 50mm native tubes. At this stage the seedlings are quite hardy but still do not over water.

Once the seedlings reach 150 to 200mm in height nip the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position.

Cuttings are best taken to ensure a great display and cuttings are easy to strike. Softwood cuttings are the easiest type of plants to propagate from. Use 30mm to 70mm long herbaceous cuttings taken from September to late January or as late as March if you are in a frost free area. Vigorously growing plants of the form you desire should be used when growing from cuttings Place the cuttings in a cool semi shaded position preferably under 30mm to 70mm shade cloth.

Where mass plantings of Calytrix leschenaultiiare required along driveways or fence lines as a feature, plant them at 1 meter to 1.5 meter centers. If they are require for a small hedge or border then plant them at 1 meter centers.

Cuttings: Cuttings of Calytrix leschenaultii must be used if a particular colour form or leaf size is wanted. Cuttings strike easy if the material is fresh and disease free. 50mm to 60mm long semi hardwood cuttings are prepared from partially mature wood of the current season’s growth, just after a flush of growth. This type of cutting normally is made from mid-August in frost free areas to early autumn. The wood is reasonably firm and the leaves of mature size.

Remove half the leaves from the bottom section being careful not to tear the bark. Take a 10mm slice off the bark from the bottom of the cutting on one side. Using a weak rooting hormone, dip the cutting in and place it in a moist sterile seed raising mix. When the cuttings have obviously struck and have developed good roots treat them as for seedlings.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Calytrix tetragona

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Rosids

Order: Myrtales

Family: Myrtaceae

Genus: From Kályx/Kalýptein, which are Greek for a husk, cup or covering and from Thrix or Tricos, which is Ancient Greek for a hair. It refers to the hairs on the apex and margins of the calyx.

Specie:From Tetra, which is Ancient Greek for four and Gona/Gonos, which is Ancient Greek for an angle or bent knee. It refers to structures or organs, which have four angles.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Common Fringe Myrtle.

Distribution:

Calytrix tetragona is widespread species found south from the Carnarvon Gorge in central Queensland south and south east to the Pilga Scrub in eastern New South Wales then south west to the Murray River and Mount Gambia in South Australia. It is then found in a general north-north west direction to Lake Eyre and south west to Fowlers Bay Conservation Reserve.

It is also found in Western Australia from Nuytsland nature Reserve west to the Moore River nature Reserve.

In Tasmania it is generally found along the east coast and north coast regions, King Island, Barren Island, and Flinders Island as well as most of the smaller Islands in Bass Strait.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Calytrix+tetragona#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Calytrix tetragona prefer full sun to dappled shade. It grows below medium size trees, low trees, or in low dry shrubby mulgas on gentle slopes, elevated flats in moist or dry sandplain heaths, dunes, depressions or exposed outcrops. The best specimens are found growing in shallow depressions. The altitude ranges from 5 meters BSL to 950 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 2 degrees in July to 44 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 100mm to an average of 1600mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Calytrix tetragona prefers sandy loams to medium clays. The soils are derived from decomposed granite, sandstone, laterites, limestone or accumulated sands behind the frontal dunes. The soils pH ranges from 5pH through to an 8pH. It is not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.5m to 2m by 0.5m to 1.5m.

Characteristics:

Calytrix tetragona’s bark is a dull, pale grey and scabrous to glabrous. The new growth and juvenile branchlets are pale rusty brown and glabrous or sparsely covered in fine white puberulent hairs.

Calytrix tetragona’s crowded leaves become alternate as the stems elongate. The linear leaves are tetragonal in cross section and measure 1mm to 12mm in length by 0.5mm to 1mm in width. The glabrous petioles measure 0.5mm to 1mm in length. The bases are tapered to the petiole while the apexes are acute with a short spine. The concolourous laminas are bright grass-green to a sea-green and dull. The margins are entire with fine white ciliate hairs or very finely toothed. The new growth is a light bronze to pale green.

The inflorescence of Calytrix tetragona are single or produced in small clusters of 2 to 4 from the leaf axils. They measure 9mm to 18mm in diameter. The flowers are very variable with many varieties. The species may need to be divided into several sub specie or varieties at a later date.

The green caduceus bracteoles are free or fused and are glabrous or covered in white puberulent hairs. The bracteoles measure 2mm to 4.5mm in length. The green hypanthium has 10 longitudinal ribs and is usually glabrous or at times covered in white puberulent hairs and measure 7mm to 15mm in length.

The 5 grass green sepals are ovate to orbicular and measure 2mm to 2.5mm in length. The sepal’s apexes are ovate with a single awn which measures 12mm to 17mm in length. The 5 white to deep pink petals are elliptical to lanceolate while the apexes are obtuse to acute. The petals measure 3.5mm to 7.5mm in length by 0.9mm to 2.2mm in width.

The 15 white to mid pink filiform filaments form a ring around the hypanthium and measure 4mm to 5.5mm in length. The small ovate anthers are pink.

The white to pale pink or rose pink pistil measures 4mm to 5mm in length. The flowers appear throughout the year with a peak from September to November.

Calytrix tetragona fruits are an ovoid nut. The green nuts are finely ridged, glabrous and turn deep grey when ripe. The grass-green sepals and awn turn red to purple following anthesis and are persistent on the ripening fruit.

Wildlife:

Calytrix tetragona supports most native bees when in flower.

Cultivation:

Calytrix tetragona is a very beautiful small heath shrub which are suitable for small to large gardens in arid to semi-arid areas. They are long lived as garden subjects and will grow into small dense shrubs with minimal maintenance. A light pruning in early autumn is all that is really needed. In cultivation they grow from 1.5 meters by 2.5 meters in height by 1.5 meters to 2 meters in diameter when grown in the open.

In the formal or Japanese Garden they can be used as the fill in plants or as the main plant beside the water feature. Imagine a small pond with fish swimming. Beside it are several pink Calytrix tetragona and above them is water cascading down over small rocks. This is very powerful yet formal and relaxing. They can partially surround such a scene and still look effective. Use them in small groups with larger rocks or in front of a large log. The large log gives a strong horizontal affect with depth if placed on an angle. Right along the rear plant Calytrix tetragona. They can be a mixture of white and pink forms flowering together to add interest like miniature peach trees.

They could be used very successfully in bonsai collections with the branches bending easily into any desired shape.

Calytrix tetragona make outstanding contribution to dry heath gardens. When you design a flat heath garden which Calytrix tetragona is well suited don’t use contours to display the plants as heath lands are almost always flat or have a slight rise. Make the path narrow so you have to feel the plants as you walk through the garden bed. This gives an extra dimension which many people forget about when designing heath gardens. Plants must be planted close together and be short so you can see over the tallest ones with the exception of one or two plants at the most. These will be feature plants. The idea is to achieve a feeling of expansive flatness. This can be achieved with using the Calytrix tetragona’s small green linear leaves and having them contrasting with finer pale green or soft grey to glaucous coloured foliage. Use a lot of procumbent plants like Melaleuca pearsonii or Brachyloma daphnoides. Mix them with other smaller shrubs so none of them dominate the scene but blend in to give a mosaic of foliage colours that you oversee. Actinotis helianthi is a great addition with broader pale grey almost white foliage or Grevillea thelemanniana for a horizontal lime green affect with fine leaves. Grevillea masonii could be substituted if a broader foliaged plant is deemed necessary.

To the opposite extreme the plants look just at home in the wild natural heath type garden.

Propagation:

Seeds: Calytrix tetragona are not easy to grow from seeds. The seeds germinate sporadically and unreliably which is quite frustrating when you are looking forward to a great display in future years. Calytrix tetragona seeds may respond if treated as wild plants which only regenerate after fire. I would assume from this not having grown the plants using smoke, but it may unlock the inhibitors preventing germination. This can be achieved by placing the seeds over a small smoky fire using semi dried gum leaves. Extinguish the fire with water and collect the water. Wash the ash in the water. Place the ash fines in the seed raising mix and sow the seeds into the seed trays. Water the tray using the smoked water. Place the trays in a warm dry position under 30mm shade cloth. Keep the trays moist not wet as fungal problems may evolve.

Once the seedlings reach 35mm to 50mm in height they can be transplanted into 50mm native tubes. At this stage the seedlings are quite hardy but still do not over water.

Once the seedlings reach 150 to 200mm in height nip the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position.

Where mass plantings of Calytrix tetragonaare required along driveways or fence lines as a feature, plant them at 1 meter to 1.5 meter centers. If they are require for a small hedge or border then plant them at 1 meter centers.

Cuttings: Cuttings of Calytrix tetragona must be used if a particular colour form or leaf size is wanted. Cuttings strike easy if the material is fresh and disease free. 50mm to 60mm long semi hardwood cuttings are prepared from partially mature wood of the current season’s growth, just after a flush of growth. This type of cutting normally is made from mid-August in frost free areas to early autumn. The wood is reasonably firm and the leaves of mature size.

1 Prepare the cutting mix by adding one third sharp clean river sand, one third peat and one third perlite. These ingredients are sterile,

2 Select good material from non diseased plants,

3 Select semi green stems for cuttings. Look for a stem with two or three nodes,

4 Place the cutting on a flat, hard surface, and make a clean slice through the middle of the lower node on an angle towards the base, with a sterilized sharp knife or razor blade. – This scarification of the node will increase the chances of roots emerging from this spot. Now remove all but one or two the leaves, leaving the apex leaves in tact. If the leaves are very large in proportion to the stem, cut off the apical halves.

5 Some plants root easily, but a rooting hormone can help others by stimulating the cutting into sending out new roots. Fill a saucer with water, and place some rooting hormone into another container like a bottle top. Dip the node end of the cutting into the water and then into the rooting hormone. Tap off any excess hormone,

6 Use a small dipple stick or old pencil to poke a hole into the soilless potting mix. Ensure the hole is slightly larger than the stem diameter and be careful not to wipe the rooting hormone off the cuttings base, place the cuttings in a pattern ensuring the cuttings are not touching each other,

7 I like to place the pots in Plastic bags to help maintain temperature and moisture. Place in a semi shaded place like under 50mm shade cloth.

8 When the cuttings have struck, open the bag to allow air circulation for a few days to a week,

9 Once hardened off remove the cuttings from the bag and allow to further hardening for a few more days,

10 Transplant into a good potting mix to grow on.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.


Cananga odorata

Classification

Unranked:

Unranked: Magnoliids

Order: Magnoliales

Family: Annonaceae

Genus: From Kananga, which is Latinized from the Indian vernacular for the tree found there.

Specie: From Odōrāta which is Latin for to have a perfume. It refers to the plants usually the flowers, which have a sweet scent.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Perfume Tree, Ylang-Ylang, Woolly Pine, Macassar Oil Tree or Cananga.

Distribution:

Cananga odorata is found south from the tip of Cape York Peninsular to Rockingham Bay in far north eastern coastal Queensland.

It is also found from Indo China through Malaysia, Singapore Indonesia, New Guinee and many of the Pacific Islands.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cananga+odorata#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cananga odorata prefers humid lowland tropics, in tropical moist to semi-dry evergreen rainforests, littoral rainforests and riverine rainforests. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 1250 meters ASL. (In Indo-China near the equator)

The temperatures range from 12 degrees in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 750mm to an average of 3800mm annually spread fairly evenly throughout the year.

Soil Requirements:

Cananga odorata prefers rich fertile soils derived from black basalt and rich alluvial flats but can be found on poorer soins derived from decomposed sandstone and accumulated sands. The soils are light to medium clays. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH through to 8pH are preferred. It does not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 3m to 30m by 3m to 10m depending on soil fertility and rainfall.

Characteristics:

Cananga odorata’s bark is deep grey and rather smooth. Fibrous stripes forming a lace-like pattern in the blaze but a corresponding pattern or grain not apparent in the wood. Brown bundles of fibres visible in the blaze.

The glabrous petioles measure 6mm to 20mm in length. The broad elliptical to broad lanceolate leaf leaves measure 80mm to 220mm in length by 50mm to 90mm in width. The bases are oblique, rounded while the apexes are narrow acute to accuminate. The discolourous leaves are deep green to mid green on the upper lamina and paler on the lower lamina, have undulating, entire margins. the mid vein and lateral veins are prominent on the lower lamina and are clearly visible on the upper lamina.

The very fragrant flowers have rigid, greenish-yellow ovate calyx that measure 5mm to 7mm in length. The long, yellow, undulating, linear petals measure 50mm to 90mm in length by 6mm to 10mm in width. The yellow anther connective are acute and project above and covering the anthers. The 6 to 13 ovaries have 4 to 8 ovules. The stigmas are somewhat fused to form a domed green at the centre of the anther mass.

The black carpels are covered in a whiteish bloom and measure 20mm to 25mm in length by 10mm to 15mm in diameter. The peduncles measure 10mm to 15mm in length. The 3 to 15 elliptical, black seeds measure 8mm in length by 5mm in diameter.

Wildlife:

Cananga odorata fruits are eaten by the Cassowary, Casuarius casuarius. I would also expect possums and native rats to eat fruits that have fallen to the ground.

Cultivation:

Cananga odorata is a very beautiful small tree or medium to large shrub which should be more widely grown in tropical areas. It is suitable for small to large gardens. Garden subjects will grow into dense small shade trees with weepin foliage to 5 meters to 8 meters by 8 meters when grown in the open or much taller if grown in a rain forest situation. In Native gardens it can be used to protect more delicate plants giving good shade. In and around Townsville the trees have adapted very well to garden and park culture.

It makes ideal avenue trees in parks because of their size and dense canopy. The beauty is further enhanced by the strong contrast in the colour of the upper and lower laminas of the leaves.

It is best used as a small park tree, placed in the background or planted centrally as a small feature tree in smaller gardens. Placed at the rear of a bush garden their maroon flowers and will draw your attention so that you will want to investigate further. Plants with small white, pink or lavender flowers and large leaves can be used in the mid ground while small white, pink or mauve flowering prostrate shrubs are best in the front. Whether it is in flower or not this tree always forms a good shape in cultivation when given average conditions.

Placed in a position where a prevailing breeze is towards the house or entertaining area will help its magnificent perfume linger. Trees will bloom from 3 or 4 years of age in Spring then again in Autumn but as the trees mature even further they will flower continuously all year in warm tropical climates or throughout early Spring to late Autumn in cooler zones.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cananga odorata seeds can be sown directly into into 50mm native tubes using a good quality seed raising mix. Cover the seeds with 10mm of mix and keep moist.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 250mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings plant them at 8 meter to 10 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Canarium australasicum

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Rosids

Order: Sapindales

Family: Burseraceae

Genus: From Kanariumm, which is Latinized from the Malay vernacular for a local nut tree in this genus.

Specie: From Terra Australis, which is Latin for land of the south. It refers to plants, which were first discovered from the land down under.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Melville Island Beech or Carrot Wood or Parsnip Wood.

Distribution:

Canarium australasicum

is found north of a line from the Kimberley Ranges in far north western, Western Australia to Bowen in far north eastern Queensland.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?q=taxamm3Amm22Canarium+australasicummm22#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Canarium australasicum prefer full sun to dappled shade. It grows below medium size trees, low trees, or in low dry shrubby heaths on gentle slopes and elevated flats or ridges often in exposed positions. It prefers open dry woodlands,, open Eucalyptus forests, dry vine forests or dry rainforests. The altitude ranges from 5 meters ASL to 1250 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 15 degrees in July to 42 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 650mm to an average of 3200mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Canarium australasicum prefers light red clays, gravelly sandy clays or screes deposited at the base of cliffs. The soils are usually derived from sandstones, granites, basalts or shales. The soil’s pH ranges from 6pH through to 7pH are preferred. It does not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 10m to 18m by 4m to 10m.

Characteristics:

Canarium australasicum’s bark is a dull light grey and lightly to strongly tessellated, while the branchlets are a light grey, scabrous only becoming smooth where the leaves are located. The juvenile branchlets are will exude small amounts of milky latex if the bark is damaged; the leaves or flowers are picked.

Canarium australasicum’s are odd pinnate with 3 to 7 leaflets. There are two small oblong stipules which measure 5mm to 13 mm in length by 9mm to 10mm in width. The elliptical leaflets measure 30mm to 90mm in length by 15mm to 40mm in width. Petioles measure 4mm to 8mm in length. The bases are cuneate while the apexes are broad acuminate. The margin is entire and curves upwards from the mid vein and is a slightly undulating. The discolourous laminas are bright green to a deep sea green and semi glossy to glossy on the upper lamina while the lower lamina is paler glabrous and dull. The mid vein is prominent on both laminas and with the lateral veins is yellow. The leaflets and rachis are swollen at the point where the leaflets and rachis are attached to the rachis and stem. The rachis measure 40mm to 65mm in length to the first pair of leaflets. New growth is a light bronze to deep maroon.

The inflorescence of Canarium australasicum are erect compound panicles born on the terminals. They measure 40mm to 120mm in length by 60mm to 120mm in width.

The fawn male calyx is broad urn shaped with 3 broad acuminate lobes that measure 0.5mm to 0.6mm in length. The 3 elliptical to ovate petals are deep burgundy to deep maroon and measure 4mm to 5mm in length by 3mm to 4mm in width. The 6 white stamens measure 1mm to 1.5mm in length with thick yellow to orange anthers that measure 2mm in length. The thick pedicle measures 0.8mm to 1.2mm in length.

The female flowers measure 5mm to 6mm in diameter. The green female calyx is broad urn shaped with 3 broad acuminate lobes. The calyx measures 2mm to 2.5mm in length while the lobes measure 0.8mm to 1.2mm in length. The 3 elliptical to ovate petals are deep burgundy to deep maroon and measure 3mm to 4mm in length by 2mm to 2.5mm in width. The 6 white staminodes measure 1mm to 1.5mm in length. The ovary measures 1.5mm to 2mm in diameter while the white stigma is sessile and has 3 indistinct lobes. The thick pedicle measures 0.8mm to 1.2mm in length. Peak flowering occurs from November to December or between January to April.

Canarium australasicum fruits are a large ovoid nut. The green nuts are finely tuberculate turning glabrous and deep blue black when ripe. The calyx and stigma is persistent on the nuts. They measure 9mm to 12mm in length by 8mm to 10mm in diameter.

Wildlife:

Canarium australasicum fruits are eaten by the Torres Straight Pigeons and Cassowaries are known to eat the fruit. I would also expect possums and native rats to eat fruits that have fallen to the ground.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant medium tree.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Canarium australasicum is a very beautiful small tree or medium to large shrub which should be more widely grown in tropical areas. They are suitable for small to large gardens. Garden subjects will grow into dense small shade trees to 15 meters by 8 meters. In Native gardens they can be used to protect more delicate plants giving good shade. In and around Townsville the trees have adapted very well to garden and park culture.

It makes an ideal avenue trees in parks because of their size and dense canopy. The beauty is further enhanced by the strong contrast in the colour of the upper and lower laminas of the leaves.

It is best used as a small park tree, placed in the background or planted centrally as a small feature tree in smaller gardens. Placed at the rear of a bush garden their maroon flowers and will draw your attention so that you will want to investigate further. Plants with small white, pink or lavender flowers and large leaves can be used in the mid ground while small white, pink or mauve flowering prostrate shrubs are best in the front. Whether they are in flower or not these trees always form a good shape in cultivation when given average conditions.

The large green leaves will offset the strong flowers of any prostrate Acacia specie planted in the foreground. In fact they would be a very strong complementary contrast if the prostrate or smaller Acacias were to flower at the same time. In a bush scene they are best scattered through the bush to give patches of colour on the ground as the flowers are discarded to attract the viewers’ attention rather than having a mass plantings.

Propagation:

Seeds: Canarium australasicum seeds can be sown directly into their permanent position or sown into 50mm native tubes using a good quality seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 200mm to 250mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings plant them at 8 meter to 10 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Canavalia rosea

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Rosids

Order: Fabales

Family: Fabalaceae

Genus: From Kānna, which is Greek or Canāliculātum, which is Latin for a groove or water channel and Valida, which is Latin for well developed. It refers to the upper surface of the petiole having a district groove.

Specie: From Rhódon, which is Ancient Greek or Rosa, which is Latin for to have a rose colour. It refers to flowers, which have a pale to deep rose pink colour of a rose.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Coastal Jack Bean or Rose Jack Bean.

Distribution:

Canavalia rosea is widespread along the coastal frontal dunes, estuaries and Islands from Gardabia in Western Australia south of Cape Range National Park to Condon north of Port Headland. It is also found along the coast from Broome north to Cape Londonberry. From the Ord River mouth it follows the coast to Groote Eylandt in the Northern Territory. It is found continuously from the Islands of The Gulf of Carpentaria, the Torres Straight Islands as well as the Islands of the Great Barrier Reef and coastal eastern Queensland south to Woollongong in central coastal New South Wales.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Canavalia+rosea#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Canavalia rosea prefer full sun to light dappled shade. It grows on the frontal dunes, back to the strand vegetation where the trees commence and occasionally adjacent to littoral forest where openings appear along estuaries and monsoon forests in maritime situations. The altitude ranges from 1 meter ASL to 10 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 3 degrees in August to 42 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 200mm to an average of 3200mm annually.

Soil Requirements:

Canavalia rosea prefer to grow on coarse white sands, fine sands, to sandy loams. The sands derived from accumulated beach sands, accumulated coral sands or alluvial deposits. The soils pH ranges from 6pH to an 8pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils though its roots may tap underground water reserves through capillary action of the sand. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated as are salt laden winds.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.3m to 0.5m by 3m to 6m.

Characteristics:

Canavalia rosea is a glabrous, prostrate, perennial with trailing, grass-green to pale blue–green stems. The stems are glabrous or sparsely covered in white silky sericeous hairs.

Canavalia rosea’s alternate tripinnata leaves are orbicular, oblong or ovate and measure 50mm to 130mm in length by 35mm to 110mm in width over all. The apex leaflet measures 63mm to 70mm in length by 50mm to 62mm in width. The apex petiolules which are grooved on the upper surface are glabrous to sparsely covered in white sericeous hairs and measure 25mm to 35mm in length.

The 2 lateral leaflets measure 55mm to 74mm in length by 35mm to 48mm in width. The lateral petiolules which are grooved on the upper surface are glabrous to sparsely covered in white sericeous hairs and measure 3mm to 5mm in length.

The caduceus stipules measure 2.5mm to 3mm in length. The lateral veins form distinct loops within the margins. The main petioles which are grooved on the upper surface are glabrous to sparsely covered in white sericeous hairs and measure 35mm to 52mm in length.

The bases are broadly cuneate while the apexes are truncate with an emarginated tip. The discolourous laminas are deep grass-green, dull, and glabrous or sparsely covered in white, caduceus, sericeous hairs and dull on the upper lamina while the lower lamina is paler. The coriaceous laminas recurve slightly upwards from the mid vein to the margins. The margins are entire with a slight undulation. The mid vein and sub opposite lateral veins are strongly prominent on the lower laminas and are clearly visible from the upper laminas. The new growth is glossy pale bronze-green.

The inflorescence of Canavalia roseaare born on racemes from the leaf axils. There are 8 to 20 individual flowers on a raceme. The rachises and pedicles are glabrous to sparsely covered in white sericeous hairs. The rachises measure 150mm to 300mm in length while the pedicels measure 2mm to 4mm in length.

The grass-green to blue-green calyxes are cupular with dimorphic pinkish lobes. The calyx tubes measure 12mm to 14mm in length and have short obtuse lobes which measure 1.6mm to 3.5mm in length.

The rose pink oblong-ovate standards are white and pale yellow near the base and measure 22mm to 30mm in length by 13mm to 18mm in width. The rose pink wings measure 20mm to 24mm in length by8mm to 10mm in height. The rose pink keel measure 20mm to 24mm in length by 14mm to 16mm in height.

The 10 white filaments are fused to form tube for 18mm to 24mm in overall length. The free section of the dimorphic filaments, alternate between a short one and a long one and measure 3mm to 6mm in length. The oblong pure white anthers measure 3mm to 4mm in length.

The elongated ovary is densely covered in white sericeous hairs and has 6 to 9 ovules. The pascal green glabrous style measures 10mm to 16mm in length. The cupular stigma is pascal green. The flowers appear throughout the year.

Canavalia rosea fruits are ovoidal pods. The green pods are glabrous and turn fawn-grey to pinkish-grey externally and white internally when ripe. The compressed pods have 2 distinct longitudinal ridges along the edges and measure 80mm to 140mm in length by 22mm to 26mm in width.

The seeds number 6 to 10 per pod usually 8.The ellipsoidal seeds measure 13mm to 16mm in length by 10mm to 11mm in width and 7mm to 8mm in breadth. The conspicuous hilum measures 8mm to 9mm in length.

Wildlife:

Canavalia rosea’s leaves is the main food source of for the larval stages of the Dark Cerulean Butterfly. (Jamides bochus). The seeds and probably the pods are poisonous.

Cultivation:

Canavalia rosea is a magnificent strong vigorous ground cover for medium to large gardens. Garden subjects need full sun on sandy loams or skeletal sandy soils on well drained slopes. They grow from 2 meter to 4 meters in diameter when grown in an open situation. Unfortunately Canavalia rosea is not easy to establish away from the coast. I have had problems trying to establish them at The Pinnacles outside Grafton on deep decomposed sands.

The large orbicular leaves and bright rose pink flowers are quite unusual and make the plants very attractive when in flower. They should do well over rock retaining walls and for bank stabilization. They would be ideal as a ground cover scrambling between large boulders beneath the odd tree.

They are an excellent coastal ground cover for holiday units right on the coast where the only maintenance required is to ensure weed growth is eliminated during the early stages of establishment.

They are used extensively for frontal dune stabilization amongst dune care volunteers.

I have seen them used in large hanging baskets for short periods until they send out one or two leader stems.

Propagation:

Seeds: Canavalia rosea are easy to grow from fresh seeds. The seeds can be sown directly into 50mm native tubes after lightly scarifying the seeds between two pieces of fine sand paper. Use a fine porous mix in a deep tray. Place the trays in a warm position in full sun and keep moist not wet. Seeds usually germinate in 6 to 20 days.

When the seedlings reach the three to four leaf stages, plant them out into their permanent positions. Once they reach a meter or start to run nip the tips.

Where mass plantings of Canavalia rosea are required, as a feature or on sand dunes plant them at 2 meter centers.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Capillipedium parviflorum

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Class: Equisetopsida

Subclass: Magnoliidae

Superorder: Lilianae

Order: Poales

Family: Poaceae

Genus: From Capillāre, which is Latin for a thread and Pous/Podion, which is Ancient Greek or Pes/Pedis, which is Latin for a foot or feet. It refers to the leaves’ pedicels, which are very narrow.

Specie: From Paûros, which is Ancient Greek or Parvum which is Latin for small and Flōris which is Latin for a flower or Flōs from the Roman goddess of spring and flowers. It refers to flowers, which are somewhat smaller when compared to other species in the genus.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Scented Top Grass.

Distribution:

Capillipedium parviflorum

is found south the tip of Cape York Peninsular in Queensland to the New South Wales Victoria border. It is found on the Western Slopes, on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast.

There are several disjunct populations in Western Australia along the Kimberley coast and in the Northern Territory from the Victoria River across Arnhem Land to Groote Eyelandt.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Capillipedium+parviflorum#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Capillipedium parviflorum prefers full sun. It grows adjacent to moist Eucalyptus forests and dry rainforests where breaks occur in the canopy, open woodlands or in riparian zones in the more arid areas. The altitude ranges from 10 meters ASL to 550 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 2 degrees in August to 42 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 500mm to 2000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Capillipedium parviflorum prefer better quality skeletal to deep course sands, fine sands, loams, light fatty clays to heavy clays. The soils are usually derived from decomposed brown basalt, black basalt, metamorphic rocks, shale, fatty sandstones or alluvium deposits. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6.5pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.6m to 1.4m by 0.8m to 1m

Characteristics:

Capillipedium parviflorum is a tufted perennial grass growing in tightly packed clumps. The tall straight, erect stems are mid grass-green to bright deep grass-green.

The linear leaf blades of Capillipedium parviflorum measure 100mm to 300mm in length by 2mm to 7mm in width. The slender culms are erect and measure 150mm to 400mm in length by 0.6mm to 0.8mm diameter. The paper brown to pale reddish-brown appressed sheaths are glabrous but have a few short, white hirsute hairs at the apex. The sheaths measure 6.5mm to 11mm in length. The bases are clasping while the apexes are acute. The margins are entire and glabrous with a few short, white hirsute hairs at the apex.

The inflorescences of Capillipedium parviflorum is a compound panicle of several racemes with a common smooth axis. The panicles are oblong and measure 80mm to 240mm in length by 25mm to 90mm in width. The racemes have 3 to 8 joints and measure 30mm to 80mm length. The rachises are glabrous or covered in short, white villous hairs, while the axils are covered in white puberulent hairs. The rachises are fragile at the nodes.

The single fertile female spikelet is sessile in the cluster while the 2 or 3 spikelets are empty or male. These spikelets are pediculate and measure 2.5mm to 3.8mm in length. Fertile spikelets are lanceolate, elliptical or oblong are dorsally compressed and measure 2.8mm to 4mm length.

The dimorphic glumes are firmer than fertile lemma. The lower glumes are oblong and have 1 or 2 keels with 6 nerves. The keels are scabrous and covered in white ciliate hairs. The lower glumes surface is densely covered in white puberulent hairs. The upper glumes are ovate with a single keel which has 3 nerves. The keels are glabrous. The lower lemmas are ovate with obtuse or acute apexes and measure 2mm to 2.5mm in length.

The basal florets are sterile and cover 50 to 75 mm of the length of spikelet. The remaining fertile lemmas are without keels and have a single nerve. The upper lemmas measure 12mm to 18 mm in length. The lemma apexes are entire with an awn. The awns columns are twisted while the longest, middle awn measure 10mm to 16mm in overall length.

There are 3 anthers. The flowers mainly occur from December to February.

The oblong seeds measure 1.4mm to 1.6mm in length.

Wildlife:

Capillipedium parviflorum is suitable for erosion control around lagoons, billabongs, arid riparian zones or on slopes on light to heavy clay soils in open woodlands and along road ways.

The plants make excellent habitat refuges for small frogs.

Cultivation:

Capillipedium parviflorum is a tall tufted clump grass which is very suitable for large landscaping projects. In cultivation they will grow 1 meter to 1.5 meters in height by 0.9mm to 1 meter in diameter when grown in the open. They must be grown in full sun or bright dappled light to maintain dense healthy plants.

It is very suitable for use around sunny swimming pools, in the corner of sunny courtyards, and rockeries or adjacent to natural bush. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Large fish or frog ponds will benefit from Capillipedium parviflorum vertical growth.

If it is placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look. Place them in the rear against walls to help soften them. Using rocks and large boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis and look much larger with this species but keep its size in mind when landscaping. The vertical habit and fast growth can make a great start around buildings. Be careful not to over plant as they will look out of place and weedy.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use is limited only by size of the area to be landscaped, your imagination and the size of the other plants. Companion plants should be no more than 500mm in height to draw attention to Capillipedium parviflorum and the horizontal effect of the companion plants.

Capillipedium parviflorum would make outstanding contribution to an open tall mallee garden. Here it can be used as the vertical growth, scattered throughout the scene. Mixed, contrasting foliage plants with bright red, blue and yellow flowers like those on Dampier ovalifolia, Dampier stricta, Isotoma axillaris, Leishenaulta Formosa, Hibertia linearis, Hibbertia ovalifolia with some of the dwarf forms of Helichrysum will be dynamic and spectacular.

Propagation:

Seeds: Collecting seeds from mature plants of Capillipedium parviflorum is easy when they are fully ripe. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix. Cover them to a depth of 5mm with a fine mix. Seeds may be erratic in germination but a strike rate of over 50mm to 80mm should be attained. Place the tray under 30mm shade and keep the tray moist at all times.

When the seedlings are 20 to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good quality mix.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water and apply the liquid on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months.

Once the seedlings reach 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Division: When growing from divisions remove the plant from the soil and just cut it into 3 or 4 equal parts, first down the middle then halve those sections again. Remove unwanted dead material, weeds and any old small culms that look weak. Replant ensuring the soil is at the same level as before. Cut back the tops so that the stubs are around 50mm in height. Water the new plants thoroughly using a half strength organic fertilizer. New shoots will appear within 10 days.

If it is to be mass planted in a feature garden, plant them out at 1.5 meter to 3 meters.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Capillipedium spicigerum

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Class: Equisetopsida

Subclass: Magnoliidae

Superorder: Lilianae

Order: Poales

Family: Poaceae

Genus: From Capillāre, which is Latin for a thread and Pous/Podion, which is Ancient Greek or Pes/Pedis, which is Latin for a foot or feet. It refers to the leaves’ pedicels being very narrow.

Specie: From Spicatus, which is Latin for a spike and Gera, which is Latin for to bear. It refers to structures, which have thorns or thorn like organs.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Scented Top Grass.

Distribution:

Capillipedium spicigerum

is found south the tip of Cape York Peninsular in Queensland to Sydney in central coastal New South Wales. It is found on the Western Slopes, on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast. There are several disjunct populations in far western Queensland on the Georgina River and north west of Quilpie.

In the Northern Territory it is found from near Darwin, Gurig National Park, eastern Kakadu and the Victoria River.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Capillipedium+spicigerum#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Capillipedium spicigerum prefer full sun. It is a widespread species found adjacent to Eucalyptus forests where breaks occur in the canopy and open woodlands or in riparian zones in arid areas. The altitude ranges from 20 meters ASL to 1050 meters ASL.

The ttemperatures range from minus 2 degrees in August to 42 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 400mm to 3000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Capillipedium spicigerum prefers skeletal to deep course sands or fine sandy loams to heavy clays. The soils are mainly derived from decomposed brown basalt, black basalt, granite, sandstone, metamorphic rocks, shale or alluvium deposits. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 7pH. They are tolerant of water logged soils being partially inundated several times a year and often for long periods. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 1m to 1.5m by 0.8m to 1m

Characteristics:

Capillipedium spicigerum is a tufted perennial grass growing in tightly packed clumps. The tall straight, erect stems are mid green to bright deep green.

The linear leaf blades of Capillipedium spicigerum measure 200mm to 400mm in length by 5mm to 8mm in width. The slender culms are erect and measure 150mm to 400mm in length by 0.6mm to 0.8mm diameter. The paper brown to pale reddish-brown appressed sheaths are glabrous but have a few short, white hirsute hairs at the apex. The sheaths measure 6.5mm to 11mm in length. The bases are clasping while the apexes are acute. The margins are entire and glabrous with a few short, white hirsute hairs at the apex.

The inflorescences of Capillipedium spicigerum is a compound panicle with a common smooth axis. The ppanicles are lanceolate or ovate and measure 100mm to 250mm in length by 50mm to 70mm in width. The racemes have 3 to 8 joints and measure 30mm to 80mm length. The rachises are glabrous or covered in short, white villous hairs, while the axils are covered in white puberulent hairs. The rachises are fragile at the nodes.

The single fertile female spikelet is sessile in the cluster while the remaining spikelets are empty or male. These spikelets are pediculate and measure 2.5mm to 4mm in length. Fertile spikelets are linear, lanceolate or oblong, are dorsally compressed and measure 3mm to 4.2mm length.

The dimorphic glumes are firmer than fertile lemma. The lower glumes are oblong and have 1 or 2 keels with 8 to 9 nerves. The keels are scabrous and covered in white ciliate hairs.

The lower glumes surface is densely covered in white pubescent hairs. The upper glumes are ovate with a single keel and 3 nerves. The keels are scabrous and covered in white ciliate hairs. The lower lemmas are ovate with obtuse or acute apexes and measure 2mm to 2.5mm in length.

The basal florets are sterile and cover 50 to 75 mm of the length of spikelet. The remaining fertile lemmas are without keels and have a single nerve. The upper lemmas measure 12mm to 18 mm in length. The lemma apexes are entire with an awn. The awns columns are twisted while the awns measure 12mm to 18mm in overall length.

There are 3 anthers. The flowers mainly occur from December to February.

The oblong seeds measure 1.7mm to 2.8mm in length.

Wildlife:

Capillipedium spicigerum is suitable for erosion control around lagoons, billabongs, arid riparian zones, on heavy clay soils in open woodlands and along road ways.

The plants make excellent habitat refuges for small frogs.

Cultivation:

Capillipedium spicigerum is a tall tufted clump grass which is very suitable for large landscaping projects. In cultivation they will grow 1 meter to 1.5 meters in height by 0.9mm to 1 meter in diameter when grown in the open. They must be grown in full sun or bright dappled light to maintain dense healthy plants.

It is very suitable for use around sunny swimming pools, in the corner of sunny courtyards, and rockeries or adjacent to natural bush. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Large fish or frog ponds will benefit from Capillipedium spicigerum vertical growth.

If it is placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look. Place them in the rear against walls to help soften them. Using rocks and large boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis and look much larger with this species but keep its size in mind when landscaping. The vertical habit and fast growth can make a great start around buildings. Be careful not to over plant as they will look out of place and weedy.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use is limited only by size of the area to be landscaped, your imagination and the size of the other plants. Companion plants should be no more than 500mm in height to draw attention to Capillipedium spicigerum and the horizontal effect of the companion plants.

Capillipedium spicigerum would make outstanding contribution to an open tall mallee garden. Here it can be used as the vertical growth, scattered throughout the scene. Mixed, contrasting foliage plants with bright red, blue and yellow flowers like those on Dampier ovalifolia, Dampier stricta, Isotoma axillaris, Leishenaulta Formosa, Hibertia linearis, Hibbertia ovalifolia with some of the dwarf forms of Helichrysum will be dynamic and spectacular.

Propagation:

Seeds: Collecting seeds from mature plants of Capillipedium spicigerum is easy when they are fully ripe. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix. Cover them to a depth of 5mm with a fine mix. Seeds may be erratic in germination but a strike rate of over 50mm to 80mm should be attained. Place the tray under 30mm shade and keep the tray moist at all times.

When the seedlings are 20 to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good quality mix.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water and apply the liquid on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months.

Once the seedlings reach 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Division: When growing from divisions remove the plant from the soil and just cut it into 3 or 4 equal parts, first down the middle then halve those sections again. Remove unwanted dead material and any old small culms that look weak. Replant ensuring the soil is at the same level as before. Cut back the tops so that the stubs are around 50mm in height. Water the new plants thoroughly using a half strength organic fertilizer. New shoots will appear within 10 days.

If it is being mass used as a feature in the garden, then plant them at 1 meter to 3 meters.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.


Capparis arborea

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Rosids

Order: Brassicales

Family: Capparaceae

Genus: From Capparis, which is Ancient Greek for an ancient group of plants in the Capparidaceae family.

Specie: From Arborescent, which is Latin for a tree. It refers to plants, which have a typical tree like structure.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Native Pomegranate, Wild Lime, Wild Lemon, Brush Caper Berry or Noble Caper.

Distribution:

Capparis arborea is found from Gore Island north of the Iron Range in far north Queensland south to the Hunter River In central coastal New South Wales on and east of the Great Dividing Range.

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Capparis arborea prefers full sun to full shade. It grows in warmer type riparian, riverine and gallery sub-tropical rainforests, cool tropical rainforests, littoral rainforests and at times monsoonal vine forests. The altitude ranges from 1 meter ASL to 650 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 3 degrees in July to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 900mm to an average of 1800mm annually. In lower rainfall areas it favours riverine habitats.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Capparis+arborea#tab_mapView

Soil Requirements:

Capparis arborea prefers better quality loams to medium red clays or gravelly clays. The soils are derived from decomposed brown basalts, black basalts, shale and metamorphic rocks. The soils pH ranges from 4.5pH to 5.5pH. It tolerates seasonal water logged soils for short periods. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 4m to 8m by 4m to 5m.

Characteristics:

The trunks of Capparis arborea’s are short, grey and at times with a greenish tinge. The bark has a tessellated appearance and is sparsely covered in flattened papillae lumps which have 2 sharp spines. The branchlets and juvenile growth are deep grass-green to sea-green and covered in flattened papillae lumps which have 2 very sharp spines. The smallest branchlets are rather thick through to the end. Juvenile stems often zig zag pattern between the leaves.

Capparis arborea’s leaves are oblong to oblong-lanceolate and measures 50mm to 100mm in length by 15mm to 50mm in width. The petioles measure 5mm to 15mm in length. The bases are broad cuneate while the apexes are acuminate, narrow obtuse or acuminate-obtuse. The discolourous laminas are deep grass-green to sea-green and semi glossy and glabrous on the upper lamina while the lower lamina is paler, semi glossy to dull and glabrous to moderately covered in white pubescent hairs. The laminas recurve slightly upwards from the mid vein to the margins. The margins are entire. The mid vein and lateral veins are prominent on the lower laminas while the main vein is glabrous or sparsely covered in white puberulent hairs. The main vein is distinctly visible on the upper lamina surfaces being sunken near the base and prominent as it approaches half way. The lateral veins form distinct loops inside the margins.

The juvenile leaves are a bright glossy bronze-green and have 1 spine either side of where the leaf joins onto the stem. They measure 10mm to 60mm in length. The spines measure 4mm to 15mm in length. The petioles measure 0mm to 2mm in length.

The nocturnal inflorescences of Capparis arborea are born solitary or in pairs from the leaf axils. The 4 abaxial sepals are concave on the upper surface and are deep green externally and white internally. The oblong sepals are in 2 distinct rows with the outer pair measuring 14mm to 16mm in length by 10mm to 12mm in width while the 2 inner sepals measure 10mm to 12mm in length by 5mm to 7mm in width. The 4 linear-oblong spathulate petals expand at the apex to form 2 united lobes. The petals measure 13mm to 31mm in length by 5mm to 8mm in width on the basal half and 10mm to 15mm on the apex half. The white petals apexes are truncate with an emarginated tip. The margins are lacinate. The glabrous pedicel measure 30mm to 60mm in length.

The 60 to 100 white filiform filaments measure 28mm to 38mm in length while the fawn, oblong anthers measures 0.6mm to 1mm in length.

The glabrous gynophores measure 25mm to 55mm in length. The ovaries have 4 placentas with each ovule having several ovules. The ovaries measure 3.5mm to 4mm in length by 3mm to 3.5mm in diameter. The flowers appear from late October to early April.

Capparis arborea fruits are a large globose berry. The berries measure 25mm to 40mm in length by 1030mm to 40mm in diameter. The sea-green berries turn lime green when ripe. The thick pedicels measure 40mm to 70mm in length.

The pascal creamy fawn seeds are discoid and measure 5mm to 7.5mm in length by 3mm to 4mm in diameter.

Wildlife:

Capparis arborea support native bees and pollen flies when in flower. I assume the fruits are eaten by larger fruit eating birds and mammals. The fruits are eaten by monkeys and squirrels in southern China.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant medium shrub for better quality moist soils.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Capparis arborea is a magnificent small tree with an unusual trunk for the small suburban garden or large properties. It is moderately fast growing and while frost sensitive are cold tolerant with temperatures getting down to minus 5 degrees in Nana Glen. Garden subjects will grow into dense small shade trees. In cultivation old trees will grow from 6 meters to 10 meters in height by 4 meters to 6 meters in diameter when grown in the open. In Native gardens it can be used to protect more delicate plants giving good shade but it is slower in growth than many other similar trees. Plants grown in semi shade look the best and hold the deep green in their foliage whereas sun grown plants can look quite yellow especially if any type of stress is encountered.

Capparis arborea looks great in the garden where a formal look is required whether it is placed in the center of a driveway or in the center of a garden bed. It can be used very effectively on heavier soils provided the drainage is good. Capparis arborea should be more widely grown on light to medium clay soils and better quality decomposed shales in semi tropical and warm temperate areas of Australia. It is also drought resistant once established.

It is an excellent tree for hosting epiphytic orchids and ferns with older trees hosting many different species of lichens. Trees at Nana Glen started flowering from 8 years to 9 years of age and at 12 years lichens had totally covered the outer limbs.

Another strong character of the plant is that is can be planted in or adjacent to rainforests or used to start a small rainforest garden. Here the flowers form a wonderful carpet of white amidst the dark surroundings within the forest. Try using 3 or 4 Capparis arborea especially mixed with Brachychiton acerifolium for something really spectacular. As the red and white contrast beautifully as a carpet on the rainforest floor.

Propagation:

Seeds: Capparis arborea seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix in early spring after the last frosts. Place the trays under 30mm shade cloth and keep moist not wet. When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 150mm to 200mm in height plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings, plant the trees at 5 meter to 6 meter centers for a rainforest scenario.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Carallia brachiata

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Rosids

Order: Malpighiales

Family: Rhizophoraceae

Genus: Probably from Carallia, which is Latinized from Kárallia, which is Latinized for an ancient city in Asia Minor wher it grew.

Specie: From Brāchium which is Latin for an arm or branch. It reference is unclear.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Freshwater Mangrove, Palamkat, Shengali, Karalli, Caralla Wood, Carallia, Billabong Tree, Andi, Maniawiga or Corky Bark.

Distribution:

Carallia brachiata

is found north and east from Dampier Bay in far north-west Western Australia around the coast to Cape York Peninsular and south to Miriam Vale in central coastal Queensland.

It is also found east from northern Africa, Madagascar, E. Asia, southern China, Indian subcontinent, Myanmar, Thailand, through Indo-China and SE Asia, Indonesia, New Guinee and the Solomon Islands.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Carallia+brachiata#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Carallia brachiata prefers full sun to full shade. It grows in warmer type riparian, riverine and gallery sub-tropical rainforests, warm tropical rainforests, littoral rainforests and at times monsoonal vine forests. It grows in association with fresh water along streams, creeks high water tables and ephermeral depressions. The altitude ranges from 5 meter ASL to 800 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 12 degrees in July to 42 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 900mm to an average of 3600mm annually. In lower rainfall areas it favours riverine habitats.

Soil Requirements:

Carallia brachiata grows on fine silts, alluvial deposits light loams to heavy clays or gravelly clays. The soils are derived from decomposed brown basalts, black basalts, shale and metamorphic rocks, sandstones, alluvial deposits and accumulated sands. The soils range from poor quality to very fertile. The soils pH ranges from 4.5pH to 8pH. It tolerates wet conditions including seasonal water logged soils for long periods. Non saline soils to strongly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 5m to 30m by 6m to 15m.

Characteristics:

The trunks of Carallia brachiata glabrous stipules sheath the terminal bud and taper to a point and measure stipule 100mm to 150mm in length.  The glabrous petioles measure 4mm to 8mm in length. The glabrous obovate, opposite leaves measure 60mm to 150mm in length by 35mm to 70mm in width.  The bases are cunneate while the apexes are broad acute to obtuse with or without a small acuminate tip or at times emarginate with undulating margins. The concolourous laminas have small, scattered dark glands visible with a lens on the underside of the leaf blade if not visible to the naked eye while the lateral veins form loops; often a double series of loops, inside the margin.                                   

The inflorescences have 7 greenish-cream petals and measure 2mm to 4mm in length. The 14 white stamens measure 5mm to 6mm in length.  The pale yellowish ovary supports a pastel green stout style and cream stigma. The style measures 4mm to 5mm in length.

The globular or depressed globular berries, measures 7mm to 10mm in diameter. The calyx lobes are persistent at the apex. Seed and embryo are somewhat horseshoe-shaped in longitudinal section. The green berries turn yellow, red and finally black when ripe.

Wildlife:

Carallia brachiata is the host plant of the moth Dysphania numana.

Cultivation:

It would make a good fire retardant medium shrub for better quality, moist soils.

* Fire retardant plants act as radiant heat screens and absorb more heat from an approaching fire without burning.

* Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house or out buildings.

* Fire retardant also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.

* Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

Carallia brachiata can be grown as a bushy large shrub or small tree with an unusual trunk for the small suburban garden or large properties. It is slow growing frost sensitive are is not cold tolerant. Garden subjects will grow into dense small shade trees. In cultivation old trees will grow from 6 meters to 10 meters in height by 4 meters to 6 meters in diameter when grown in the open. In Native gardens it can be used to protect more delicate plants giving good shade but it is slower in growth than many other similar trees. Plants grown in semi shade look the best and hold the deep green in their foliage whereas sun grown plants can look quite yellow especially if any type of stress is encountered. It can be tipped pruned in the early stages to form a bushy shrub.

Carallia brachiata looks great in the garden where a non formal look is required whether it is placed in the center of a garden bed or closer the the edges. It can be used very effectively on heavier soils wher there is poor drainage to help remove water from the site. Carallia brachiata can be used on sites where polluted soils exist.

Another strong character of the plant is that is can be planted in or adjacent to rainforests or used to start a small rainforest garden and actually prefers shade in its early years. The sweet fruits are an advantage however flowering is erratic even when soil moisture is maintained throughout the year.

Propagation:

Seeds: Carallia paniculatum seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix after they have been removed from the flesh. Cover the seeds with 5mm of the mix with 30mmperlite added, keeping the mix moist not wet. Place the trays in a warm airy position under 30mm shade. Germination is between 5 and 15 weeks and can be as low as 40mm even for from freshly sown seed. Viability decreases rapidly with age. Early growth is slow even under ideal nursery conditions with a good mix and fertilizing program with just 350mm to 500mm per year.

When the seedlings are 25mm to 40mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a seed raising mix.

Once the seedlings reach 100mm to 150mm in height nip the growing tips out and plant them out into their permanent position. Mass plantings can be achieved with planting them at 3 to 5 meter centres on a fence or 2 meter centres on a pergola and when used for bushy shrubs.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health, vitality and better flowering.

Cuttings:

Cuttings are best taken in early spring. Use 100mm to 150mm cuttings that are from present season’s growth. It is difficult and results are variable. Do not expect better than a 20mm strike rate.

1 Prepare the cutting mix by adding one third sharp clean river sand, one third peat and one third perlite. These ingredients are sterilize,

2 Select good material from non diseased plants,

3 Select semi green stems for cuttings. Look for a stem with two or three nodes,

4 Place the cutting on a flat, hard surface, and make a clean slice through the middle of the lower node on an angle towards the base, with a sterilized sharp knife or razor blade. – This scarification of the node will increase the chances of roots emerging from this spot. Now remove all but one or two the leaves, leaving the apex leaves in tact. If the leaves are very large in proportion to the stem, cut off the apical halves.

5 Some plants root easily, but a rooting hormone can help others by stimulating the cutting into sending out new roots. Fill a saucer with water, and place some rooting hormone into another container like a bottle top. Dip the node end of the cutting into the water and then into the rooting hormone. Tap off any excess hormone,

6 Use a small dipple stick or old pencil to poke a hole into the soilless potting mix. Ensure the hole is slightly larger than the stem diameter and be careful not to wipe the rooting hormone off the cuttings base, place the cuttings in a pattern ensuring the cuttings are not touching each other,

7 I like to place the pots in Plastic bags to help maintain temperature and moisture. Place in a semi shaded place like under 50mm shade cloth.

8 When the cuttings have struck, open the bag to allow air circulation for a few days to a week,

9 Once hardened off remove the cuttings from the bag and allow to further hardening for a few more days,

10 Transplant into a good potting mix to grow on.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Cardamine microthrix

Classification

Unranked: Eudicots

Unranked: Rosids

Order: Brassicales

Family: Brassicaceae

Genus: From Kardamon, which is Ancient Greek for spicy. It refers to plants, which exhibit a scent or structure that resembles the Indian Spice Cardamine.

Specie: From Mikrós, which is Ancient Greek for small or very small and Thrix/Thrich-, which is Ancient Greek for a hair. It refers to structures or organs, which are covered in very short hairs.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Bitter Cress or Eastern Bitter Cress.

Distribution:

Cardamine microthrix is found from Tenterfield in northern New South Wales to Oak Valley Spring and Stratford in Victoria. It is found on and either side of the Great Dividing Range but not in the high country. It is found from the Lofty Range north of Adelaide south to Victor Harbour with an isolated population on Mount Gambier in South Australia.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Cardamine+microthrix#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Cardamine microthrix prefers full sun to light dappled shade. It grows below medium size trees, low trees, or in montane moist open scrub lands. It can be found on gentle slopes or elevated ridges along creeks streams, drainage lines and soaks. The altitude ranges from 1 meter ASL to 650 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from 5 degrees in July to 34 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 750mm to an average of 1600mm annually though more moisture is retained in the soil from seepages or orographic precipitation.

Soil Requirements:

Cardamine microthrix prefers to grow on most soil types associated with light red, orange, grey, or brown light fatty clays or gravelly clays. The soils are usually derived from decomposed basalts, sandstone, granite, shale or metamorphic rocks. The soils pH ranges from 4.5pH to 7pH. It does not tolerate water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.1m to 0.3m by 0.2m to 0.4m.

Characteristics:

Cardamine microthrix is an erect to semi prostrate annual herb. The main stems are grey-green, glabrous and herbaceous. The roots consist of a single tap root or several fibrous tap roots.

Cardamine microthrix’s basal leaves form a rosette. The rosette leaves are pinnate and wither and die soon after the stems are produced or can be persistent until flowering. The leaves are usually elliptical, broad elliptical or at times ovate and measure 50mm to 80mm in length by 5mm to 20mm in width. The cauline leaves petioles measure 6mm to 9mm in length. The bases are cordate with the terminal pinnae being the longest. The lateral leaves are trilobed while the terminal leaf has 5 to 9 lobes. The cauline leaves measure 20mm to 60mm in length by 10mm to 40mm in width. The concolourous laminas are grass-green to blue-green and dull. The laminas are flat. The margins are covered in white ciliate hairs. The mid vein is prominent on the lower lamina and is visible on the upper laminas.

The inflorescence of Cardamine microthrix are erect racemes with more than 7 individual flowers. The elliptical sepals measure 1.5mm to 2mm in length. The 4 white petals are obovate and measure 2.5mm to 3.5mm in length. The 6 white filaments are free while the fawn to pale brown anthers are adnately fixed near the base. The flowers can appear throughout the year under favourable conditions but usually appear from September to February.

Cardamine microthrix fruits are cylindrical silique. The green siliquas are glabrous with narrow marginal ridges and turn grey when ripe. The pedicels lengthen to 5mm to 10mm in length. The siliquas measure 20mm to 30mm in length

Wildlife:

Cardamine microthrix wildlife consists of the cabbage White butterfly (Pieris rapae) and the Zig Zag moth (Tinea cinerea) is both introduced pests.

Cultivation:

Cardamine microthrix is a natural host plant to many undesirable insects and having them in the garden can help attract the pests away from more prized plants. At the same time it will help build up beneficial spiders, minute parasitic wasps and other beneficial insects in the off season. Scatter them though the garden under shrubs etc. where they are not noticed. The perfume is very faint and usually goes unnoticed.

Propagation:

Seeds: Cardamine microthrix seeds can be sown directly into seed trays. Cover the seeds with 1 mm of fine mix and water carefully. Place the trays in a warm area with no more than 30mm shade and keep moist not wet at all times.

Once the seedlings reach 50 to 80mm in height pinch the tips out and plant them out into their permanent position. For mass plantings plant them at 0.6 meters to 1 meter centers.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Carex appressa

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Unranked: Commelinids

Order: Poales

Genus: From Keiren, which is Ancient Greek or later Carex, which is Latin for to cut. It refers to leaf apexes, which appear to be roughly cut on many species or the spikelets being trimmed off along the spike.

Specie: From Appressus, which is Latin for lying close together. It refers to structures or organs, which are lying close together or close against another’s surface.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Tall Sedge.

Distribution:

Carex appressa is found south and east of a line from Rockhampton to Salvatore Rosa National Park in central Queensland to Cocoparra Range in New South Wales, then south west to Mount Gambier in South Australia. It is also found south from the Gammon Ranges to Victor Harbour, Kangaroo Island and the Murray River in South Australia. There is an isolated population in far north Queensland from Cairns to the Beatrice River on the Atherton Tableland.

It is found on all the Bass Straight Islands and over the whole of Tasmania except for the south western highlands. (This may be because of inaccessibility that no sightings have been recorded)

In Western Australia it is found south from Gingin Brook to Albany within 100 kilometres of the coast.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Carex+appressa#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Carex appressa prefers full shade where breaks in rainforest canopies occur along streams, creeks, rivers and gallery rain forests along seepages or on marshy depressions. The altitude ranges from near sea level to 1150 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in August to 40 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 400mm to 3000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Carex appressa prefer most soils that range from loamy clays to heavy silts and heavy clays. The soils are derived from most decomposed material. The soil’s pH ranges from 4.5pH to 7pH. It tolerates water logged soils. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.4m to 1.3m by 0.4m to 1m.

Characteristics:

Carex appressa is a densely tufted perennial with short rhizomes. The erect culms are sub terete at the base and are triquetrous on the upper section often extending to the near the base. The slender culms are glabrous on the lower portion and scabrous on the upper triquetrous sections and measure 400mm to 1200mm in length by 2mm to 4.5mm diameter.

The linear leaves of Carex appressaare usually shorter than the culms and measure 350mm to 1100mm in length by 2mm to 12mm in width. The paper yellow-brown appressed sheaths are grey-brown and glabrous while the ligules are rounded to truncate. The bases are clasping while the apexes are acute. The concolourous laminas are deep grass-green and glabrous to scabrous. The midrib is strongly prominent on the lower lamina and is clearly visible from the upper lamina. The margins are entire. The ligules are obtuse to truncate.

The inflorescences of Carex appressa are erect narrow compound racemes with numerous short spikes. The racemes measure 40mm to 450mm in length. They are solitary at the nodes or on appressed spike-like secondary branches to 30mm in length. The lowest involucral bract is much shorter than the others

The spikelets are sessile, contiguous and are erect to spreading at maturity. All the spikelets are androgynous and measure 8mm to 10mm in length.

The similar pale yellow-brown to reddish-brown glumes are usually acute or at times acute with a mucronate tip. The fertile glumes measure 2mm to 2.5mm length.

The ovoid utricles have a thickened truncate base with 8 to 12 faint nerves and measure 2mm to 3mm in length by 1mm to 1.7mm in diameter. The utricles have narrow wings with faint ribs on the margins and are greenish-brown to deep yellow-brown. The bifid, rostrate apex measures 0.2mm to 0.3mm in length.

The 2 or 3 white or pastel yellow anthers measure 1.7mm to 2.3mm in length including the 2mm long appendages. The cream to white style is bifid. The flowers appear from late September to early February.

The triquetrous fruits of Carex appressa are ovoid and lenticular in cross section nut. The nuts measure 2.2mm to 2.5mm in length by 1.2mm to 1.4mm in diameter. The green nuts turn pale yellow–brown when ripe with a mucronate apex.

Wildlife:

Carex appressa is suitable for erosion control around lagoons, billabongs and marshes within rainforest gardens.

The plants make excellent habitat refuges for small frogs.

Cultivation:

Carex appressa large sedges that should be more widely grown especially in landscaping projects where the soils are of a medium to heavy texture and plenty of water is available. In cultivation they will grow 700mm to 1000mm in height by 500mm to 600mm in diameter when grown in a more open situation in semi shaded position.

They can be grown in part shade to bright sunlight reflecting off pools or the ocean and can sustain temperatures down to minus 7 degrees and up to 44 degrees making them a very versatile hardy plant.

They are most suitable for use around shady swimming pools, courtyards, and rockeries or adjacent to natural bush gardens. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Large semi shaded fish or frog ponds will benefit from Carex appressa vertical growth and offer frogs a safe habitat when moving in and out of the water.

If they are placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look against walls to maintain the hard lines. Using rocks and small boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use is limited by your imagination to break the horizontal effect of the other plants. Some plants that come instantly to mind would be Helianthus specie for a smaller plant with strong contrasting foliage or Melaleuca citrinus or Melaleuca viminalis for something a little taller. Others that most people would not normally consider but would be worthwhile trying would be Grevillea confertifolia, Grevillea juniperina or Grevillea laurifolia if they are not sitting in the water and don’t forget Acacia sauveolens to add a dash of perfume.

Carex appressa would make outstanding contribution to a wet rainforest garden. Here they can be used as the short vertical growth, grown in clumps throughout the forest.

Carex appressa are excellent plants for indoor situations. I do not recommend many plants for indoors especially over long periods as most plants suffer plant lice and dread the dry atmospheric conditions, extremes in heat and light but this is one I can recommend with full confidence as a tough fighter in these conditions provided there is good light.

Propagation:

Seeds: Collecting seeds from mature plants of Carex appressais not difficult as they hold onto the parent plant for extended periods when fully ripe. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix however better, more even germination is gained if the seeds are stratified for a short period and sown in spring. This can be achieved by placing the nuts in a paper bag in the vegetable crisper for a few weeks prior to sowing. Cover the seeds to a depth of 5mm. Seeds usually germinate rapidly with a strike rate of over 50mm.

When the seedlings are 20mm to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good quality mix.

Once the seedlings reach 50mm in height they can be repot for indoor use or 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Division: When growing from divisions remove the plant from the soil and just cut it into 3 or 4 equal parts, first down the middle then halve those sections again. Remove unwanted dead culms and any old small clumps that look weak. Plants can be divided further but ensure each division has a several strong shoots and healthy roots attached to the tuff. Replant ensuring the soil is at the same level as before. Water and fertilize. New shoots will appear within two weeks.

1. Water the day before you start.

2. Cut back foliage to around 70mm to 100mm in length,

3. Use a garden fork or shovel to dig around the clump you want to divide (about 100mm to 150mm greater circumference than the bulbs),

4. Lift the whole of the root ball out of the ground,

5. Remove the soil by shaking. If the soil is hard allow to sit in a container of water for 15 minutes to half an hour. repeat the shaking in the water and hose off excess soil,

6. Once the bulbs can be seen clearly it is easier to pry and split the clump apart.

7. Leave a small number of bulbs in each new clump,

8. Replant in the prepared bed using half a hand full of blood and bone in the hole and mix,

9. Level off at the same level the bulbs were at the start.

10. Water regularly and feed fortnightly until the plants have re-established themselves.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the flower buds appear.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Carex breviculmis

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Unranked: Commelinids

Order: Poales

Family: Poaceae

Subfamily:

Genus: From Keiren, which is Ancient Greek or later Carex, which is Latin for to cut. It refers to leaf apexes, which appear to be roughly cut on many species or the spikelets being trimmed off along the spike.

Specie: From Brevis, which is Latin for short and Culmus, which is Latin for a stem. It refers to the culms being rather short compared to other species in the genus.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Carex breviculmis is found south and east of a line from Widgee Mountain near Kilkivan central coastal Queensland to Kamarooka in Victoria then west south west to Killanoola and south to the coast in south eastern South Australia. It is also found in the Flinders Ranges, Mount Renmarkable National Park, and Spring Valley Conservation Park south to Victor Harbour and south eastern corner of Kangaroo Island. In Tasmania it is found on the eastern two thirds of the state and on the eastern Bass Straight Islands. There are isolated populations in central and far north Queensland including Eurimbula National Park, Kroombit Tops National Park, Blackmans Gap road National Park, Carnarvon National Park, Mount Hypipamee National Park. In the Northern Territory it is found near Tennent Creek and to the east of Australia on Lord Howe Island. They are mainly found west, on and east of the Great Dividing Range.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Carex+breviculmis#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Carex breviculmis prefers full shade where breaks in rainforests occur along streams, creeks, rivers and gallery rain forests, along seepages or on marshy type ground. The altitude ranges from near sea level to 1100 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 4 degrees in August to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 400mm to 2400mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Carex breviculmis prefer most soils that range from loamy clays to heavy silts or heavy clays. The soils are derived from most decomposed material. The soil’s pH ranges from 4.5pH to 7pH. It tolerates water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.15m to 0.25m by 0.4m to 0.6m

Characteristics:

Carex breviculmis is a densely tufted perennial with short rhizomes. The erect, terete culms are trigonous, smooth to scabrous. The slender culms are erect and usually measure 30mm to 100mm in length but have been recorded at 200mm in length by 0.6mm to 0.9mm diameter.

The linear leaves of Carex breviculmis are pendulant and measure 100mm to 360mm in length by 2mm to 3.5mm in width. The paper yellow-brown appressed sheaths are glabrous. The bases are clasping while the apexes are acute. The concolourous laminas are deep grass-green and glabrous to scabrous. The margins are entire. The leaf sheaths are pale yellow-brown. The ligules apexes are obtuse to truncate.

The inflorescences of Carex breviculmis are erect narrow compound racemes with numerous short spikes. The racemes measure 20mm to 40mm in length. The 2 to 5 semi appressed spikelets measure 10mm to 25mm in length. The lowest involucral bract exceeds the inflorescence.

The spikelets are sessile, contiguous and are erect to spreading at maturity. All the spikelets are androgynous and measure 1.2mm to 1.8mm in length. The uppermost spikes are male while the lower spikes are female.

The similar pale off white to brown glumes have a green midrib. The glumes apexes are obtuse to acuminate often with an apiculate 2 mm long tip. The female glumes measure 2.5mm to 4.5mm in length.

The utricles are ellipsoid with 8 to 16 faint, interrupted nerves that measure 2mm to 3.3mm in length by 1.0mm to 1.5mm diameter. The utricles are pale green to yellow-brown and sparsely covered in off white hispid hairs. The apex’s beak measures 0.3mm to 0.5mm in length and is very shallowly notched.

The anthers measure 2mm to 2.6mm in length including the 1mm appendage. The style is trifid. The flowers appear from September to February.

The trigonous fruits of Carex breviculmis are obovoid to ellipsoid nuts. The pale yellow nuts measure 1.6mm to 1.8mm in length by 1.1mm to 1.3mm in diameter. The nuts have a retuse apex.

Wildlife:

Carex breviculmis is suitable for erosion control around lagoons, billabongs and marshes or openings within rainforest gardens.

The plants make excellent habitat refuges for frogs, small wrens and other small wildlife.

Cultivation:

Carex breviculmis large sedges that should be more widely grown especially in landscaping projects where the soils are of a medium to heavy texture and plenty of water is available. In cultivation it will grow 700mm to 1000mm in height by 500mm to 600mm in diameter when grown in a more open situation in semi shaded position.

It can be grown in part shade to bright sunlight reflecting off pools or the ocean and can sustain temperatures down to minus 3 degrees and up to 38 degrees making them a very versatile, hardy plant.

It ismost suitable for use around shady swimming pools, courtyards, and rockeries or adjacent to small natural bush gardens. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Medium semi shaded fish or frog ponds will benefit from Carex breviculmis vertical growth and offer frogs a safe habitat when moving in and out of the water.

If it is placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look against walls to maintain the hard lines. Using rocks and small boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis and look much larger with this species due to its smaller size.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use is limited by your imagination to break the horizontal effect of the other plants. Some plants that come instantly to mind would be Helianthus specie for a smaller plant with strong contrasting foliage or Hibbertia linearis, Hibbertia obtusifolia, Leishenaulta formosa, Leishenaulta biloba for something a little different. Others that most people would not normally consider but would be worthwhile trying would be Viola betonicifolia, Ranunculus plebeius or Zanthoxylum brachyacanthum if they are not sitting in the water and do not forget to leave plenty of space between the plants so they can grow to their full potential.

Carex Carex breviculmis are excellent plants for well-lit courtyards or indoors. I do not recommend many plants for indoors especially over long periods as most plants suffer plant lice and dread the dry atmospheric conditions, extremes in heat and light but this is one I can recommend with full confidence as a tough fighter in these conditions provided there is good light.

Propagation:

Seeds: Collecting seeds from mature plants of Carex breviculmis is not difficult as they hold onto the parent plant for extended periods when fully ripe. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix however better, more even germination is gained if the seeds are stratified for a short period and sown in spring. This can be achieved by placing the nuts in a paper bag in the vegetable crisper for a few weeks prior to sowing. Cover the seeds to a depth of 5mm. Seeds usually germinate rapidly with a strike rate of over 50mm.

When the seedlings are 20mm to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good quality mix.

Once the seedlings reach 50mm in height they can be repot for indoor use or 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the flower buds appear.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Carex brunnea

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Unranked: Commelinids

Order: Poales

Family: Poaceae

Subfamily:

Genus: From Keiren, which is Ancient Greek or later Carex, which is Latin for to cut. It refers to leaf apexes, which appear to be roughly cut on many species or the spikelets being trimmed off along the spike.

Specie: From Braun/Brunnea, which is Latin for brown. It refers to structures or organs which are covered in brown hairs and have a brownish appearance.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Greater Brown Sedge.

Distribution:

Carex brunnea is found south from South of Cairnes and the Atherton Tablelands in coastal far north Queensland to Clyde Mountain in southern coast of New South Wales. It is found along the coast except for a few isolated populations in the Blue Mountains and Nuga Nuga National Park.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Carex+brunnea#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Carex brunnea prefers full shade. It grows in breaks in the rainforest canopies, along streams, creeks, rivers and gallery rain forests on wet ground. The altitude ranges from 1 meter ASL to 350 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from zero degrees in August to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 900mm to 2000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Carex brunnea prefers fine fatty loams to medium clays. The soils are usually derived from decomposed brown basalt, black basalt and very fine grained sandstones. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. It does not tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.25m to 0.8m by 0.2m to 0.5m

Characteristics:

Carex brunnea is a densely tufted perennial with short rhizomes. The erect culms are sub terete at the base and are triquetrous on the upper section often extending to the near the base. The slender culms are glabrous on the lower portion and scabrous on the upper triquetrous sections and measure 400mm to 1200mm in length by 2mm to 4.5mm diameter.

The linear leaves of Carex brunnea are usually shorter than the culms and measure 350mm to 800mm in length by 2mm to 12mm in width. The paper yellow-brown appressed sheaths are grey-brown and glabrous while the ligules are rounded to truncate. The bases are clasping while the apexes are acute. The concolourous laminas are deep grass-green and glabrous to scabrous. The midrib is strongly prominent on the lower lamina and is clearly visible from the upper lamina. The margins are entire. The ligules are obtuse to truncate.

The inflorescences of Carex brunnea are erect narrow compound racemes with numerous short spikes. The racemes measure 40mm to 450mm in length. They are solitary at the nodes or on appressed spike-like secondary branches to 30mm in length. The lowest involucral bract is much shorter than the others

The spikelets are sessile, contiguous and are erect to spreading at maturity. All the spikelets are androgynous and measure 8mm to 10mm in length.

The similar pale yellow-brown to reddish-brown glumes are usually acute or at times acute with a mucronate tip. The fertile glumes measure 2mm to 2.5mm length.

The ovoid utricles have a thickened truncate base with 16 to 20 faint, interrupted nerves and measure 3mm to 4mm in length by 2.5mm to 2.6mm in diameter. The utricles have narrow wings with faint ribs on the margins and are greenish-brown to deep yellow-brown. The bifid, rostrate apex measures 0.5mm to 1mm in length.

The 2 or 3 white or pastel yellow anthers measure 1.7mm to 2.3mm in length including the 2mm long appendages. The cream to white style is bifid. The flowers appear from late September to early February.

The slightly tenticular in cross section fruits of Carex Carex brunnea are obovoidal nuts. The nuts measure 2.2mm to 2.4mm in length by1mm to 1.2mm in diameter. The green nuts turn pale yellow–brown when ripe.

Wildlife:

Carex brunnea is suitable for erosion control around lagoons, billabongs and marshes within rainforest gardens.

The plants make excellent habitat refuges for small frogs.

Cultivation:

Carex brunnea large sedges that should be more widely grown especially in landscaping projects where the soils are of a medium to heavy texture and plenty of water is available. In cultivation it will grow 600mm to 750mm in height by 400mm to 500mm in diameter when grown in a more open situation semi shaded position.

It can be grown in part shade to bright sunlight reflecting off pools or the ocean and can sustain temperatures down to minus 7 degrees and up to 44 degrees making them a very versatile hardy plant.

It is most suitable for use around shady swimming pools, courtyards, and rockeries or adjacent to natural bush gardens. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Large semi shaded fish or frog ponds will benefit from carex brunnea vertical growth and offer frogs a safe habitat when moving in and out of the water.

If it is placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look against walls to maintain the hard lines. Using rocks and small boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis and look much larger with this species due to its smaller size.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use is limited by your imagination to break the horizontal effect of the other plants. Some plants that come instantly to mind would be Helianthus specie for a smaller plant with strong contrasting foliage or Melaleuca citrinus or Melaleuca viminalis for something a little taller. Others that most people would not normally consider but would be worthwhile trying would be Grevillea confertifolia, Grevillea juniperina or Grevillea laurifolia if they are not sitting in the water and don’t forget Acacia sauveolens to add a dash of perfume.

Carex brunnea would make outstanding contribution to a wet rainforest garden. Here they can be used as the short vertical growth, grown in clumps throughout the forest.

Carex brunnea are excellent plants for indoor situations. I do not recommend many plants for indoors especially over long periods as most plants suffer plant lice and dread the dry atmospheric conditions, extremes in heat and light but this is one I can recommend with full confidence as a tough fighter in these conditions provided there is good light.

Propagation:

Seeds: Collecting seeds from mature plants of Carex appressa is not difficult as they hold onto the parent plant for extended periods when fully ripe. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix however better, more even germination is gained if the seeds are stratified for a short period and sown in spring. This can be achieved by placing the nuts in a paper bag in the vegetable crisper for a few weeks prior to sowing. Cover the seeds to a depth of 5mm. Seeds usually germinate rapidly with a strike rate of over 50mm.

When the seedlings are 20mm to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good quality mix.

Once the seedlings reach 50mm in height they can be repot for indoor use or 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the plants are established then annually in early September or March to maintain health and vitality.

Division: When growing from divisions remove the plant from the soil and just cut it into 3 or 4 equal parts, first down the middle then halve those sections again. Remove unwanted dead culms and any old small clumps that look weak. Plants can be divided further but ensure each division has a several strong shoots and healthy roots attached to the tuff. Replant ensuring the soil is at the same level as before. Water and fertilize. New shoots will appear within two weeks.

If they are being mass planted for a feature, around dams or along creeks and streams try planting them at 0.7 meter to 1 meter centers. For group plantings plant them at 1 meter centers scattered in small clumps where the whole plant is to be the feature.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Carex declinata

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Unranked: Commelinids

Order: Poales

Family: Poaceae

Genus: From Keiren, which is Ancient Greek or later Carex, which is Latin for to cut. It refers to leaf apexes, which appear to be roughly cut on many species or the spikelets being trimmed off along the spike.

Specie: From De, which is Latin for down and Clinata, which is Latin for to bend towards. It refers to the structures or organs usually the stems or branches, which arch downwards.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Carex declinata is found south from Kroombit Tops National Park in central coastal Queensland to north east Gipsland in north-eastern Victoria. It is found on and east of the Great Dividing Range except for an isolated population in the Carnarvon National Park.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Carex+declinata#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Carex declinata prefers full shade. It grows where breaks in the rainforest canopies occur along streams, creeks, rivers, moist gallery rain forests, wet schlerophyll forests on wet ground. The altitude ranges from 100 meters ASL to 800 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in August to 40 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 700mm to 1600mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Carex declinata prefers fine fatty loams to medium clays. The soils are derived from decomposed brown basalt, black basalt and very fine grained sandstones or granites. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. It tolerates water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.8m to 1.2m by 0.5m to 0.8m

Characteristics:

Carex declinata is a densely tufted perennial with short rhizomes. The erect culms are triquetrous above to subterete below. The slender culms are glabrous and smooth on the lower portion and scabrous on the upper triquetrous sections. They measure 800mm to 1200mm in length by 2mm to 3.5mm diameter.

The linear leaves ofCarex declinata are shorter than the culms and measure 650mm to 1100mm in length by 3mm to 10mm in width. The papery, appressed sheaths are pale ochre and glabrous while the ligules are truncate. The bases are clasping while the apexes are acute. The concolourous laminas are grass-green to deep grass-green and glabrous to scabrous. The midrib is strongly prominent on the lower lamina and is clearly visible from the upper lamina. The margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Carex declinata are erect narrow compound with numerous short spikes. The racemes measure 60mm to 250mm in length. The spikes are mostly solitary at the nodes or are on short appressed spike-like secondary branches. The spikelets measure 10mm to 40mm in length. The lowest involucral bract is much shorter than the others

The spikelets are sessile or shortly contiguous and are erect at maturity. The lower spikelets are female or androgynous and measure 4mm to 5mm in length.

The similar off white to fawn glumes are usually acute or obtuse and at times have a mucronate tip. The fertile glumes measure 2mm to 2.5mm length.

The ellipsoidal to ovoid, falcate utricles have a thickened truncate base with 16 to 32 very faint interrupted nerves and measure 3.5mm to 6mm in length by 1.5mm to 1.7mm in diameter. The utricles are greenish-brown to black and are glabrous or sparsely covered in white hispid hairs. The bifid, rostrate apex measures 1mm to 2mm in length in length.

The 2 or 3 white or pastel yellow anthers measure 1.7mm to 1.9mm in length including the 1mm long appendages. The cream to white style is bifid. The flowers appear from late September to early February.

The lenticular in cross section fruits of Carex declinata are broad ovoidal nuts. The nuts measure 1.5mm to 1.7mm in length by0.8mm to 1mm in diameter. The green nuts turn pale ochre when ripe.

Wildlife:

Carex declinata is suitable for erosion control around lagoons, billabongs and marshes within rainforest gardens.

The plants make excellent habitat refuges for small frogs and small native birds.

Cultivation:

Carex declinata should be more widely grown especially in landscaping projects where the soils are of a medium to heavy texture and plenty of water is available. In cultivation it will grow 900mm to 1100mm in height by 500mm to 700mm in diameter when grown in a more open situation in semi shaded position.

It can be grown in part shade to bright sunlight reflecting off pools or the ocean and can sustain temperatures down to minus 7 degrees and up to 44 degrees making them a very versatile hardy plant.

It is most suitable for use around shady swimming pools, courtyards, and rockeries or adjacent to natural bush gardens. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Large semi shaded fish or frog ponds will benefit from Carex declinata vertical growth and offer frogs a safe habitat when moving in and out of the water.

If it is placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look against walls to maintain the hard lines. Using rocks and small boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis and look much larger with this species due to its smaller size.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use is limited by your imagination to break the horizontal effect of the other plants. Some plants that come instantly to mind would be Helianthus specie for a smaller plant with strong contrasting foliage or Melaleuca citrinus or Melaleuca viminalis for something a little taller. Others that most people would not normally consider but would be worthwhile trying would be Grevillea confertifolia, Grevillea juniperina or Grevillea laurifolia if they are not sitting in the water and don’t forget Acacia sauveolens to add a dash of perfume.

Carex declinata would make outstanding contribution to a wet rainforest garden. Here they can be used as the short vertical growth, grown in clumps throughout the forest.

Carex declinata are excellent plants for indoor situations. I do not recommend many plants for indoors especially over long periods as most plants suffer plant lice and dread the dry atmospheric conditions, extremes in heat and light but this is one I can recommend with full confidence as a tough fighter in these conditions provided there is good light.

Propagation:

Seeds: Collecting seeds from mature plants of Carex declinata is not difficult as they hold onto the parent plant for extended periods when fully ripe. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix however better, more even germination is gained if the seeds are stratified for a short period and sown in spring. This can be achieved by placing the nuts in a paper bag in the vegetable crisper for a few weeks prior to sowing. Cover the seeds to a depth of 5mm. Seeds usually germinate rapidly with a strike rate of over 50mm.

When the seedlings are 20mm to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good quality mix.

Once the seedlings reach 50mm in height they can be repot for indoor use or 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Division: When growing from divisions remove the plant from the soil and just cut it into 3 or 4 equal parts, first down the middle then halve those sections again. Remove unwanted dead culms and any old small clumps that look weak. Plants can be divided further but ensure each division has a several strong shoots and healthy roots attached to the tuff. Replant ensuring the soil is at the same level as before. Water and fertilize. New shoots will appear within two weeks.

If they are being mass planted for a feature around dams or along creeks and streams try planting them at 0.7 meter to 1 meter centers. For group plantings plant them at 1 meter centers scattered in small clumps where the whole plant is to be the feature.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the flower buds appear.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Carex fascicularis

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Unranked: Commelinids

Order: Poales

Family: Poaceae

Genus: From Keiren, which is Ancient Greek or later Carex, which is Latin for to cut. It refers to leaf apexes, which appear to be roughly cut on many species or the spikelets being trimmed off along the spike.

Specie: From Fasiculus, which is Latin for a small, close cluster or to be bundled together. It refers to flowers, which are closely imbricated together as in a fascicle like a small horse’s tail.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Tassel Sedge.

Distribution:

Carex fascicularis is found south from Gingin to Albany within 80 kilometres of the coast in south West Western Australia. In the Northern Territory it is found in the central parts of The MacDonald Ranges National Park. On the East coast it is found south from Yabba Creek in south eastern Queensland to Mount Benson in south eastern South Australia. It is found on and east of the Great Dividing Range and within 200 kilometres of the coast.

In South Australia it is found along the Murray River from near the Victorian border and in an area bounded by Williamstown, Lake Alexandrina and deep Creek Conservation Park and Kangaroo Island. There are also 2 isolated populations near Whyalla, north and south Wirraburra Forest.

In Tasmania it is found on King Island in Bass Straight and most the main Island itself. There are several isolated populations in central and far north Queensland including the Carnarvon National Park Blackbraes National Park and Girrigun National Park.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Carex+fascicularis#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Carex fascicularis prefer dappled shade to full sun. It prefers swampy terrain, marshes or moist wallums. The altitude ranges from 1 meter ASL to 950 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 4 degrees in August to 39 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 400mm to 3000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Carex fascicularis prefer fine fatty sands to medium clays. They are found on soils mainly derived from decomposed brown basalt, black basalt and very fine grained sandstones. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. They are tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to moderately saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 1m to 1.8m by 0.5m to 1m

Characteristics:

Carex fascicularis is a densely tufted perennial with short rhizomes. The erect culms are trigonous. The slender culms are glabrous on the lower portion and scabrous on the upper sections and measure 600mm to 2000mm in length by 2.5mm to 4.5mm diameter.

The linear leaves of Carex fascicularis are usually equal to the culms and measure 400mm to 2000mm in length by 6mm to 12mm in width. The chartaceous ochre to pale olive-green appressed sheaths are glabrous while the ligules are acute. The bases are clasping while the apexes are acute. The concolourous laminas are deep grass-green and glabrous to scabrous. The midrib is strongly prominent on the lower lamina and is clearly visible from the upper lamina forming a shallow furrow. The margins are entire. The ligules are obtuse to truncate.

The inflorescences of Carex Carex fascicularis are spreading compound racemes with 3 to 6 lateral racemes. The racemes measure 60mm to 250mm in length. The secondary racemes measure 50mm to 88mm in length. The lowest involucral bracts exceed the inflorescences.

The spikelets are on long filiform rachises which measure 12mm to 18mm in length. They are contiguous and droop at maturity. The lower spikelets are fertile with a few male spikelets however all the upper spikelets are male.

The similar off white to pale brown glumes are usually acute or at times acute with a mucronate tip. The fertile female glumes measure 3mm to 6mm in length.

The ovoid to ellipsoidal utricles are stipitate with 12 to 28 faint interrupted nerves and measure 5mm to 7.5mm in length by 1.3mm to 2mm in diameter. The deep brown utricles with a bifid rostrate which is deeply divided and measures 2mm to 3mm in length.

The 2 or 3 white or pastel yellow anthers measure 2.2mm to 2.7mm in length including the 2mm long appendages. The cream to white style is trifid. The flowers appear from late September to early February.

The trigonous fruits of Carex fascicularis are ovoid nuts. The nuts measure 1.2mm to 2.3mm in length by 0.8mm to 1.5mm in diameter. The green nuts turn pale yellow–brown when ripe while the style is persistent.

Wildlife:

Carex fascicularis is suitable for erosion control around lagoons, billabongs and marshes within rainforest gardens.

The plants make excellent habitat refuges for small frogs.

Cultivation:

Carex fascicularis large sedges that should be more widely grown especially in landscaping projects where the soils are of a medium to heavy texture and plenty of water is available. In cultivation they will grow 900mm to 1200mm in height by 600mm to 700mm in diameter when grown in a more open situation in a semi shaded position.

They can be grown in part shade to bright sunlight reflecting off pools or the ocean and can sustain temperatures down to minus 7 degrees and up to 44 degrees making them a very versatile hardy plant.

They are most suitable for use around shady swimming pools, courtyards, and rockeries or adjacent to natural bush gardens. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Large semi shaded fish or frog ponds will benefit from Carex fascicularis vertical growth and offer frogs a safe habitat when moving in and out of the water.

If they are placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look against walls to maintain the hard lines. Using rocks and small boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis and look much larger with this species due to its smaller size.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use is limited by your imagination to break the horizontal effect of the other plants. Some plants that come instantly to mind would be Helianthus specie for a smaller plant with strong contrasting foliage or Melaleuca citrinus or Melaleuca viminalis for something a little taller. Others that most people would not normally consider but would be worthwhile trying would be Grevillea confertifolia, Grevillea juniperina or Grevillea laurifolia if they are not sitting in the water and don’t forget Acacia sauveolens to add a dash of perfume in the garden.

Carex fascicularis would make outstanding contribution to a wet rainforest garden. Here they can be used as the short vertical growth, grown in clumps throughout the forest.

Carex fascicularis is an excellent plant for indoor situations. I do not recommend many plants for indoors especially over long periods as most plants suffer plant lice and dread the dry atmospheric conditions, extremes in heat and light but this is one I can recommend with full confidence as a tough fighter in these conditions provided there is good light.

Propagation:

Seeds: Collecting seeds from mature plants of Carex fascicularis is not difficult as they hold onto the parent plant for extended periods when fully ripe. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix however better, more even germination is gained if the seeds are stratified for a short period and sown in spring. This can be achieved by placing the nuts in a paper bag in the vegetable crisper for a few weeks prior to sowing. Cover the seeds to a depth of 5mm. Seeds usually germinate rapidly with a strike rate of over 50mm.

When the seedlings are 20mm to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good quality mix.

Once the seedlings reach 50mm in height they can be repot for indoor use or 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Division: When growing from divisions remove the plant from the soil and just cut it into 3 or 4 equal parts, first down the middle then halve those sections again. Remove unwanted dead culms and any old small clumps that look weak. Plants can be divided further but ensure each division has a several strong shoots and healthy roots attached to the tuff. Replant ensuring the soil is at the same level as before. Water and fertilize. New shoots will appear within two weeks.

If they are being mass planted for a feature around dams or along creeks and streams try planting them at 0.7 meter to 1 meter centers. For group plantings plant them at 1 meter centers scattered in small clumps where the whole plant is to be the feature.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the flower buds appear.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Carex gaudichaudiana

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Unranked: Commelinids

Order: Poales

Family: Poaceae

Genus: From Keiren, which is Ancient Greek or later Carex, which is Latin for to cut. It refers to leaf apexes, which appear to be roughly cut on many species or the spikelets being trimmed off along the spike.

Specie: Is named in honour of Charles Gaudichaud Beaupre; 1789-1645, who was a French Botanist who named several Australian genera.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Carex gaudichaudiana is found south from Coomba Falls in southern coastal Queensland to Canunda National Park in south east South Australia. They are mainly found on the Great Dividing Range in the north until they reach the Murray River where it moves inland to Mount Hope before heading south east again to Canunda National Park. In South Australia it is found from Burra Hill south to Deep Creek National Park and Lake Alexandrina. There are 2 isolated populations in central Queensland in the Kroombit Tops National Park and Carnarvon National Park.

It is found throughout Tasmania except highlands in the south western corner.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Carex+gaudichaudiana#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Carex gaudichaudiana prefer dappled shade to full sun. The plants are always associated with water whether it is swampy terrain, wallums, marshes, riparian zones along creeks, streams, rivers or adjacent to billabongs and lagoons water is the call. It grows in warmer type riparian, riverine and gallery sub-tropical rainforests, cool tropical rainforests, littoral rainforests and at times monsoonal vine forests. The altitude ranges from 1 meter ASL to 900 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 4 degrees in August to 39 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 400mm to 2200mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Carex gaudichaudiana prefer fine fatty sands to medium clays. They are found on soils mainly derived from decomposed brown basalt, black basalt and very fine grained sandstones. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. They are tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.1m to 0.9m by 0.1.5m to 0.6m

Characteristics:

Carex gaudichaudiana is a medium tufted perennial with long rhizomes. The erect culms are triquetrous and scabrous. The culms measure 100mm to 90mm in length by 1mm to 1.5mm diameter.

The linear leaves of Carex gaudichaudiana are usually longer than the culms and measure 120mm to 1000mm in length by 2mm to 4.5mm in width. The chartaceous, pale ochre, appressed sheaths are glabrous while the ligules have an acute apex. The bases are clasping while the apexes are acute. The concolourous laminas are deep grass-green and scabrous. The midrib and 2 longitudinal parallel ribs are strongly prominent on the lower lamina and is clearly visible from the upper lamina. The margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Carex gaudichaudiana are erect narrow compound racemes with 3 to 8 spikes born from the nodes. The racemes measure 70mm to 180mm in length. The lateral racemes are solitary at the nodes and appressed. The lowest involucral bract is much shorter than the others

The spikelets are sessile, distant erect to semi spreading at maturity. All the spikelets are androgynous and measure 8mm to 10mm in length. The upper 1 or 2 spikes male and measure 25mm to 60mm in length. The lower spikes are female often with male spikelets at apex or near the base. The female fertile spikelets measure 15mm to 45mm in length by 3.5mm to 4.5mm in diameter.

The similar deep reddish-brown glumes have a paler midrib and usually have short mucronate apexes. The fertile glumes measure 2.8mm to 3.5mm length.

The ovoid to ellipsoidal utricles have 12 to 16 prominent nerves and measure 2.7mm to 4.5mm in length by 1.5mm to 2mm in diameter. The utricles have narrow wings with faint ribs on the margins and are greenish-brown to deep yellow-brown. The bifid, rostrate apex measures 1mm in length.

The 2 or 3 fawn or pale dull brown anthers measure 2.1mm to 3.5mm in length including the 1mm long appendages. The long white style is bifid. The flowers appear from late September to early February.

The lenticular cross section fruits of Carex gaudichaudiana are globose nuts. The nuts measure 1.5mm to 1.6 mm in length by1mm to 1.2mm in diameter. The green nuts turn deep yellow–brown when ripe with an apiculate apex that measures 1.2mm to 1.4mm in length.

Wildlife:

Carex gaudichaudiana is suitable for erosion control around lagoons, billabongs, marshes, creeks, streams and rivers within the riparian zones.

The plants make excellent habitat refuges for small frogs and birds as it is not as dense as some of the other Carex species which become impervious when grown to close together.

Cultivation:

Carex gaudichaudiana is a medium size sedge that should be more widely grown especially in landscaping projects where the soils are of a medium to heavy texture and plenty of water is available. In cultivation it will grow 600mm to 800mm in height by 400mm to 600mm in diameter when grown in a more open situation in semi shaded.

It be grown in part shade to bright sunlight reflecting off pools or the ocean and can sustain temperatures down to minus 7 degrees and up to 44 degrees making them a very versatile hardy plant.

It is most suitable for use around shady swimming pools, courtyards, and rockeries or adjacent to natural bush gardens. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants really do the plants justification especially when it is in flower. Large semi shaded fish or frog ponds will benefit from Carex gaudichaudiana vertical growth and offer frogs a safe habitat when moving in and out of the water and small nesting birds.

If it is placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look against walls to maintain the hard lines. Using rocks and small boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis and look much larger with this species due to its smaller size.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use is limited by your imagination to break the horizontal effect of the other plants. Some plants that come instantly to mind would be Helianthus specie for a smaller plant with strong contrasting foliage or Melaleuca citrinus or Melaleuca viminalis for something a little taller. Others that most people would not normally consider but would be worthwhile trying would be Grevillea confertifolia, Grevillea juniperina or Grevillea laurifolia if they are not sitting in the water and don’t forget Acacia sauveolens to add a dash of perfume.

Carex gaudichaudiana would make outstanding contribution to a wet rainforest garden. Here they can be used as the short vertical growth, grown in clumps throughout the forest.

Propagation:

Seeds: Collecting seeds from mature plants of Carex gaudichaudiana is not difficult as they hold onto the parent plant for extended periods when fully ripe. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix however better, more even germination is gained if the seeds are stratified for a short period and sown in spring. This can be achieved by placing the nuts in a paper bag in the vegetable crisper for a few weeks prior to sowing. Cover the seeds to a depth of 5mm. Seeds usually germinate rapidly with a strike rate of over 60mm.

When the seedlings are 20mm to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good quality mix.

Once the seedlings reach 50mm in height they can be repot for indoor use or 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Division: When growing from divisions remove the plant from the soil and just cut it into 3 or 4 equal parts, first down the middle then halve those sections again. Remove unwanted dead culms and any old small clumps that look weak. Plants can be divided further but ensure each division has a several strong shoots and healthy roots attached to the tuff. Replant ensuring the soil is at the same level as before. Water and fertilize. New shoots will appear within two weeks.

If they are being mass planted for a feature around dams or along creeks and streams try planting them at 0.7 meter to 1 meter centres. For group plantings plant them at 1 meter centres scattered in small clumps where the whole plant is to be the feature.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the flower buds appear.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Carex hubbardii

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Unranked: Commelinids

Order: Poales

Family: Poaceae

Genus:From Keiren, which is Ancient Greek or later Carex, which is Latin for to cut. It refers to leaf apexes, which appear to be roughly cut on many species or the spikelets being trimmed off along the spike.

Specie: Is named in honour of Charles Edward Hubbard; 1900-1980, who was a British botanist and agrologist who studied grasses in Australia.

Sub specie:

Common Name: Greater Brown Sedge.

Distribution:

It is found in several disjunct populations south from Cooloola near Gympie in central coastal Queensland to the Endrick River near Nerriga in southern coastal New South Wales. It is found on and east of the Great Dividing Range. There is an isolated population on George Creek east of Eungella National Park.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Carex+hubbardii#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Carex hubbardii prefers full shade to dappled sunlight. It is found along creeks, streams, rivers and drainage lines in rainforests and moist gallery forests. The altitude ranges from 1 meter ASL to 600 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from zero degrees in August to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 850mm to 1650mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Carex hubbardii prefers fine fatty sandy loams, medium clays to heavy silty alluvials. The soils are derived from decomposed brown basalt, black basalt and very fine grained sandstones. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. They are tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.1m to 0.5m by 0.25m to 0.7m

Characteristics:

Carex hubbardii is a densely tufted perennial with short rhizomes. The erect, trigonous culms measure 100mm to 500mm in length by 1mm to 1.5mm diameter. The slender culms are scabrous.

The linear leaves of Carex hubbardii are usually longer than the culms and measure 150mm to 550mm in length by 2mm to 4.5mm in width. The paper brown appressed sheaths are glabrous and remain attached as a fibrous network after the tissue disintegrates while the ligules are retuse to obtuse often with a retuse tip. The bases of the leaves are clasping while the apexes are tapering to acute. The concolourous laminas are deep grass-green, glabrous to scabrous and semi glossy. The midrib is strongly prominent on the lower lamina and is clearly visible from the upper lamina as are the 2 parallel veins. The margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Carex hubbardii are spreading and pendulant. The compound spikes have 1 to 5 short spikes born from the nodes and a longer terminal spike. The racemes are often longer than the culms and measure 40mm to 200mm in length. They are solitary at the nodes or on appressed spike-like secondary branches to 30mm in length. The lowest involucral bract is longer than the inflorescences.

The irregularly disjunct spikes are pendulant and spreading at maturity. All the spikelets are androgynous and measure 20mm to 60mm in length.

The similar glumes are off white with a pale green midrib. The glumes are usually acute or at times long mucronate. The fertile female glumes measure 4mm to 5mm length.

The ovoid utricles narrow ellipsoidal with 12 to 20 faint nerves and measure 5mm to 6.5mm in length by 1.5mm to 1.7mm in diameter. The pale green to brown utricles are sparsely covered in off white hispid hairs. The rostrate apex is bifid and measures 1mm to 2mm in length.

The 2 or 3 white to pastel yellow anthers measure 1.7mm to 1.9mm in length including the 2mm long appendages. The cream to white style is trifid. The flowers appear from late September to early February.

The trigonous fruits of Carex hubbardii are ovoidal to ellipsoidal. The nuts measure 2.9mm to 3.2mm in length including the short mucronate apex by 1.2mm to 1.6mm in diameter. The green nuts turn pale yellow when ripe.

Wildlife:

Carex hubbardii is suitable for erosion control around lagoons, billabongs and marshes within rainforest gardens.

The plants make excellent habitat refuges for small frogs.

Cultivation:

Carex hubbardii is a medium sedge that should be more widely grown especially in landscaping projects where the soils are of a medium to heavy texture and plenty of water is available. In cultivation it will grow 400mm to 450mm in height by 550mm to 700mm in diameter when grown in a more open situation in semi shaded.

It can be grown in part shade to bright sunlight reflecting off pools or the ocean and can sustain temperatures down to minus 7 degrees and up to 44 degrees making it a very versatile hardy plant.

It is suitable for use in larger rockeries or adjacent to natural bush gardens. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Large to medium semi shaded fish or frog ponds will benefit from Carex hubbardii’s spreading pendulant growth habit but it is best to leave a space between the plants so that they can develop to their full potential.

If it is placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look against walls to maintain the hard lines. Using rocks and small boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis and look much larger with this species due to its smaller size.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use is limited by your imagination to break the horizontal effect of the other plants. Some plants that come instantly to mind would be Helianthus for a smaller plant with strong contrasting foliage or Hibbertia linearis, Hibbertia obtusifolia, Leichenalta formosa, Leischenalta biloba for something a little different. Others that most people would not normally consider but would be worthwhile trying would be Viola betonicifolia, Ranunculus plebeius or Zanthoxylum brachyacanthum if they are not sitting in the water and do not forget to leave plenty of space between the plants so they can grow to their full potential.

Propagation:

Seeds: Collecting seeds from mature plants of Carex hubbardii is not difficult as they hold onto the parent plant for extended periods when fully ripe. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix however better, more even germination is gained if the seeds are stratified for a short period and sown in spring. This can be achieved by placing the nuts in a paper bag in the vegetable crisper for a few weeks prior to sowing. Cover the seeds to a depth of 5mm. Seeds usually germinate rapidly with a strike rate of over 50mm.

When the seedlings are 20mm to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good quality mix.

Once the seedlings reach 50mm in height they can be repot for indoor use or 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Division: When growing from divisions remove the plant from the soil and just cut it into 3 or 4 equal parts, first down the middle then halve those sections again. Remove unwanted dead culms and any old small clumps that look weak. Plants can be divided further but ensure each division has a several strong shoots and healthy roots attached to the tuff. Replant ensuring the soil is at the same level as before. Water and fertilize. New shoots will appear within two weeks.

If they are being mass planted for a feature around dams or along creeks and streams try planting them at 0.7 meter to 1 meter centers. For group plantings plant them at 1 meter centers scattered in small clumps where the whole plant is to be the feature.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the flower buds appear.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Carex inversa

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Unranked: Commelinids

Order: Poales

Family: Poaceae

Genus: From Keiren, which is Ancient Greek or later Carex, which is Latin for to cut. It refers to leaf apexes, which appear to be roughly cut on many species or the spikelets being trimmed off along the spike.

Specie: From Inversus, which is Latin for inverted. It refers to an organ, which is in a different position than normal. Flowers may appear leaf opposite rather than the normal position of in the leaf axis.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Carex inversa

is found south and east of the Mount Morgan Range to Tea Tree Spring in Carnarvon National Park then south south east to Mount Gambier in South east South Australia. In South Australia it is found south from Tothill Creek on the Mount Lofty Ranges to Victor Harbour. It is also found in the Eungella National Park west of Mackay and on Rockingham Bay near Tully in coastal far north Queensland. It is also found on Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island.

There are 4 isolated populations in South Australian including several disjunct populations in the Flinders Ranges, eastern end of Kangaroo Island and Eyre’s Hill on Lower Eyre’s Peninsular.

It is found on the eastern Bass Straight Islands and the eastern two thirds of mainland Tasmania.

In Western Australia it is found in the south west corner bound by Perth and Northham in the north to Ravensthorpe near the Fitzgerald River National Park with an outlying population in the Cape Arid National Park.

It is also found on Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Carex+inverse#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Carex inversa prefer dappled shade to full sunlight. It is found in open forests and open woodlands in depressions, drainage lines and along streams and creeks especially in the drier areas of its range. The altitude ranges from 1 meter ASL to 750 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 5 degrees in August to 39 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 400mm to 2400mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Carex inversa prefers fine fatty sandy loams, medium clays to heavy silty clays. The soils are derived from decomposed brown basalt, black basalt, sandstones granites, metamorphic rocks and loams overlying limestone. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 7pH. It tolerates seasonal water logged soils and high seasonal water tables. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.1m to 0.5m by 0.2m to 0.8m

Characteristics:

Carex inversa is a densely tufted perennial with long orange-brown rhizomes. The spreading pendulant culms are terete smooth, glabrous and semi glossy. The slender culms usually measure 250mm to 400mm but can be as short as 100mm and as long as 500mm in length. The culms measure by 1mm to 1.5mm in diameter.

The linear leaves of Carex inversa are shorter than the culms and measure 100mm to 450mm in length by 0.7mm to 2mm in width. The deep brown sheaths persist as fibrous remains following the disintegration of the soft material between. The ligules are obtuse. The leaf bases are clasping while the apexes are tapering to narrow acute. The concolourous laminas are grass-green and glabrous. The midrib is strongly prominent on the lower lamina and is clearly visible from the upper lamina. The margins are entire.

The inflorescence of Carex inversa are erect narrow compound racemes with 2 to 6 short spikes born from a common node. The racemes measure 7mm to 30mm in length. They are solitary at the nodes or on appressed spike-like secondary branches to 30mm in length. The lowest involucral bract is much longer than the inflorescences.

The spikelets are sessile, contiguous and are erect to spreading at maturity. All the spikelets are gynaecandrous and usually measure 10mm in length however spikes to 15mm are uncommon.

The similar glumes are off white to pale yellow-brown or rarely orange-brown with a pale green midrib. The glumes are usually acuminate to obtuse with the fertile female glumes measuring 2mm to 3mm in length or rarely to 5mm in length.

The broad ovoidal to ellipsoidal utricles have 15 to 20 very prominent nerves and are often rugose between the nerves. The utricles measure 2.2mm to 4.5mm in length by 1mm to 2.1mm in diameter. The utricles are densely covered in off white, minute hispid hairs on the narrowly winged margins. The trifid split, rostrate apex measures 0.3mm to 1.1mm in length.

The single pale yellow anther measures 1mm to 1.8mm in length including the 2mm long appendage. The white style’s bifid stigmas measures 1.8mm to 2.1mm in length. The flowers appear from late September to early February.

The lenticular in cross section fruits of Carex inversa are obovoidal to broad ellipsoidal nuts. The nuts measure 2mm to 2.5mm in length by1.2mm to 1.6mm in diameter. The green nuts turn deep yellow–brown to deep khaki when ripe.

Wildlife:

Carex inversa is suitable for erosion control around lagoons, billabongs and marshes within rainforest gardens.

The plants make excellent habitat refuges for small frogs.

Cultivation:

Carex inversa are small sedges that should be more widely grown especially in landscaping projects around the house; instead of being treated as weeds, where the soils are of a medium to heavy texture and plenty of water is available. In cultivation it will grow 400mm to 450mm in height by 550mm to 650mm in diameter when grown in a more open situation in semi shade.

It be grown in part shade to bright dappled shade and can sustain temperatures down to minus 5 degrees and up to 38 degrees making them a very versatile hardy plant.

It is suitable for use around shady swimming pools, courtyards, and rockeries or adjacent to natural bush gardens. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Large semi shaded fish or frog ponds will benefit from Carex appressa vertical growth and offer frogs a safe habitat when moving in and out of the water.

If it is placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look against walls to maintain the hard lines. Using rocks and small boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis and look much larger with this species due to its smaller size.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use is limited by your imagination to break the horizontal effect of the other plants. Some plants that come instantly to mind would be Helianthus for a smaller plant with strong contrasting foliage or Hibbertia linearis, Hibbertia obtusifolia, Leschenaultia formosa, Leschenaultia biloba for something a little different. Others that most people would not normally consider but would be worthwhile trying would be Viola betonicifolia, Ranunculus plebeius or Zanthoxylum brachyacanthum if they are not sitting in the water and do not forget to leave plenty of space between the plants so they can grow to their full potential.

It look best where there are spaces between the various plants exist.

Propagation:

Seeds: Collecting seeds from mature plants of Carex inversa is not difficult as they hold onto the parent plant for extended periods when fully ripe. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix however better, more even germination is gained if the seeds are stratified for a short period and sown in spring. This can be achieved by placing the nuts in a paper bag in the vegetable crisper for a few weeks prior to sowing. Cover the seeds to a depth of 5mm. Seeds usually germinate rapidly with a strike rate of over 50mm.

When the seedlings are 20mm to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good quality mix.

Once the seedlings reach 50mm in height they can be repot for indoor use or 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the flower buds appear.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Carex longebrachiata

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Unranked: Commelinids

Order: Poales

Family: Poaceae

Genus: From Keiren, which is Ancient Greek or later Carex, which is Latin for to cut. It refers to leaf apexes, which appear to be roughly cut on many species or the spikelets being trimmed off along the spike.

Specie: From Longitia/ Longus, which is Latin for long in length and Bractea/Bracteārum, which is Latin for a specialized leaf or leaf like organ, usually situated at the base of a flower bud or inflorescence or adjacent to a leaf axis.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Carex longebrachiata

is found south from Gatton in south eastern Queensland to Dartmoor in south western Victoria. It is found on or east of the Great Dividing Range except for one disjunct population on the Condamine River near Murilla.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Carex+longebrachiata#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Carex longebrachiata prefer full shade to light dappled light. It is found in breaks in rainforests, open forests, open woodlands in low lying areas, shallow depressions and along streams, creeks or rivers. The altitude ranges from 30 meter ASL to 750 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 3 degrees in August to 37 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 700mm to 1700mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Carex longebrachiata prefer fine fatty sands to medium clays. They are found on soils mainly derived from decomposed brown basalt, black basalt granite and sandstones. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. They are tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.25m to 0.8m by 0.2m to 1m

Characteristics:

Carex longebrachiata is a densely tufted perennial with short rhizomes. The erect culms are terete to trigonous. The slender culms are smooth and glabrous. They measure 400mm to 800mm in length by 1.2mm to 1.5mm diameter.

The linear leaves of Carex longebrachiata are usually exceed the culms and measure 400mm to 850mm in length by 2mm to 4mm in width. The appressed sheaths are pale yellow-brown and glabrous while the ligules are retuse. The bases are clasping while the apexes are acute. The concolourous laminas are deep grass-green, semi glossy and glabrous. The midrib is strongly prominent on the lower lamina and is clearly visible from the upper lamina. The margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Carex longebrachiata are nodding narrow compound racemes with 1 to 8 long, narrow spikes from each node. The racemes measure 40mm to 90mm in length. They are solitary at the nodes or on appressed spike-like secondary branches to 30mm in length. The lowest involucral bract is shorter than the inflorescence.

The spikelets are on long racemes and are nodding at maturity. The disjunct spikes measure 2.5mm to 5.5mm in length. The upper spikes are usually gynaecandrous with a long male portion, occasionally androcandrous or rarely male. The lower spikes are gynaecandrous with short male portion, or female.

The similar glumes are yellow-brown to reddish-brown glumes and are usually acute to obtuse. The fertile glumes measure 3.5mm to 5.5mm length.

The narrow ovoidal utricles have 3 or 4 prominent abaxial nerves and several faint adaxially nerves. The utricles measure 4.5mm to 7mm in length by 1.5mm to 1.8mm in diameter. The pale brown utricles are covered in minute off white hispid hairs. The rostrate apex measures 1.5mm to 2.5mm in length.

The 2 or 3 white or pastel yellow anthers measure 2.7mm to 3.2mm in length including the 2mm long appendages. The cream to white style is trifid. The flowers appear from late September to early February.

The trigonous fruits of Carex longebrachiata are ovoid nuts. The nuts measure 5mm to 6mm in length by 2.5mm to 3mm in diameter. The green nuts turn pale ochre to khaki when ripe.

Wildlife:

Carex longebrachiata is suitable for erosion control around lagoons, billabongs and marshes or in the riparian zones of creeks, streams and rivers.

The plants make excellent habitat refuges for small frogs and birds.

Cultivation:

Carex longebrachiata is a larger sedge that should be more widely grown especially in landscaping projects where the soils are of a medium to heavy texture and plenty of water is available. In cultivation they will grow 700mm to 800mm in height by 450mm to 1000mm in diameter when grown in a more open situation semi shaded position.

It grows in part shade to bright sunlight reflecting off pools or the ocean and can sustain temperatures down to minus 5 degrees and up to 40 degrees making them a very versatile hardy plant.

It is most suitable for use around semi shady swimming pools, courtyards, and rockeries or adjacent to natural bush gardens. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Large semi shaded fish or frog ponds will benefit from Carex appressa vertical growth and offer frogs a safe habitat when moving in and out of the water.

If it is placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look against walls to maintain the hard lines. Using rocks and small boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis and look much larger with this species due to its smaller size.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use is limited by your imagination to break the horizontal effect of the other plants. Some plants that come instantly to mind would be Helianthus for a smaller plant with strong contrasting foliage or Melaleuca citrinus or Melaleuca viminalis for something a little taller. Others that most people would not normally consider but would be worthwhile trying would be Grevillea confertifolia, Grevillea juniperina or Grevillea laurifolia if they are not sitting in the water and don’t forget Acacia sauveolens to add a dash of perfume.

Carex longebrachiata would make outstanding contribution to a wet rainforest garden. Here they can be used as the short vertical growth, grown in clumps throughout the forest.

Carex longebrachiata are excellent plants for indoor situations. I do not recommend many plants for indoors especially over long periods as most plants suffer plant lice and dread the dry atmospheric conditions, extremes in heat and light but this is one I can recommend with full confidence as a tough fighter in these conditions provided there is good light.

Propagation:

Seeds: Collecting seeds from mature plants of Carex longebrachiata is not difficult as they hold onto the parent plant for extended periods when fully ripe. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix however better; more even germination is gained if the seeds are stratified for a short period and sown in spring. This can be achieved by placing the nuts in a paper bag in the vegetable crisper for a few weeks prior to sowing. Cover the seeds to a depth of 5mm. Seeds usually germinate rapidly with a strike rate of over 50mm.

When the seedlings are 20mm to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good quality mix.

Once the seedlings reach 50mm in height they can be repot for indoor use or 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Division: When growing from divisions remove the plant from the soil and just cut it into 3 or 4 equal parts, first down the middle then halve those sections again. Remove unwanted dead culms and any old small clumps that look weak. Plants can be divided further but ensure each division has a several strong shoots and healthy roots attached to the tuff. Replant ensuring the soil is at the same level as before. Water and fertilize. New shoots will appear within two weeks.

If they are being mass planted for a feature around dams or along creeks and streams try planting them at 0.7 meter to 1 meter centers. For group plantings plant them at 1 meter centers scattered in small clumps where the whole plant is to be the feature.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the flower buds appear.

Further Comments from Readers:

“Hi reader, it seems you use The Bible of Botany a lot. That’s great as we have great pleasure in bringing it to you! It’s a little awkward for us to ask, but our first aim is to purchase land approximately 1,600 hectares to link several parcels of N.P. into one at The Pinnacles NSW Australia, but we need your help. We’re not salespeople. We’re amateur botanists who have dedicated over 30 years to saving the environment in a practical way. We depend on donations to reach our goal. If you donate just $5, the price of your coffee this Sunday, We can help to keep the planet alive in a real way and continue to bring you regular updates and features on Australian plants all in one Botanical Bible. Any support is greatly appreciated. Thank you.”

In the spirit of reconciliation we acknowledge the Bundjalung, Gumbaynggirr and Yaegl and all aboriginal nations throughout Australia and their connections to land, sea and community. We pay our respect to their Elders past, present and future for the pleasures we have gained.

Carex maculata

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Unranked: Commelinids

Order: Poales

Family: Poaceae

Genus: From Keiren, which is Ancient Greek or later Carex, which is Latin for to cut. It refers to leaf apexes, which appear to be roughly cut on many species or the spikelets being trimmed off along the spike.

Specie: From Maculatus, which is Latin for to stain or to have spots. It refers to a description of structures or organs, which have spots.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Carex maculata is found south from Port Douglas to Alligator Creek near Townsville and Lake Cootharaba near Wide Bay in coastal Queensland to the Grose valley in coastal southern New South Wales. It is mainly found on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast. The altitude ranges from 10 meter ASL to 200 meters ASL.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Carex+maculata#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Carex maculata prefers full shade to light dappled shade or full sun. It is found where breaks in the rainforest canopies occur in riparian zones along streams, creeks, rivers and gallery rain forests, in and adjacent to marshes, wallums and swamps. The altitude ranges from 3 meters ASL to 150 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from zero degrees in August to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 900mm to 2000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Carex maculata prefer fine fatty sands to medium clays. They are found on soils mainly derived from decomposed brown basalt, black basalt and very fine grained sandstones. The soil’s pH ranges from 5pH to 6pH. They are tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to slightly saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.1m to 0.7m by 0.2m to 0.5m

Characteristics:

Carex maculata is a densely tufted perennial rush with short rhizomes. The erect culms are trigonous smooth and glabrous. The slender culms usually measure 100mm to 400mm in length but can grow to 700mm in length under ideal conditions by 1mm to 1.2mm diameter.

The linear leaves of Carex maculata usually exceed the culms and measure 100mm to 750mm in length by 2mm to 8mm in width. The yellow-orange sheaths are finely dotted and glabrous while the ligules are acute. The leaf bases are clasping while the apexes are acute. The concolourous laminas are deep grass-green and glabrous. The midrib is strongly prominent on the lower lamina and is clearly visible from the upper lamina. The margins are entire.

The inflorescences of Carex maculata are erect narrow compound racemes with numerous short spikes. The racemes measure 30mm to 200mm in length. The spikes are solitary at the nodes. The lowest involucral bract is longer than the inflorescence.

The lower spikes are on pedicels which measure 4mm to 15mm in length, while the upper spikes are sessile. The lower spikes are disjunct while the upper spikes are contiguous and are more erect to spreading at maturity than the lower nodding spikes. The spikes measure 10mm to 40mmin length. The lower spikes are female or gynaecandrous with a few male flowers at the apexes. The upper spikes are male or rarely androgynous.

The similar are pale reddish-brown to deep reddish-brown with a green midrib. The glumes are acute to obtuse. The fertile glumes measure 2mm to 3mm length.

The ellipsoidal to ovoidal utricles have 14 to 18 strongly prominent nerves and measure 2.3mm to 3mm in length by 1mm to 1.3mm in diameter. The greenish-brown to deep reddish-brown utricles are covered in minute papillose lumps. The short beak at the apex is notched and measures 0.3mm to 0.4mm in length or is truncate.

The 2 or 3 white or pastel yellow anthers measure 2mm to 2.3mm in length including the 0.1mm long appendages. The cream to white style is trifid. The flowers appear from late September to early February.

The trigonous fruits of Carex maculata are ovoidal nuts. The nuts measure 1.9mm to 2.2mm in length by1mm to 1.3mm in diameter. The green nuts turn pale yellow to pale ochre when ripe.

Wildlife:

Carex maculata is suitable for erosion control around lagoons, billabongs and marshes within rainforest gardens.

The plants make excellent habitat refuges for frogs.

Cultivation:

Carex maculata are medium sedges that should be more widely grown especially in landscaping projects where the soils are of a medium to heavy texture and plenty of water is available. In cultivation it will grow 400mm to 600mm in height by 400mm to 700mm in diameter when grown in a more open situation semi shaded position.

It can be grown in part shade to bright sunlight reflecting off pools or the ocean and can sustain temperatures down to minus 3 degrees and up to 38 degrees making them a very versatile hardy plant.

It is most suitable for use around shady swimming pools, courtyards, and rockeries or adjacent to natural bush gardens. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Large semi shaded fish or frog ponds will benefit from Carex maculata vertical growth and offer frogs a safe habitat when moving around the water.

If it is placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look against walls to maintain the hard lines. Using rocks and small boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis and look much larger with this species due to its smaller size.

If companion plants are sought then the choice of plants to use is limited by your imagination to break the horizontal effect of the other plants. Some plants that come instantly to mind would be Helianthus for a smaller plant with strong contrasting foliage or Melaleuca citrinus and Melaleuca bracteata var. golden gem for something a little taller and spectacular. Others that most people would not normally consider but would be worthwhile trying would be Grevillea confertifolia, Grevillea juniperina or Grevillea laurifolia if they are not sitting in the water and don’t forget Acacia sauveolens to add a dash of perfume.

Carex maculata would make outstanding contribution to a wet rainforest garden. Here they can be used as the short vertical growth, grown in clumps throughout the forest.

Carex maculata are excellent plants for indoor situations. I do not recommend many plants for indoors especially over long periods as most plants suffer plant lice and dread the dry atmospheric conditions, extremes in heat and light but this is one I can recommend with full confidence as a tough fighter in these conditions provided there is good light.

Propagation:

Seeds: Collecting seeds from mature plants of Carex maculata is not difficult as they hold onto the parent plant for extended periods when fully ripe. The fresh seeds can be sown directly into a seed raising mix however better; more even germination is gained if the seeds are stratified for a short period and sown in spring. This can be achieved by placing the nuts in a paper bag in the vegetable crisper for a few weeks prior to sowing. Cover the seeds to a depth of 5mm. Seeds usually germinate rapidly with a strike rate of over 50mm.

When the seedlings are 20mm to 30mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good quality mix.

Once the seedlings reach 50mm in height they can be repot for indoor use or 100mm to 150mm in height plant them out into their permanent position.

Division: When growing from divisions remove the plant from the soil and just cut it into 3 or 4 equal parts, first down the middle then halve those sections again. Remove unwanted dead culms and any old small clumps that look weak. Plants can be divided further but ensure each division has a several strong shoots and healthy roots attached to the tuff. Replant ensuring the soil is at the same level as before. Water and fertilize. New shoots will appear within two weeks.

If they are being mass planted for a feature around dams or along creeks and streams try planting them at 0.7 meter to 1 meter centers. For group plantings plant them at 1 meter centers scattered in small clumps where the whole plant is to be the feature.

Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months until the flower buds appear.

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Carex polyantha

Classification

Unranked: Monocots

Unranked: Commelinids

Order: Poales

Family: Poaceae

Genus: From Keiren, which is Ancient Greek or later Carex, which is Latin for to cut. It refers to leaf apexes, which appear to be roughly cut on many species or the spikelet which is trimmed off along the spike.

Specie: From Polús, which is Ancient Greek for many and ántha/ánthos, which are Ancient Greek for the male reproductive organs of a flower or the flower.

Sub specie:

Common Name:

Distribution:

Carex polyantha is found south from Dingo Beach National Park north of Proserpine in Queensland south to Melbourne in Victoria in several disjunct populations. It is mainly found on and east of the Great Dividing Range to the coast.

It is also found extensively in Tasmania especially on the northern half of the Island.

https://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=Carex+polyantha#tab_mapView

Habitat Aspect Climate:

Carex polyantha prefer full shade. It grows where breaks in rainforest canopies occur along streams, creeks, rivers and gallery rain forests on marshy type ground or in swamps and coastal wallums. The altitude ranges from 50 meters ASL to 850 meters ASL.

The temperatures range from minus 5 degrees in August to 36 degrees in January.

The rainfall ranges from lows of 600mm to 2000mm average per annum.

Soil Requirements:

Carex polyantha prefer fine fatty sands, course sands to medium clays. It is found on soils mainly derived from decomposed brown basalt, black basalt, granite, sandstone, metamorphic rocks and accumulated peaty sands. The soil’s pH ranges from 4.5pH to 7pH. They are tolerant of water logged soils. Non saline soils to very saline soils are tolerated.

Height & Spread:

Wild Plants: 0.25m to 0.8m by 0.2m to 0.5m

Characteristics:

Carex polyantha is a densely tufted perennial with short rhizomes. The culms are erect, trigonous, glabrous below and scabrous above. The culms are erect and measure 200mm to 800mm in length by 2.5mm to 4mm diameter.

The linear leaves of Carex polyantha are pendulant and measure 200mm to 800mm in length by 4mm to 9mm in width. The paper orange-brown appressed sheaths are glabrous. The bases are clasping while the apexes are acute. The concolourous laminas are deep grass-green and glabrous. The margins are finely toothed or entire and covered in white ciliate hairs. The ligules are acute to retuse.

The inflorescences of Carex polyantha are panicles with 5 to 8 short racemes from each node. The racemes measure 100mm to 550mm in length. The lowest involucral bracts are longer than the inflorescence. The racemes spread at maturity and measure 200mm to 170mm in length. The flowers are sessile. The racemes are occasionally androgynous with the lower spikes being female while the upper 1 to 5 spikes are male. The deep red-brown glumes with a paler midrib are very narrow acute to acuminate. The female glumes measure 2mm to 3.5mm length. The obovoidal to ovoid utricles have very faint longitudinal ribs and measure 2mm to 3mm in length by 1.5 mm to 2mm in diameter. They are glabrous or minutely papillose at the apexes. The body is densely covered in fine red dots

The anthers measure 1.5 to 2.5mm in length. The white style is bifid. The flowers appear from late September to early February.

The fruit of Carex polyantha is an ovoidal nut which is lenticular in cross section and measure 2mm to 2.5mm in length by1.2mm to 1.6mm in diameter. The green nuts turn pale yellow when ripe. The nuts are glabrous. The beak is short while the style is persistent.

Wildlife:

Carex polyantha is suitable for smaller erosion control around lagoons, billabongs and marshes within rainforest and open water logged gardens.

The plants make excellent habitat refuges for small frogs.

Cultivation:

Carex polyantha is a medium size sedge that should be more widely grown especially in landscaping projects where the soils are of a medium texture and plenty of moisture is available. In cultivation it will grow 240mm to 600mm in height by 150mm to 250mm in diameter when grown in a more open situation but still in shade. They are suitable for full shade to full sun.

It is most suitable for use around swimming pools, courtyards, and rockeries or adjacent to natural bush gardens. Mass plantings of 5 or more plants even in small areas; really do the plants justification especially when they are in flower. Medium fish or frog ponds will benefit from Carex polyantha vertical growth.

If it is placed around a pool, courtyards or other confined spaces then plant them in small groups or scatter plant them for a more informal natural look against walls to maintain the hard lines. Using rocks and small boulders can make the pool or any water feature appear like an oasis and look much larger with this species due to its smaller size.