Growing plants from seed can be great fun and offers the home gardener a chance to feel great satisfaction in their achievement especially when the first flower appears. Most people consider seeds easy to grow but some seeds are particularly problem some while others are almost impossible to acquire. Like all plants that produce their offspring from seed or spore the methods are similar but nature has hidden secrets to avoid using all her resources at once. Remember nature has been doing this for millions of years and has been very successful so there is no reason why you shouldn’t give it a go.

Generally speaking I believe seeds are more reliable quicker and give greater DNA variability in foliage, colour, flower size and shape. Like people we are not all the same and plants have the same variation in their own little worlds which makes them interesting.

The seed raising or potting mix must be weed free, low in salt, good moisture retention, good aeration, be light weight and have a pH of 6pH to 6.8pH unless alkaline plants are being grown in which a small quantity of lime, crushed egg shells or crushed washed oyster shells can be added.

Most seedlings and cuttings will grow well on the following mix. A good all round mix can be made by using equal parts of sand, Perlite, Vermiculite and Coir.

The coir can be replaced with peat moss for plants that originate from swamps or wet areas.

A small quantity of pine bark can be added to the mix to improve aeration and drainage if the plants are more sensitive to moisture.

Perlite: Perlite looks like white or pale grey Styrofoam. It’s a volcanic mineral that does not affect the nutrient quality or the pH of the mix. It has an excellent drainage, air and water retention property which makes it ideal as the base of soilless mixes. It is slightly acidic to neutral.

Vermiculite: Vermiculite is those silvery-grey or golden coloured shinny flecks you see in potting soil. It’s derived from heating mica to high temperatures very quickly. As it expands and explodes its water holding capacity increases dramatically. The particles soak up water and nutrients holding them in the mix until the plants are ready to access them. The aeration properties are poor so it should be used with perlite. It is slightly acidic to neutral.

Bark: Fine bark particles are added to improve drainage and air space within the mix. This means it will also decrease the water retention. Bark mixes are better for use with mature plants that need to dry between watering than for starting seeds. It is slightly acidic.

Coir: Coir is a coconut fiber by-product and works similar to peat in providing good drainage while also retaining water. It’s often used as a substitute in areas where peat is hard to come by. It is slightly acidic to neutral.

Peat: Peat has excellent moisture retention properties but can become rather soggy creating an anaerobic condition when used with seeds or cuttings that take a long time to germinate or strike. It is acidic.

Sand: Sand has poor to little moisture retention properties but has good aeration properties. It has no ability to retain nutrient essential to plant life. . It is neutral.

  1. Check to see what treatments are required for the various seeds you wish to sow. Collect seeds from natural habitats close to your property for best results, which are the best gene pool for your area. Buy seeds from reputable dealers and collectors or botanic gardens. Remember seeds collected from garden specimens may have been cross pollinated with other closely related species or may have genetic differences and tolerances to your district.
  2. Prepare the mixes. Soak the mix and remove to allow draining.
  3. Collect the materials and seeds to a central position. Remember the size of the seed. Seeds greater than 8mm in diameter should be sown in individual native tubes. The pre treatment of seeds that need pre treatment and those seeds that are particularly difficult to transplant should have been done earlier. Pre treatment of seeds is discussed below.

Seeds that resent transplanting are best sown in individual tubes or even peat jiffy pots so that the whole pot can be planted at a later date once the seeds have germinated.

  1. Place the prepared mixed into the appropriate seed tray, tubes or pots.
  2. Level off and tap down. The trays tubes or pots should be filled to about 80mm. Do not press down. Some seeds may need to be planted directly into the ground I have discussed this under the individual plants.
  3. As a general rule cover the seeds to a level equal to their diameter unless specified. That is a 5mm seed should have a covering of 5 mm of mix. Some seeds require more air flow or light so these seeds will need to be left uncovered.
  4.  Gently water so the mix settles down.
  5. Place the trays in a warm, cool, sunny or shaded position depending on the plants requirements which are discussed under each species. Many shade specie prefer to be placed in a plastic bag to mimic a green house and to maintain humidity. The bag should be removed as soon as the first seedlings appear.
  6. Fertilise with our half strength recommended fertilizer program on a monthly basis once the seedlings have the first pair of true leaves or have been transplanted in the case of ferns. Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water and apply the liquid on an alternate basis. Fine textured plants can have the mix applied fortnightly as a foliar spray.
  7. Acclimatise plants before you transplant them outdoors or into larger tubes over a 2week to 4 week period.


There are several types of seeds. Some plants require treatment prior to sowing while others must be treated to stimulate germination prior to sowing. I have discussed the individual requirements further under plant descriptions for each variety.

Seeds: Seeds that do not require pre treatment can be sown as per step 6. When the seedlings are 25mm to 50mm tall, prick them out and plant them into 50mm native tubes using a good organic mix. Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis will help promote healthy growth.

Seeds: Because it is near impossible to transplant some plants, these seeds are best sown directly into jiffy pots or peat pots. Some smaller annuals can be planted into egg cartons. Place two or thee seeds into each carton. Once the seedlings reach 50mm to 70mm in height plant the pot and plant directly into the soil where they are required. Fertilize using seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis will help promote healthy growth.

Seeds: Seeds that resent root disturbance need to be sown directly into the soil where the plants are required. Once the seedlings have produced two adult leaves, thin out leaving the two strongest plants. When the plants are 100mm to 120mm the smaller plant can be removed and fertilize using seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets; if the species is not sensitive to phosphorous, soaked in water for healthy growth.

Pre Treatment of Seeds:

The pre treatment of seeds before sowing is particularly beneficial on seeds that won’t germinate quickly or germinate erratically over many weeks or even years. 

  1. 1.Pre-treat by placing the seeds into a glass of Tepid water and allow soaking for 16 to 24 hours. This is the most common pre-treatment method used with seeds from many lilies and marsh plants in which the seeds are hard.
  2.  Pre treat by placing the seeds into a glass of Tepid water and allow soaking for 36 to 48 hours. This is the most common pre-treatment method used with seeds from many lilies and marsh plants in which the seeds are hard.
  3. Pre treat by placing the seeds into a glass of very Hot Water not boiling and allow soaking for 10 to 20 hours. Seeds that soften and swell from 1.5 to 2 times their original size can be sown immediately.
  4. Pre treat by placing the seeds into a glass of Boiling Water and allow soaking for 10 to 24 hours. Seeds that have not responded by swelling repeat the process. This is the most common pre-treatment method used with seeds from most Senna, Acacia and all of the ‘pea’ family in which the seeds are hard.

The seeds to be treated are placed in a container, covered with boiling water and allowed to stand overnight. Seeds that soften and swell from 1.5 to 2 times their original size can be sown immediately. Any seeds which float are usually infertile and can be discarded. Those that have not swollen need to be retreated. Seed that does not swell after several repeated soaking may need to be treated differently, such as by abrasion – see below.

Scarification or abrasion SA:

This can be used as an alternative to boiling water. Seeds are gently rubbed between two sheets of fairly fine sandpaper or emery cloth to reduce the thickness of the seed coat. This can be cumbersome for large volumes of seeds and an alternative is to glue emery paper or sandpaper to the inside surfaces of a small plastic container, put the seeds in and then shake the container vigorously until the first seeds begin to display the inner cotyledon.

Some seeds only need to be nicked with a knife on one side.

Stratification STVC or STF:

When dormancy is encountered; with species native to alpine or semi-alpine habitats, a requirement for a period of cold conditioning prior to germination is required. This requirement can be replicated very easily by placing seed in a closed container; either dry or containing moist vermiculite or similar material, in a refrigerator for 4 weeks to 12 weeks prior to sowing. Various seeds will require different positions in the fridge. Most seeds will find the vegetable crisper satisfactory. Some seeds find germination more satisfactory if moved to the freezer over the last week or two. This procedure is referred to as “stratification” and examples of seed requiring this treatment are Banksia canei, Banksia saxicola, Eucalyptus kybeanensis, Eucalyptus regnans and Eucalyptus delegatensis to mention a few. Eucalyptus pauciflora benefits greatly from being placed in the freezer for the last two weeks

The method has also been applied with many grasses and lilies where the night time, winter, ground temperatures fall below zero or frosts occur. This is found in the higher altitudes to the north where frosts frequently occur, arid areas that experience black frosts and cold damp locations that may or may not freeze at night.

Fire F:

Apart from the “pea” flowers and acacias, some other seeds seem to require the passage of a bushfire to germinate. Flannel Flowers (Actinotus helianthi), for example, are usually seen at their best in the wild in the seasons immediatley following a bushfire. This effect can be simulated by sowing the seed in a terracotta pot (not plastic for obvious reasons!) and setting fire to leaf litter and twigs placed on top. The fire should be maintained for 2 to 3 minutes. This method has worked but is really a “last resort” method as it is difficult to have any real control over the amount of heat delivered to the seeds. Once the ash has cooled, the pot is watered and maintained as for any other seed raising container.

Dry Heat DH:

This method relies on placing the seeds in the oven after the evening meal has been cooked while the oven is still hot. Turn the oven off and when it has cooled to around 150 to 130 degrees centigrade place the seeds in the oven and leave them their overnight. Some specie may need the exercise repeated for 3 to 5 consecutive days (desert plants). We have found this method to be extremely successful for desert plants, arid and semi arid plants and many coastal heath plants that are subject to the periodic 7 to 15 year fire.

Smoke SM:

Research in South Africa and Western Australia has shown that smoke is a critical factor for promoting germination of seeds in areas subject to bushfires. The following articles outline some of the general principles involved:

This is a guide only as it is difficult to accurately state when a tree seed will germinate, do not discard trays too early they may germinate the following year. Some species it may be practical to sow outdoors where they will be exposed to the normal seasonal temperature fluctuations.

Ferns and Orchids are dealt with in detail below.

Tree seed sowing codes

Before you look at the codes and methods remember if in doubt as we are on some seeds it is best to apply the old adage and sow with no treatment. If the seeds are similar to another closely related species then try half your seeds using the technique of the known species.

Most moist rainforest species have the best results using fresh seeds while desert plants germinate best using older seed.

Moist rainforest plants usually require no treatment. Heath plants usually require fire or our dry heat method. Desert plants usually require boiling water, hot water, scarification or abrasion. Alpine plants usually require stratification while annuals usually require a short period of stratification or left in a dry place where the outside elements during the dry season (That is constant change of cold and warmth and respond to consistency of warmth).

Some seeds usually rainforest plants require darker cooler positions to stimulate germination while arid plants require light warmth and moisture to stimulate germination.

Overall think of the plants natural habitat before sowing.

The easiest and most difficult seeds are usually those that require nature’s interference first. Mistletoes most likely need to be partially digested that is they need to be passed through the gut quickly hence the mistletoe bird and honey eaters lend a complete hand well beak anyway.

Some seeds like the Persoonia specie may require animal interjection prior to sowing for more even constant results. Do not be disappointed if your first attempts are failures. We have all failed and still do.

NT No Treatment required.

BM The Bog method requires the trays to be standing in water at all times.

SUB Submerged

BW Boiling water to break down the seed coating.

HW Pour hot water (not boiling) over the seeds or scarify to break down the seed         coating.
TW Soak in tepid or cold water for 4 to 48 hours and then sow at 20°C     to 26°C.

SA Scarification or Abrasion

STVC Stratificaction Vegetable Crisper

STF Stratificaction in vegetable crisper with the final week or 2 in the freezer.


SM Smoke

DH Dry Heat

DIV Division or Cuttings

FERN See fern spore

ORCHID See orchid seeds

Abildgaardia ovata NT

Abildgaardia vaginata NT

Abrophyllum ornans HW

Abrus precatorius HW

Abutilon oxycarpum subsp. incanum NT

Abutilon oxycarpum subsp. malvifolium NT

Abutilon oxycarpum subsp. oxycarpum NT

Abutilon oxycarpum subsp. subsagittatum.NT

Acacia – Hard Seed BW

Acacia – Soft Seed Brown seeds HW

Acacia acuminata BW

Acacia adunca BW

Acacia amblygona BW

Acacia aulacocarpa BW

Acacia baeuerlenii BW

Acacia bakeri BW

Acacia baileyana BW

Acacia beadleana BW

Acacia binervata BW

Acacia brownii HW

Acacia bruinoides BW

Acacia cangaiensis HW

Acacia chrysotricha BW

Acacia complanata BW

Acacia concurrens BW.

Acacia cultriformis BW.

Acacia dealbata HW

Acacia decora BW

Acacia disparrima BW

Acacia dunnii BW

Acacia elata HW

Acacia elongata BW

Acacia falcata BW

Acacia fimbriata BW

Acacia floribunda BW

Acacia granitica HW

Acacia hispidula BW

Acacia holosericea BW

Acacia howitti HW

Acacia implexa BW

Acacia longifolia subsp. longifolia BW

Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae BW

Acacia longisissima BW

Acacia macrademia HW

Acacia maidenii HW

Acacia melanoxylon HW

Acacia mitchellii BW

Acacia myrtifolia BW

Acacia orites HW

Acacia oshanesii BW

Acacia penninervis BW

Acacia perangusta HW

Acacia podriifolia HW

Acacia pycnantha BW

Acacia rubida BW

Acacia ruppi BW

Acacia semilunata BW

Acacia siculiformis BW

Acacia spectabilis BW

Acacia stricta BW

Acacia suaveolens HW

Acacia terminalis BW

Acacia ulicifolia BW

Acacia venulosa BW

Acacia viscidula HW

Acacia wardellii BW

Acalypha nemorum NT

Aceratium ferrugineum NT

Acmena hemilampra NT

Acmena ingens NT

Acmena smithii NT

Acmenospermum claviforum NT

Acradenia euodiiformis NT

Acronychia acidula Careful SA

Acronychia imperforata NT

Acronychia laevis NT

Acronychia littoralis NT

Acronychia oblongifolia NT

Acronychia octandra NT

Acronychia pubescens NT

Acronychia suburosum Careful SA

Acronychia wilcoxiana NT

Acrostitchum auream FERN

Acrostichum speciosum FERN

Acrotriche aggregata NT

Acrotriche depressa NT

Actinotus helianthi SM, DH, SA, STVC

Adansonia gregorii TW

Adenanthera pavonina TW

Adiantum atheopicum FERN

Adiantum atroviride FERN

Adiantum formosum FERN

Adiantum hispidulum FERN

Aegiceras corniculatum NT

Agathis robusta NT

Agathis altropurpurea NT

Agiortia cicatricata NT

Agiortia pedicellata NT

Agiortia pleiosperma NT

Aglaia brassii NT

Agonis flexuosa NT

Aidia racemosa NT

Ailanthus triphysa

Ajuga australis NT

Akania bidwillii NT

Alangium villosum subsp. polyosmoides NT

Alangium villosum subsp. villosum NT

Albizia lebbeck BW

Alchornea ilicifolia NT

Alectryon coriaceus NT

Alectryon subcinereus NT

Alectryon tomentosus NT

Aleurites moluccana NT

Allocasuarina defungens SA

Allocasuarina littoralis SA

Allocasuarina rigida sub sp.rigida SA

Allocasuarina torulosa SA

Alloteropsis semialata NT

Alloxylon flammeum NT

Alloxylon pinnatum NT

Alocasia brisbanensis NT

Alphitonia excelsa SA

Alpinia arundelliana NT

Alpinia caerulea NT

Alstonia actinophylla NT

Alstonia scholaris NT

Alstonia spectabilis NT

Alyxia ruscifolia HW

Amyema bifurcatum NT

Amyema cambagei NT

Amyema congener subsp. congener NT

Amyema congener subsp. divergens NT

Amyema congener subsp. rotundifolia NT

Amyema gaudichaudii NT

Amyema miquelii NT

Amyema pendulum subsp. longifolia NT

Amyema pendulum subsp. pendulum NT

Amyema quandang subsp. bancroftii NT

Amyema quandang subsp. quandang NT

Amylotheca dictyophleba NT

Aneilema acuminatum NT

Angiopteris evecta FERN

Angophora costata NT

Angophora floribunda NT, STVC

Angophora paludosa NT

Angophora robur NT, STVC

Angophora subvelutina NT, STVC

Angophora woodsiana NT

Anigozanthos flavida STVC

Anigozanthos manglesii STVC

Anopterus macleayanus FERN

Antidesma bunius NT

Antidesma parvifolium NT

Aotus ericoides BW

Aotus lanigera BW

Aotus subglauca subsp. filiformis BW

Aotus subglauca subsp. subglauca BW

Aphananthe philippinensis NT

Aphanopetalum resinosum NT

Apium prostratum var. filiforme SUB

Aponogeton elongatus NT

Arachniodes aristata FERN

Araucaria bidwillii NT

Araucaria cunninghamii NT

Archidendron grandiflorum HW

Archidendron hendersonii HW

Archirhodomyrtus beckleri NT

Archontophoenix Alexandra STVC

Archontophoenix cunninghamiana STVC

Archontophoenix maxima SA

Archontophoenix purpurea SA

Arenga australasica SA

Argophyllum nullumense NT

Argyrodendron actinophyllum sub sp.diversifolia NT

Argyrodendron peralatum NT

Aristida acuta NT

Aristida benthamii sub sp. benthamii NT

Aristida calycina sub sp. calycina NT

Aristida lignose NT

Aristida queenslandica sub sp. queenslandica NT

Aristida vagans NT

Aristida warburgii NT

Aristotelia australasica NT

Arthraxon hispidus NT

Arthrochilus prolixus ORCHID

Arthropteris beckleri FERN

Arthropteris tenella FERN

Arytera divaricata NT

Asparagus racemosus NT

Asplenium attenuatum sub sp. attenuatum FERN

Asplenium australisicum FERN

Asplenium bulbiferum FERN

Asplenium difforme FERN

Asplenium flabellifolium FERN

Asplenium flaccidum sub sp. flaccidum FERN

Asplenium polyodon FERN

Asplenium nidus FERN

/span>Asterolasia correifolia NT

Asteromyrtus brassii NT

Astroloma pinifolium NT

Astrotricha cordata NT

Astrotricha latifolia NT

Astrotricha longifolia NT

Atalaya salicifolia NT

Atractocarpus benthamianus subsp. benthamianus NT

Atractocarpus benthamianussubsp. glaber NT

Atractocarpus fitzalanii NT

Atractocarpus sessilis NT

Atriplex nummularia STVC

Atriplex semibacatta STVC

Auranticarpa rhombifolium NT

Australina pusilla NT

Austrobuxus swainii NT

Austrocynoglossum latifolium NT

Austromuellera trinervia NT

Austromyrtus dulcis NT

Austromyrtus tenuifolia NT

Austrosteenisia blackii var. blackii NT

Austrosteenisia glabristyla NT

Austrostipa pubescens NT

Austrostipa ramosissima NT

Austrostipa rudis sub sp. nervosa NT

Austrostipa scabra sub sp.falcata, sub sp.scabra NT

Austrostipa scabra sub sp.falcata, sub sp.scabra NT

Avicennia marina sub sp. australisica BM

Azolla filiculoides DIV BM

Azolla pinnata DIV, BM

Backhousia angustifolia NT

Backhousia citriodora NT

Backhousia myrtifolia NT

Backhousia sciadophora NT

Baeckea diosmifolia NT

Baeckea frutescens NT

Baeckea imbricata NT

Baeckea linifolia NT

Baekea utilis NT

Baloghia inophylla NT

Baloghia marmorata NT

Baloskion pallens NT-BM

Baloskion stenocoleum NT-BM

Baloskion tenuiculme NT-BM

Baloskion tetraphyllum subsp. meiostachyum NT-BM

Baloskion tetraphyllum subsp. tetraphyllum NT-BM

Bambusa arnemica NT, DIV

Banksia aemulum NT

Banksia baxteri NT, STVC

Banksia blechnifolia NT, STVC

Banksia ericifolia sub sp. ericifolia NT

Banksia ericifolia subsp. macrantha NT

Banksia formosa NT

Banksia fraseri subsp. ashby NT

Banksia fraseri subsp. creba NT

Banksia fraseri subsp. effuse NT

Banksia fraseri subsp. fraseri NT

Banksia fraseri subsp. oxycedra NT

Banksia ilicifolia NT

Banksia integrifolia sub sp. integrifolia NT

Banksia integrifolia subsp. monticola NT

Banksia marginata NT

Banksia media NT

Banksia oblongifolia NT

Banksia paludosa NT, STVC

Banksia petiolaris NT

Banksia plagiocarpa HW

Banksia praemorsa NT, STVC

Banksia repens NT, STVC

Banksia robur NT- BM

Banksia serrata NT

Banksia spinulosa subsp. spinulosa NT

Banksia spinulosa subsp. collina NT

Banksia tenuis NT

Banksia undata NT

Barringtonia acutangula NT

Barringtonia asiatica NT

Barringtonia calyptrata NT

Bauera capitata NT

Bauera rubioides NT

Bauhinia hookeri HW

Bauhinia malabarica HW

Bauhinia syringifolia HW

Baumea acuta HW

Baumea arthrophylla HW

Baumea articulata HW

Baumea gunnii HW

Baumea juncea HW-BM

Baumea muelleri HW

Baumea nuda HW

Baumea rubiginosa HW

Baumea teretifolia HW

Beaufortia incana NT

Beilschmiedia elliptica NT

Beilschmiedia obtusifolia NT

Belvisia mucronata sub sp. mucronata FERN

Benthamina alyxifolia NT

Berberidopsis beckleri NT

Bertya brownii NT

Bertya sp. Chambigne NT

Bertya sp. Clouds Creek NT

Beyeria lasiocarpa NT

Billardiera heterophylla NT

Billardiera rubens NT

Billardiera scandens NT

Blandfordia grandiflora NT

Blandfordia nobilis NT

Blechnum camfieldii FERN

Blechnum cartilaginium FERN

Blechnum indicum FERN

Blechnum minus FERN

Blechnum nudum FERN

Blechnum patersonii subsp. patersonii FERN

Blechnum patersonii subsp. queenslandica FERN

Blechnum wattsii FERN

Blumea mollis STVC

Boehmeria macrophylla NT

Bolboschoenus fluviatilis NT

Bombax ceiba subsp. leiocarpum SA

Boronia chartacea DH

Boronia clavata DH

Boronia denticulata DH

Boronia falcifolia DH

Boronia hapalophylla DH

Boronia heterophylla DH

Boronia ledifolia DH

Boronia parviflora DH

Boronia pinnata DH

Boronia polygalifolia DH

Boronia rosmarinifolia DH

Boronia safrolifera DH

Boronia umbellata DH

Bosistoa floydii NT

Bosistoa pentacocca NT

Bossiaea ensata NT

Bossiaea heterophylla NT

Bossiaea rhombifolia subsp. concolor NT

Bossiaea rhombifolia subsp. rhombifolia NT

Bothriochloa decipiens subsp. decipiens NT

Botrychium australe FERN

Brachychiton aceriifolius NT

Brachychiton bidwillii NT

Brachychiton discolor NT

Brachychiton populneus NT

Brachychiton rupestris NT

Brachyloma daphnoides subsp. daphnoides NT

Brachyloma daphnoides subsp. glabrum NT

Brachyloma daphnoides subsp.  pubescens NT

Brachyloma saxicola NT

Brachyloma scortechinii NT

Brachyscome ciliaris subsp. brachyglossa NT

Brachyscome ciliaris subsp. latifolia NT

Brachyscome ciliaris subsp. lanigunosa NT

Brachyscome ciliaris subsp. subintegrifolia NT

Brachyscome iberidifolia NT

Brachyscome microcarpa NT

Brachyscome stuartii NT

Brasenia schreberi DIV

Breynia oblongifolia STVC

Bridelia exaltata NT

Bruguiera gymnorhiza NT

Brunoniella australis STVC

Buchnera gracilis NT

Buckinghamia cellsissima NT

Bulbine bulbosa STVC

Bulbophyllum argyropus ORCHID

Bulbophyllum bracteatum ORCHID

Bulbophyllum elisae ORCHID

Bulbophyllum exiguum ORCHID

Bulbophyllum minutissimum ORCHID

Bulbophyllum schillerianum ORCHID

Bulbophyllum shepherdii ORCHID

Bulbophyllum weinthalii ORCHID

Bulbostylis barbata ORCHID

Bulbostylis densa ORCHID

Burchardia umbellata NT

Burmannia disticha NT

Bursaria spinosa NT

Byblis filifolia BM

Byblis gigantea BM

Caelospermum paniculatum NT

Caesalpinia subtropica NT

Caesia parviflora subsp. minor HW

Caesia parviflora subsp. parviflora HW

Caesia parviflora subsp. vittata HW

Cajanus pubescens SA

Caladenia alata ORCHID

Caladenia carnea ORCHID

Caladenia catenata ORCHID

Calamus muelleri NT

Calandrinia pickeringii

Calanthe triplicata ORCHID

Caldcluvia paniculosa NT

Caleana major ORCHID

Callerya australis NT

Callerya megaspermum NT

Callicarpa brevistyla NT

Callicarpa pedunculata NT

Callicoma serratifolia NT

Callitriche muelleri

Callitris baileyii SAS

Callitris columellaris SA

Callitris enderlicheri SAS

Callitris glaucophyla SA

Callitris macleayana SA

Callitris monticola SA

Callitris oblonga NT

Callitris rhomboidea SA

Calochilus campestris ORCHID

Calochilus gracillimus ORCHID

Calochilus grandiflorus ORCHID

Calochilus paludosus ORCHID

Calochilus robertsonii ORCHID

Calochlaena dubia S.

Calomeria amaranthoides NT

Calotis cuneifolia S,G.

Calotis lappulacea S,G.

Calystegia marginata NT

Calystegia soldanella NT

Calytrix tetragona NT

Canarium australasicum NT

Canavalia rosea SA

Capillipedium spicigerum NT

Capillipedium parviflorum NT

Capparis arborea NT

Cardamine microthrix NT-BM

Carex appressa TW

Carex breviculmis NT

Carex brunnea NT

Carex declinata NT

Carex fascicularis NT

Carex gaudichaudiana NT

Carex hubbardii NT

Carex inverse NT

Carex longebrachiata NT

Carex maculata NT

Carex polyantha NT

Carex pumila NT

Carpentaria accuminata NT

Carpobrotus glaucescens NT

Carpobrotus virescens NT

Carronia multisepalea

Cassia brewsteri HW

Cassia marksiana HW

Cassia tomentella HW

Cassinia compacta NT

Cassinia quinquefaria NT

Cassinia subtropicaNT

Cassytha pubescens NT

Cassytha racemosa NT

Castanospermum australe NT

Castanospora alphandii NT

Casuarina cuninghamiana HW

Casuarina equistifolia sub sp. incana. SA

Casuarina glauca SA

Caustis blakei NT

Caustis flexuosa NT

Caustis recurvata subsp. hirsuta NT

Caustis recurvata subsp. recurvata NT

Cayratia clematidea NT

Cayratia eurynema NT

Celastrus australis NT

Celastrus subspicata NT

Celtis paniculata NT

Cenchrus caliculatus NT

Cenchrus robustus NT

Centella asiatica DIV

Centrolepis fascicularis NT

Cephalaralia cephalobotrys BM

Cephalomanes caudatum NT

Cephalotus follicularis NT, TW

Ceratopetalum apetalum NT

Ceratopetalum gummiferum NT

Ceratophyllum demersum SUB

Cerbera floribunda NT

Cerbera manghas NT

Cestichis reflexa NT

Cestichis swenssonii NT

Chamaecrista maritima BM

Chamaecrista nomame HW

Chamelaucium uncinatum NT

Cheilanthes distans FERN

Cheilanthes sieberi subsp. sieberi FERN

Cheilanthes sieberi subsp. pseudovellea FERN

Chiloglottis diphylla ORCHID

Chiloglottis sylvestris ORCHID

Chiloglottis trilabra ORCHID

Chloanthes parviflora NT

Chloanthes stoechadis NT

Choricarpia leptopetala

Chloris ventricosa

Chorizandra cymbaria SA

Chorizandra sphaerocephala SA

Chorizema parviflorum BW

Christella hispidula FERN

Chrysocephalum apiculatum NT

Chrysopogon filipes NT.

Cinnamomum oliveri NT

Cinnamomum virens NT

Cissus antartica S,G. NT

Cissus hypoglauca NT

Cissus sterculiifolia NT

Citronella moorei NT

Citrus australasica NT

Cladium procerum NT

Claoxylon australe NT

Cleistanthus cunninghamii NT

Clematicissus opaca NT

Clematis aristata NT

Clematis glycinoides NT

Clematis microphylla NT

Clerodendrum floribundum NT

Clerodendrum inerme NT

Clerodendron tomentosa NT

Cochlospermum fraseri SA

Cochlospermum gillivraei SA

Cocos nucifera SA

Codonocarpus attenuatus NT

Coleocarya gracilis NT

Comesperma defoliatum NT-STVC

Comesperma ericinum NT-STVC

Commelina cyanea DIV

Commelina ensifolia DIV

Commersonia bartramia STVC

Commersonia breviseta STVC

Commersonia fraseri STVC

Conospermum taxifolium NT

Cordyline cannifolia SA

Cordyline congesta SA

Cordyline fruticosa SA

Cordyline murchinsonae SA

Cordyline petiolaris SA

Cordyline rubra SA

Cordyline stricta SA

Coronidium elatum STVC

Coronidium lanuginosum STV

Coronidium oxylepis STVC

Correa baeuerlenii STVC

Correa lawrenceana STVC

Correa reflexa STVC

Corybas aconitiflorus ORCHID

Corybas barbarae ORCHID

Corybas fordhamii ORCHID

Corybas hispidus ORCHID

Corybas undulatus ORCHID

Corymbia citriodora NT

Corymbia curtisii NT

Corymbia ficifolia NT

Corymbia gummifera NT

Corymbia henryi NT

Corymbia intermedia NT

Corymbia maculata NT

Corymbia ptycocarpa NT

Corymbia tessellaris NT

Corymbia torelliana NT

Corymbia trachyphloia NT

Corymbia variegata NT

Corynocarpus rupestris NT

Costus potierea NT

Craspedia canens STF

Craspedia variabilis STF

Crassula sieberiana STVC

Crinum pedunculatum SA

Crinum uniflorum SA

Crotalaria brevis HW                

Crotalaria medicaginea subsp. linearis HW

Crotalaria medicaginea subsp. mediciaginea HW

Crotalaria medicaginea subsp. neglecta HW

Crotalaria mitchellii subsp. laevis HW

Crotalaria mitchellii subsp. mitchellii HW

Crotalaria montana subsp. angustifolia HW

Crotalaria montana subsp. Montana HW

Crotalaria verrucosa HW

Croton insularis NT

Croton stigmatosus NT

Croton verreauxii NT

Crowea exalata NT

Cryptandra longistaminea NT

Cryptandra propinqua NT

Cryptocarya bidwillii SA

Cryptocaya dorrigoensis SA

Cryptocarya erythroxylon SA

Cryptocarya floydii SA

Cryptocarya foveolata SA

Cryptocarya glaucescens SA

Cryptocarya laevigata SA

Cryptocarya meisneriana SA

Cryptocarya microneura SA

Cryptocaya nova-anglica SA

Cryptocarya obovata SA

Cryptocarya rigida SA

Cryptocarya triplinervis sub sp. pubens SA

Cryptocarya triplinervis sub sp. triplinervis SA

Cryptocarya willwilliana SA

Cryptostylis erecta ORCHID

Cryptostylis hunteriana ORCHID

Cryptostylis subulata ORCHID

Cupaniopsis anachardioides NT

Cupaniopsis baileyana NT

Cupaniopsis flagelliformis subsp. australis NT

Cupaniopsis newmanii NT

Cupaniopsis parvifolia NT

Curculigo capitata DIV,STVC

Curculigo ensifolia NT, STVC

Curcuma australasica NT

Cuscuta australis NT

Cuttsia viburnea NT

Cyathea australis FERN

Cyathea baileyana FERN

Cyathea cooperi FERN

Cyathea cunninghamii FERN

Cyathea leichardtiana FERN

Cyathea rebeccae FERN

Cyathea robertsiana FERN

Cyathea woollsiana FERN

Cycas media SA

Cyclophyllum longipetalum FERN

Cyclosorus interruptus FERN

Cymbidium canaliculatum ORCHID

Cymbidium madidum ORCHID

Cymbidium sauve ORCHID

Cymbopogon refractus NT

Cynanchum carnosum NT

Cynometra iripa NT-BM

Cynodon dactylon NT

Cyperus brevifolius STVC

Cyperus cyperoides STVC

Cyperus difformis STVC

Cyperus disjunctus STVC

Cyperus eglobosus SA

Cyperus enervis STVC

Cyperus exaltatus STVC

Cyperus flaccidus STVC

Cyperus flavidus STVC

Cyperus fulvus STVC

Cyperus gracilis STVC

Cyperus haspan STVC

Cyperus imbecillis STVC

Cyperus laevigatus STVC

Cyperus laevis STVC

Cyperus leiocaulon STVC

Cyperus lucidus STVC

Cyperus mirus STVC

Cyperus pilosus STVC

Cyperus platystylis STVC

Cyperus polystachyos STVC

Cyperus procerus STVC

Cyperus sanguinolentus STVC

Cyperus sphaeroideus STVC

Cyperus stradbrokensis STVC

Cyperus subulatus STVC

Cyperus tetraphyllus STVC

Cyperus trinervis STVC

Cyperus unioloidesSTVC

Damasonium minus NT

Dampiera diversifolia NT

Dampiera purpurea NT-BM

Dampiera stricta NT-BM

Dampiera sylvestris NT-BM

Daphnandra apatelaNT

Daphnandra micrantha NT

Daphnandra tenuipes NT

Darlingia darlingiana NT

Darwinia citriodora NT

Darwinia collina NT

Darwinia oldfieldii NT

Daucus glochidiatus NT-BM

Davallia solida sub sp. pyxidata, sub sp. solida. FERN

Davidsonia jerseyana NT

Davidsonia pruriens NT

Daviesia arborea SA

Daviesia genistifolia SA

Daviesia latifolia SA

Daviesia nova-anglica SA

Daviesia ulcifolia SA

Daviesia umbellate SA

Daviesia villifera SA

Daviesia wyattiana SA

Dawsonia superba var. pulchra NT

Decaspermum humile NT

Deeringia amaranthoides NT

Deeringia arborescens NT

Dendrobium aemulum ORCHID

Dendrobium dolichophyllum ORCHID

Dendrobium fairfaxii ORCHID

Dendrobium gracilicaule ORCHID

Dendrobium linguiforme ORCHID

Dendrobium melaleucaphilum ORCHID

Dendrobium monophyllum ORCHID

Dendrobium mortii ORCHID

Dendrobium phalaenopsis ORCHID

Dendrobium pugoiniforme ORCHID

Dendrobium schoeninum ORCHID

Dendrobium teretifolium ORCHID

Dendrobium tetragonum ORCHID

Dendrocnide excela NT

Dendrocnide moroides NT

Dendrocnide photinophylla NT

Dendrophthoe vitellina NT

Denhamia celastroides NT

Denhamia moorei NT

Denhamia pittosporoides NT

Dennstaedtia davallioides FERN

Deparia petersenii FERN

Derris involuta NT

Derris trifoliata NT

Desmodium brachypodum HW

Desmodium gunnii NT

Desmodium heterocarpon NT

Desmodium nemorosum NT

Desmodium rhytidophyllum NT

Desmodium varians NT

Deyeuxia parviseta NT

Deyeuxia reflexa STF

Dianella atrax H,L,F, S,G.

Dianella caerulea subsp. assera STVC

Dianella caerulea subsp. caerulea STVC

Dianella caerulea subsp. cinerascens STVC

Dianella caerulea subsp. petasmatodes STVC

Dianella caerulea subsp. producta STVC

Dianella caerulea subsp. protensa STVC

Dianella caerulea subsp. vannata STVC

Dianella congesta STVC

Dianella crinoides STVC

Dianella longifolia subsp. longifolia STVC

Dianella longifolia subsp. stenophylla STVC

Dianella pavopennacea STVC

Dianella revoluta STVC

Dianella tasmanica STVC

Dichanthium tenue STVC

Dichelachne crinita SA

Dichelachne micrantha NT

Dichondra repens DIV

Dicksonia antarctica FERN

Dicksonia youngiae FERN

Dictymia brownii FERN

Digitaria didactyla NT

Digitaria diffusa NT

Digitaria longiflora NT

Digitaria ramularis NT

Dillenia alata NT

Dillwynia glaberrima SA

Dillwynia phylicoides SA

Dillwynia retorta SA

Dimorphocalyx australiensis SA, NT

Dinosperma erythrococcum SA

Dioscorea transversa NT

Diospyros australis NT

Diospyros calycantha NT

Diospyros fasciculosa NT

Diospyros pentamera NT

Diplachne fusca NT

Diplazium assimile NT

Diplazium australe NT

Diplazium dilatatum NT

Diplocyclos palmatus NT

Diploglottis bernieana NT, SA

Diploglottis cuninghamii NT

Diploglottis obovata NT

Diplolaena grandiflora NT

Dipodium atropurpureum NT

Dipodium punctatum NT

Dipodium variegatum NT

Dischidia nummularia NT

Diuris chrysantha STVC ORCHID

Diuris punctata sub sp. punctata STVC ORCHID

Diuris sulphurea STVC ORCHID

Dockrillia cucumerina ORCHID

Dockrillia pugioniforme ORCHID

Dockrillia teretifolium ORCHID

Dodonaea boroniifolia STVC/SA

Dodonaea hirsuta STVC/SA

Dodonaea multijuga STVC/SA

Dodonaea rhombifolia STVC/SA

Dodonaea triquetra STVC

Dodonaea viscosa subsp. angustifolia STVC/SA

Dodonaea viscosa subsp. burmanniana STVC/SA

Dodonaea viscosa subsp. cuneata STVC/SA

Dodonaea viscosa subsp. spatulata STVC/SA

Dodonaea viscosa subsp. viscose STVC/SA

Doodia aspera FERN

Doodia australis FERN

Doodia caudata FERN

Doodia heterophylla FERN

Doodia linearis FERN

Doryanthes excelsa STVC/SA

Doryanthes palmeri STVC/SA

Doryphora sassafras NT

Dracophyllum secundum STVC

Drosera adelea BM

Drosera binata BM

Drosera burmanni BM

Drosera peltata BM

Drosera pygmaea BM

Drosera spatulata BM

Drynaria quercifolia FERN

Drynaria rigidula FERN

Drynaria sparsisora FERN

Drymophila moorei STVC

Drypetes deplanchei NT

Dubosia myoporoides STVC

Durabaculum undulatum ORCHID

Durringtonia paludosa NT

Dysoxylum fraserianum NT

Dysoxylum mollissimum NT

Dysoxylum rufum NT

Echinochloa colona BM

Echinochloa telmatophila SUB

Echinopogon caespitosusSUB

Echinopogon intermedius SUB

Echinopogon ovatus SUB

Echinostephia aculeataNT

Eclipta platyglossaNT

Eclipta prostrataNT

Ehretia acuminata SA

756  Einadia hastata NT

757  Einadia nutans sub sp. linifolia NT

Einadia nutans subsp. nutans NT

758  Einadia trigonos sub sp. stellulata NT

759 Eleocarpus angustifolius SA

760  Elaeocarpus eumundi SA

762  Elaeocarpus holopetalus STF

763 Elaeocarpus kirtonii SA

764 Elaeocarpus obovatus SA

764 Elaeocarpus reticulatus SA

766 Elaeodendron australe SA

767 Elatine gratioloides SUB

769 Elatostema reticulatum NT

770 Elatostema stipitatum NT

771 Elattostachys nervosa STVC

772 Elattostachys xylocarpa STVC

773 Eleocharis acuta NT

774 Eleocharis cylindrostachys NT

775 Eleocharis dietrichiana NT

775a Eleocharis dulcis NT

776 Eleocharis equisetina NT

777 Eleocharis geniculata NT

778 Eleocharis philippinensis NT

779 Eleocharis pusilla BM

778 Eleocharis sphacelata NT

779 Eleocharis tetraquetra TN

780 Elionurus citreus NT

781 Embelia australiana NT

781a Emilia sonchifolia NT

782 Emmenosperma alphitonioides NT

784 Empodisma minus NT

784a Empusa habenarina NTN

785 Enchylaena tomentosa NNT

786 Endiandra compressa N NT

787 Endiandra crassiflora NT

788 Endiandra discolor NT

789 Endiandra floydii NT

790 Endiandra muelleri subsp. muelleri NT

791 Endiandra muelleri subsp. bracteata NT

792 Endiandra pubens NT

793 Endiandra sieberi NTN

794 Endiandra virens NTT

795 Entada rheedii NT

796 Enteropogon unispiceus NTEntolasia marginata NTNEntolasia stricta NTEntolasia whiteana NTEnydra fluctuans NTEpacris breviflora STVCVEpacris impressa STVCEpacris longiflora STVCEpacris microphylla STVCEpacris obtusifolia STVC/SAEpacris pulchella SA/STVCEpacris rhombifolia STVCEpaltes australis STVCEpipogium roseum NTEragrostis brownie NTEragrostis elongata NTEragrostis interrupta NTEragrostis leptostachya NTEragrostis parviflora NTEragrostis pubescens NTEragrostis sororia NTEragrostis spartinoides NTEragrostis trachycarpa NTEremochloa bimaculata NTEremophila bignoniiflora NTEremophila brevifolia NTEremophila debilis NTEremophila duttoni NTEremophila forrestii NTEremophila glabra NTEremophila longifolia NTEremophila maculata NTEremophila nivea NTEremophila sp. NTEriachne glabrata NTNEriachne pallescens NTEriachne rara NNTEriocaulon australe NTEriocaulon scariosum NTEriochilus cucullatus NTEriochloa procera NTEriostemon australasius NTEryngium expansum NTErythrina numerosa  SAErythrina vespertilio SAErythrophleum chlorostachys NTErythrorchis cassythoides ORCHIDEucalyptus acaciiformis NTEucalyptus acmenoides NTEucalyptus aglomerata NTEucalyptus amplifolia NTEucalyptus angustissima NTEucalyptus baileyana NTEucalyptus bancroftii NTEucalyptus biturbinata NTEucalyptus brassiana NTEucalyptus bridgesiana NTEucalyptus brunnea STVCEucalyptus caesia NTEucalyptus caliginosa STVCEucalyptus camaldulensis NTEucalyptus cameronii STVCEucalyptus campanulata STVCEucalyptus carnea STVCEucalyptus cerasiformis NTEucalyptus crebra NTEucalyptus dorrigoensis STVCEucalyptus dunnii NTEucalyptus eugenioides NTEucalyptus fibrosa NTEucalyptus fusiformis NTEucalyptus glaucina NTEucalyptus globoidea NTEucalyptus globulus STVCEucalyptus goniantha NTEucalyptus grandis NTEucalyptus henryi NTEucalyptus kruseana NT

Eucalyptus laevopinea NT

Eucalyptus lansdowneana NT

Eucalyptus ligustrina NT

Eucalyptus marginata NT

Eucalyptus melanophloia STVC

Eucalyptus melliodora NT

Eucalyptus microcorys NT

Eucalyptus moluccana NT

Eucalyptus nobilis STVC

Eucalyptus notabilis NT

Eucalyptus obliqua NT

Eucalyptus ophitica NT

Eucalyptus oreades NT

Eucalyptus pachycalyx NT

Eucalyptus pachyphylla NT

Eucalyptus phoenicea NT

Eucalyptus pilularis NT

Eucalyptus planchoniana NT

Eucalyptus platyphylla NT

Eucalyptus pleurocarpa NT

Eucalyptus prava STVC

Eucalyptus propinqua NT

Eucalyptus psammitica NT

Eucalyptus pyriformis NT

Eucalyptus pyrocarpa NT

Eucalyptus quadrangulata NT

Eucalyptus resinifera NT

Eucalyptus robusta NT

Eucalyptus rummeryi NT

Eucalyptus saligna NT

Eucalyptus seeana NT

Eucalyptus sepulcralis STVC

Eucalyptus siderophloia NT

Eucalyptus sideroxylon NT 

Eucalyptus signata NT

Eucalyptus sp. 1 STCF

Eucalyptus sp. 2 STCF

Eucalyptus tereticornis NT

Eucalyptus tetrapleura NT

Eucalyptus tindaliae NT

Eucalyptus torquata NT

Eucalyptus umbra NT

Euchiton sphaericus NT

Eugenia reinwardtiana NT

Eupomatia bennetti NT

Eupomatia laurina NT.

Euroschinus falcatus NT

Eurychorda complanata

Eustrephus latifolius STVC

Everistia vacciniifolia var. nervosa NT

Evolvulus alsinoides NT

Excoecaria agallocha NT- BM

Exocarpos cupressiformis NT

Exocarpos latifolius NT

Exocarpos strictusNT

Exocarya sclerioides NTFagraea cambagei NTFaradaya splendida NTFicinia nodosa NTFicus benjamina NTFicus copiosaFicus crassipesFicus oppositaFicus coronata NTFicus fraseri NNTFicus hispida NTFicus macrophylla NTFicus microphylla var hilli NTFicus obliqua NTFicus racemosa NTFicus rubiginosa NTFicus sp. 1 NTFicus virens NTFicus watkinsiana NTFieldia australis NTFimbristylis ovata NTFimbristylis cinnamometorum NTFimbristylis dichotoma NTFimbristylis ferruginea NTFimbristylis nutans NTFimbristylis polytrichoides NTFimbristylis tristachya NTFimbristylis velata NTFlagellaria indica NTFlindersia australis NTFlindersia bennettiana NTFlindersia collina NTFlindersia schottiana NTFloydia praealta NTFreycinettia excelsa NT

Freycinettia marginata NT

Fuirena ciliaris NT

Gahnia aspera SA

Gahnia clarkei SA

Gahnia melanocarpa SA

Gahnia sieberiana SA

Gahnia subaequiglumis SA

Galium leptogonium NT

Gallionella ferruginea

Garcinia warrenii NT

Gaultheria appressa STF

Gaultheria viridicarpa STF

Geijera salicifolia NT

Geissois benthamiana NT

Geitonoplesium cymosum STVC

Genoplesium fimbriatum NT

Genoplesium rufum NT

Geodorum densiflorum ORCHID

Geranium homeanum NT

Geranium neglectum NT

Geranium solanderi NT

Gleichenia mendellii FERN

Gleichenia microphylla FERN

Glinus oppositifolius SA

Glochidion benthamianum SA

Glochidion ferdinandi subsp. ferdinandi SA

Glochidion ferdinandi subsp. pubens SA

Glochidion sumatranum SA

Glossocardia bidens STVC

Glossodia major ORCHID

Glossodia minor ORCHID

Glycine clandestina SA

Glycine cyrtoloba SA

Glycine microphylla SA

Glycine tabacina SA

Glycine tomentella SA

Glycyrrhiza acanthocarpa SA

Gmelina dalrympleana NT

Gmelina fasciculiflora NT

Gmelina leichhardtii NT

Gompholobium latifolium SA

Gompholobium pinnatum SA

Gompholobium virgatum SA

Gonocarpus chinensis NT

Gonocarpus micranthus NT

Gonocarpus oreophilus NTN

Goodenia bellidifolia subsp. argentea NT

Goodenia bellidifolia subsp. bellidifolia NT

Goodenia glabra NT

Goodenia grandiflora NT

Goodenia hederacea sub sp. hederacea STVC

Goodenia heterophylla sub sp eglandulosa, sub sp. heterophylla NT

Goodenia ovata NT

Goodenia paniculata NT

Goodenia rotundifolia NT

Goodenia stelligera NT

Goodenia sp.1 NT

Goodia lotifolia NT

Gossia acmenoides NT

Gossypium sturtianum STVC

Grammitis billardierei FERN

Grammitis stenophylla FERN

Graptophyllum excelsum NTN

Graptophyllum ilicifolium NTN

Gratiola pedunculata NT 

Grevillea acanthifolia NT

Grevillea acuaria NT

Grevillea agrifolia NT

Grevillea albiflora NT

Grevillea alpina STF

Grevillea angulata NT

Grevillea arenaria STVC

Grevillea armigera NT

Grevillea asparagoides NT

Grevillea asplenifolia STVC

Grevillea asteriscosa STVC

Grevillea aurea STVC

Grevillea banyabbaNT

Grevillea baileyana STVC

Grevillea banksii NT

Grevillea baurii NT

Grevillea beadleana STVC

Grevillea bedggoodiana STVC

Grevillea bipinnatifida STVC

Grevillea biternata SA

Grevillea bronwenae STVC

Grevillea buxifolia STVC

Grevillea caleyi STVC

Grevillea calliantha NT

Grevillea candelabroides NT

Grevillea capitellata NT

Grevillea centristigma NT

Grevillea crithmifolia NT

Grevillea chrysophaea NT

Grevillea diffusa NT

Grevillea dimorpha NT

Grevillea disjuncta NT

Grevillea dissecta NT

Grevillea drummondii NT

Grevillea dryophylla NT

Grevillea eriobotrya NT

Grevillea eryngioides NT

Grevillea evansiana SA

Grevillea exposita NT

Grevillea fasciculata NT

Grevillea flexuosa NT

Grevillea floribunda STVC

Grevillea formosa NT

Grevillea fulgens NT

Grevillea georgeana STVC

Grevillea glauca STVC

Grevillea goodie NT

Grevillea granulifera NT

Grevillea heliosperma NT

Grevillea helmsiae NT

Grevillea hilliana NT

Grevillea hirtella STVC

Grevillea hookeriana SA

Grevillea humifusa NT

Grevillea humilis subsp. humilis NT

Grevillea humilis subsp.lucens NT

Grevillea humilis subsp. maritina NT

Grevillea iaspicula NT

Grevillea ilicifolia STVC

Grevillea incrassata NT

Grevillea infundibularis NT

Grevillea insignis NT

Grevillea involucrate NT

Grevillea irrasa NTN

Grevillea jephcottii STVC

Grevillea johnsonii STVC

Grevillea juncifolia NT

Grevillea juniperina STVC

Grevillea kennedyana SA

Grevillea lanigera STVC

Grevillea laurifolia STVC

Grevillea lavandulacea STVC

Grevillea leptobotrys NT

Grevillea linearifolia NT

Grevillea linsmithii NT

Grevillea longifolia NT

Grevillea longistyla H.

Grevillea macleayana NT

Grevillea masonii NT

Grevillea microstegia NT

Grevillea miniata NT

Grevillea mollis NT

Grevillea molyneuxi STVC

Grevillea mucronulata NT

Grevillea nana STVC

Grevillea nematophylla NT

Grevillea neurophylla NT

Grevillea nudiflora NT

Grevillea oleoides NT

Grevillea olivacea NT

Grevillea oncogyne NT

Grevillea paradoxa NT

Grevillea parallela NT

Grevillea patulifolia NT

Grevillea petrophiloides NT

Grevillea pluricaulis NT

Grevillea polybractea NT

Grevillea prasina STVC

Grevillea preissi STVC

Grevillea pteridifolia NT

Grevillea quadricauda NT

Grevillea quercifolia NT

Grevillea ramosissima NT

Grevillea renwickiana NT

Grevillea repens NT

Grevillea rhizomatosa STVC

Grevillea rhyolitica STVC

Grevillea rigida NT

Grevillea robusta NT

Grevillea rosmarinifolia STVC

Grevillea scortechinii STVC

Grevillea secunda STVC

Grevillea sericea NT

Grevillea sessilis NT

Grevillea shiressii NT

Grevillea speciosa NT

Grevillea sp.1 NT

Grevillea sp.2 NT

Grevillea stenobotrya SA

Grevillea stenomera NT

Grevillea striata NT

Grevillea tenuiflora NT

Grevillea thelemanniana NT

Grevillea thyrsoides NT

Grevillea treueriana NT

Grevillea trifida NT

Grevillea triloba NT

Grevillea tripartita subsp. macrostylis NT

Grevillea venusta NT

Grevillea victoriae NT

Grevillea whiteana NT

Grevillea wickhamii NT

Grevillea wilkinsonii NT

Grevillea wilsonii NT

Grewia latifolia NT

Guioa semiglauca NT

Guilfoylia monostylis NT

Gymnoschoenus sphaerocephalus NT

Gymnostachys anceps NT

Gymnostoma australianum NT

Haemodorum austroqueenslandicum NT-BM

Haemodorum planifolium NT-BM

Hakea actites NT

Hakea bakeriana NT.

Hakea bucculenta NT

Hakea clavata NT

Hakea eriantha NT

Hakea florulenta NT

Hakea laevipes subsp. laevipes NT

Hakea laurina NT

Hakea ochroptera NT

Hakea orthorrhyncha NT

Hakea pedunculata NT

Hakea purpurea NT

Hakea salicifolia NT-BM

Hakea sericea NT

Hakea subsulcata NT

Hakea teretifolia sub sp. teretifolia NT

Hakea verrucosa NT

Hakea victoria NT

Halfordia kendack NT

Halophila ovalis BM

Haloragis exalata var. velutina NT

Hardenbergia comptoniana HW

Hardenbergia violacea H,T,S.

Harnieria hygrophiloides NT

Harpullia arborea NT

Harpullia hillii NT

Harpullia pendula NT

Hedycarya angustifolia NT

Helichrysum rutidolepis NT,STVC

Helicia ferruginea NT

Helicia glabriflora NT

Helmholtzia glaberrima NT

Hemarthria uncinata subsp. spathata NT

Hemarthria uncinata subsp. uncinata NT

Heritiera trifoliolata NT

Heteropogan contortus NT

Hibbertia acicularis NT

Hibbertia acuminata NT

Hibbertia aspera NT

Hibbertia banksii NTN

Hibbertia dentata NT

Hibbertia diffusa NT

Hibbertia fasciculata NT

Hibbertia hermanniifolia NT

Hibbertia linearis NT

Hibbertia obtusifolia NT

Hibbertia pedunculata NT

Hibbertia riparia NTT

Hibbertia rufa NT, STVC, BM

Hibbertia salicifolia NT- BM

Hibbertia scandens NT

Hibbertia serpyllifolia NT

Hibbertia vestita NT

Hibbertia villosa NT

Hibiscus diversifolia NT

Hibiscus geranioides NT

Hibiscus heterophyllus NT-BM

Hibiscus insularis NT

Hibiscus macilwraithensis NT

Hibiscus sp. barambah creek NT

Hibiscus splendens NT

Hibiscus sturtii NT

Hibiscus trionum NT

Hibiscus tozerensis NT

Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia SA

Hippocratea barbata NT

Histiopteris incisa FERN

Hodgkinsonia ovatiflora NT

Homoranthus flavesence NT

Homoranthus virgatus NT

Homalanthus novoguineensis NT

Homalanthus populifolius NT

Hovea acutifolia NT

Hovea graniticola STVC

Hovea heterophylla STVC

Hovea ramulosa STVC

Hovea similis NT

Howea forsteriana NT

Howittia trilocularis NT

Hoya australis NT

Hoya macgillivrayi NT

Hoya oligotricha NT

Huperzia carinata AS PER FERNS

Huperzia phlegmaria AS PER FERNS

Huperzia phegmarioides AS PER FERNS

Hybanthus monopetalus NT

Hybanthus stellarioides NT

Hybanthus vernonii subsp. scaber NT

Hybanthus vernonii subsp. veronii NT

Hydriastele wendlandiana NT

Hydrilla verticillata SUB

Hydrocharis dubia BM

Hydrocotyle acutiloba BM

Hydrocotyle geraniifolia BMBM

Hydrocotyle pedicellosa BM

Hydrocotyle peduncularis BM

Hydrocotyle tripartita BM

Hydrocotyle verticillata BM

Hymenophyllum australe FERN

Hymenophyllum bivalve FERN

Hymenophyllum cupressiforme FERN

Hymenophyllum flabellatum FERN

Hymenosporum flavum NT

Hyparrhenia filipendula NT

Hypericum gramineum NT

Hypoestes floribunda BM

Hypolaena fastigiata BM

Hypolepis glandulifera BM

Hypolepis muelleri BM

Hypoxis pratensis BM

Imperata cylindrica NT

Indigofera australis TW

Indigofera hirsuta TW

Indigofera linifolia TW

Indigofera pratensis TW

Intsia bijuga NT

Iphigenia indicaNT

Ipomoea brasiliensis SA

Ipomoea plebeian SA

Isachne globosaNT

Ischaemum australe subsp. australe,NT

Ischaemum australe subsp. villosum NT

Ischaemum triticeum NT

Isolepis cernua BM

Isolepis habra BM

Isolepis inundata BM

Isolepis subtilissima STVC, BM

Isopogon anemoniifolius NT

Isopogon cuneatus NT

Isopogon dubius NT

Isopogon mnoraifolius NT

Isopogon petiolaris NT

Isotoma armstrongii NT

Isotoma axillaris STVC

Isotoma fluviatilis subsp.borealis STVC

Isotoma fluviatilis subsp. fluviatilis STVC

Ixora bleckeri NT

Jacksonia chappilliae HW

Jacksonia scoparia HW

Jacksonia stackhousei HW

Jagera pseudorhus subsp. pseudorhus NT

Jasminum didymum NT

Jasminum singuliflorum NT

Jasminum simplicifolium subsp. suavissimum NT

Jasminum volubile NT

Juncus bufonius BM

Juncus continuus BM

Juncus kraussii BM

Juncus mollis BM

Juncus planifolius BM

Juncus polyanthemus BM

Juncus prismatocarpus BM

Juncus saraphorus BM

Juncus subsecundus BM

Juncus usitatus BM

Juncus vaginatus BM

Kardomia prominens NT

Kardomia silvestris NT

Kennedia nigricans HW

Kennedia rubicunda HW

Kennedia ??????? HW

Keraudrenia corollata subsp. corollata NT

Keraudrenia corollata subsp. denticulata NT

Keraudrenia hillii sub sp. hillii NT

Kopsia arborea NT

Korthalsella rubra sub sp. geijericola STVC

Korthalsella rubra subsp. rubra GSTVC

Kunzea affinis NT

Kunzea ambigua NT

Kunzea bracteolata NT, STVC

Kunzea capitata NT

Kunzea opposita NT

Kunzea parvifolia NT, STVC

Kunzea pauciflora NT

Lachnagrostis billardierei  NT

Lachnagrostis filiformis NT

Laccospadix australasicus NT

Lagunaria pattersonii NT, SA

Lambertia echinata NT

Lambertia formosa NT

Landoltia punctata

Larsenaikia ochreata NT

Lasiopetalum ferrugineum NT

Lastreopsis acuminate FERN

Lastreopsis decomposita FERN

Lastreopsis marginans FERN

Lastreopsis microsora FERN

Lastreopsis munita FERN

Laxmannia gracilis NT

Lechenaultia biloba NT

Lechenaultia formosum NT

Leea indica NT

Leersia hexandra NT

Legnephora moorei NT

Leiocarpa serpens NT, STVC

Leionema elatius subsp. beckleri NT

Leionema elatius subsp. elatius NT

Lemna trisulca NT

Lepiderema pulchella NT

Lepidosperma concavum NT

Lepidosperma elatius NT

Lepidosperma filiforme NT

Lepidosperma gunnii NT

Lepidosperma latens NT

Lepidosperma laterale NT

Lepidosperma limicola STVC

Lepidosperma longitudinale NT

Lepidosperma neesii NT

Lepidosperma quadrangulatum NT

Lepidosperma tortuosum STVC

Lepidosperma urophorum NT

Lepidozamia hopei SA

Lepidozamia peroffskyana SA

Lepironia articulata NT

Leptocarpus tenax NT

Leptomeria acida NT

Leptomeria drupacea NT

Leptospermum arachnoides NT

Leptospermum benwellii NT

Leptospermum brachyandra NT

Leptospermum brevipes NT

Leptospermum gregarium NT

Leptospermum juniperinum NT

Leptospermum laevigatum NT

Leptospermum leuhmannii NT

Leptospermum liversidgei NT

Leptospermum madidum subsp. madidum NT

Leptospermum madidum subsp. sativum NT

Leptospermum microcarpum NT

Leptospermum minutifolium STVC

Leptospermum novae-angliae STVC

Leptospermum petersonii NT

Leptospermum polygalifolium NT

Leptospermum rotundifolium NT

Leptospermum scoparium NT

Leptospermum semibaccatum NT

Leptospermum speciosum NT

Leptospermum squarrosum NT

Leptospermum trinervium NT

Leptospermum variabile NT

Leptospermum whitei NT

Lepyrodia imitans NT

Lepyrodia scariosa NT

Lespedeza juncea subsp. sericea NT

Leucochrysum albicans subsp. albicans NT

Leucopogon biflorus NT

Leucopogon deformis NT

Leucopogon ericoides NT

Leucopogon esquamatus NT

Leucopogon juniperinus NT

Leucopogon lanceolatus NT

Leucopogon leptospermoides NT

Leucopogon margarodes NT

Leucopogon melaleucoides STVC

Leucopogon neoanglicus STVC

Leucopogon parviflorus NT

Leucopogon recurvisepalus NT

Leucopogon rodwayi NT

Leucopogon trichostylus STVC

Leucopogon virgatus NT

Libertia paniculata NT

Licuala ramsayi NT

Ligustrum australianum NT

Lindsaea dimorpha FERN

Lindsaea incisa FERN

Lindsaea linearis FERN

Lindsaea microphylla FERN

Linospadix minor NT, SA

Linospadix monostachya NT, SA

Liparophyllum exaltatum NT

Lipocarpha microcephala NT

Litsea australis NT

Litsea reticulata NT

Livistona australis SA

Livistona benthamii SA

Livistona concinna SA

Livistona decora SA

Livistona drudei SA

Livistona humilis SA

Livistona inermis SA

Livinstona lanuginosa SA

Livistona mariae SA

Livistona muelleri SA

Livistona rigida SA

Livistona victoriae SA

Lobelia anceps NT

Lobelia andrewsii NT

Lobelia membranacea NT

Lobelia trigonocaulis NT

Logania albiflora NT

Logania pusilla NT

Lomandra banksii SA

Lomandra confertifolia subsp. pallida SA, STVC

Lomandra confertifolia subsp. rubignosa SA, STVC

Lomandra elongata SA, STVC

Lomandra filiformis subsp. coriacea SA, STVC

Lomandra filiformis subsp. filiformis SA, STVC

Lomandra filiformis subsp. flavior SA, STVC

Lomandra hystrix Scan leaves SA, STVC

Lomandra laxa SA, STVC

Lomandra leucocephala SA, STVC

Lomandra longifolia SA, STVC

Lomandra obliqua SA, STVC

Lomandra spicata SA, STVC

Lomatia arborescens NT

Lomatia fraseri STVC

Lomatia silaifolia STVC

Landoltia punctata

Lophostemon confertus NT

Lophostemon suaveolens NTN

Ludwigia octovalvis NT

Ludwigia peploides subsp. montividensis NT

Luffa aegyptiaca var. leiocarpa NT

Lunasia amara NT

Lycopodiella cernua AS PER FERNS

Lycopodiella lateralis AS PER FERNS

Lycopodiella serpentina AS PER FERNS

Lycopodium deuterodensum AS PER FERNS

Lycopus australis NT

Lygodium japonicum FERN

Lygodium microphyllum FERN

Lyperanthus suaveolens ORCHID

Lysimachia japonica NT

Lythrum hyssopifolia BM

Lythrum salicaria BM

Macadamia integrifolia SSA

Macadamia tetraphylla SA

Macaranga involucrate NT

Macaranga tanarius NT

Macarthuria neocambrica NT

Mackinlaya macrosciadea NT

Maclura cochinchinensis NT

Macrothelypteris torresiana FERN

Macrozamia cairnsiana SA

Macrozamia communis SA

Macrozamia fawcettii SA

Macrozamia johnsonii SA

Macrozamia lucida SA

Macrozamia macdonnellii SA

Macrozamia miquelii SA

Macrozamia mooreii SA

Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi SA

Maireana brevifolia SA

Mallotus claoxyloides var. ficifolius NT

Mallotus discolor NT

Mallotus philippensis NT

Mallotus polyadenos NT

Malvastrum coromandelianum NT

Manilkara kauki NT

Maniltoa lenticellata NT

Marsdenia flavescens NT

Marsdenia fraseri NT

Marsdenia hemiptera NT

Marsdenia liisae NT

Marsdenia lloydii NT

Marsdenia longiloba NT

Marsdenia rostrata NT

Marsilea drummondii FERN

Marsilea hirsuta FERN

Marsilea mutica FERN

Maundia triglochinoides NT

Maytenus bilocularis SA

Maytenus silvestris NT

Mazus pumilio DIV, NT

Megahertzia amplexicaulis NT

Meiogyne stenopetala NT

Melaleuca acuminata NT

Melaleuca acuminatus NT

Melaleuca alsophila NT

Melaeuca alternifolia NT

Melaleuca argentea NT

Melaleuca armillaris NT

Melaleuca bracteata NT, BM

Melaleuca citina NT

Melaleuca Comboyensis NT

Melaleuca decora NT

Melaleuca densa NT

Melaleuca formosus NT.

Melaleuca hypericifolia NT

Melaleuca irbyana NT, BM

Melaleuca lateritia NT

Melaleuca leucadendra NT, BM

Melaleuca linariifolia NT,BM

Melaleuca microphylla NT

Melaleuca nesophila NT

Melaleuca nodosa NT, BM

Melaleuca pachyphyllus NT,BM

Melaleuca pallidus STVC

Melaleuca pearsonii NT

Melaleuca polandii NT

Melaleuca quinquinervia NT, BM

Melaleuca rigidus NT

Melaleuca salicina NT, BM

Melaleuca sieberiNT

Melaleuca spathulata NT

Melaleuca sp1 NT

Melaleuca sp. hinchinbrook NT

Melaleuca squamea NT.

Melaleuca squarrosa NT

Melaleuca stypheloides NT, BM

Melaleuca subulatus NT

Melaleuca tamariscina NT, BM

Melaleuca thymifolia NT, BM

Melaleuca uncinata NT

Melaleuca viminalis NT, BM

Melaleuca viridiflora NT, BM

Melaleuca williamsii STVC

Melanthera biflora NT

Melastoma affine NT, BM

Melia azedarach H, L, S, G.

Melichrus adpressus NT

Melichrus hirsutus NT

Melichrus procumbens NT

Melichrus sp. Gibberagee NT

Melichrus urceolatus NT

Melicope elleryana NT

Melicope hayesii NT

Melicope micrococca NT

Melicytus dentatus STVF

Melodinus acutiflorius/Melodinus guilfoylei NT

Melodinus australis NT

Melodinus guilfoylei/Melodinus acutiflorus NT

Mentha diemenica DIV, NT

Mentha satureioides DIV NT

Micrantheum ericoides NT

Micrantheum hexandrum STVC

Microcitrus australasica NT

Microlaena stipoides NT

Micromelum minutum NT

Microsorum pustulatum FERN

Microsorum scandens FERN

Microtis parviflora ORCHID

Mirbelia rubiifolia NT

Mischocarpus anodontus NT

Mischocarpus australis NT

Mischocarpus pyriformis NT

Mitrasacme alsinoides NT

Mitrasacme polymorpha NT

Momordica balsamina STVC

Momordica charantia STVC

Monococcus echinophorus NT

Monotoca scoparia NT

Morinda canthoides NT

Morinda citrifolia NT

Morinda jasminoides NT

Mucuna gigantean sub sp. gigantea SA

Muehlenbeckia auxillaris STVF

Muelenbeckia gracillima STVC

Muellerina celastroides NT

Muellerina eucalyptoides NT

Murdannia graminea SA

Musa banksii SA

Myoporum acuminatum NT

Myoporum betcheanum NT

Myoporum boninense var. australe NT

Myoporum montanum NT

Myriophyllum crispatum BM

Myriophyllum gracile subsp. gracile BM

Myriophyllum gracile subsp. lineare BM

Myriophyllum latifolium BM

Myriophyllum variifolium BM, SUB

Myriophyllum verrucosum BM

Myristica insipida NT

Myrmecodia beccarii NT

Myrsine benthamiana NT

Myrsine howittiana NT

Myrsine variabilis NT

Najas marina BM

Nauclea orientalis. NT

Neisosperma poweri NT

Nelumbo nucifera BM

Nematolepis squamea NT

Neoachmandra cunninghamii NT

Neofabricia myrtifolia NT

Neolitsea australiensis NT

Neolitsea dealbata NT

Neorites kevedianus NT

Nepenthes mirabilis BM

Nepenthes rowanae BM

Nephrolepis arida FERN

Nephrolepis biserrata FERN

Nephrolepis cordifolia FERN

Nephrolepis hirsutula FERN

Nicotiana forsteri NT

Niemeyera whitei NT

Normanbya normanbyi SA

Notelaea johnsonii NT

Notelaea longifolia subsp. glabra NT

Notelaea longifolia subsp. intermedia NT

Notelaea longifolia subsp. longifolia NT

Notelaea ovata NT

Notelaea venosa NT

Nothofagus moorei NT

Notothixos cornifolius NT

Notothixos incanus NT

Notothixos subaureus NT

Nymphaea gigantea SUB

Nymphaea violacea SUB

Nymphoides geminata SUB

Nymphoides indica SUB

Nyssanthes diffusa NT

Oberonia complanata ORCHID

Oberonia titania ORCHID

Ochrosperma citriodorum NT

Ochrosperma lineare NT

Olax angulata NT

Olax retusa NT

Olax stricta NT

Olea paniculata SA

Olearia argophylla NT

Olearia canescens STVC

Olearia cydoniifolia STVC

Olearia elliptica STVC

Olearia erubescens NT

Olearia flocktoniae STVC

Olearie nernstii STVC

Olearia stilwelliae NT

Opercularia hispida NT

Ophioglossum pendulum FERN

Ophioglossum reticulatum FERN

Oplismenus aemulus NT

Oplismenus imbecillis NT

Oplismenus undulatifolius NT

Orites excelsus NT

Ormosia ormondii NT

Orthoceras strictum NT

Orthosiphon aristatus NT

Osbeckia australiana NT

Ottelia ovalifolia subsp. ovalifolia NT

Ottelia ovalifolia subsp. chrysobasis NT

Ottochloa gracillima NT

Owenia cepiodora NT

Oxalis chnoodes NT

Oxalis exilis NT

Oxalis perennans NT

Oxalis radicosa NT

Oxalis rubens NT

Oxylobium arborescens HW

Oxylobium robustum HW

Ozothamnus bidwillii NT

Ozothamnus diosmifolius NT

Ozothamnus obcordatus NT

Ozothamnus obovatus NT

Ozothamnus rufescens NT

Ozothamnus thyrsoideusNT

Ozothamnus whitei NT

Palmeria scandens NT

Pandanus conicus SA

Pandanus lauterbachii SA

Pandanus monticola SA

Pandanus solmslaubachii SA

Pandanus tectorius SA

Pandorea jasminoides NT

Pandorea nervosa NT

Pandorea pandorana NT

Panicum bisulcatum NT

Panicum decompositum NT

Panicum effusum NT

Panicum lachnophyllum NT

Panicum obseptum NT

Panicum paludosum NT, BM

Panicum pygmaeum NT

Panicum queenslandicum NT

Panicum simili NT

Papillilabium beckleri ORCHID

Paracaleana minor ORCHID

Pararchidendron pruinosum NT

Paristolochia praenevosa NT

Parsonsia dorrigoensis NT

Parsonsia fulva NT

Parsonsia induplicata NT

Parsonsia lanceolata NT

Parsonsia longipetiolata NT

Parsonia sp.1 NT

Parsonsia straminea NT

Parsonsia velutina NT

Paspalidium aversum NT

Paspalidium criniforme NT

Paspalidium distans NT

Paspalidium gausum NT

Paspalidium grandispiculatum NT

Paspalum distichum NT

Paspalum orbiculare NT

Paspalum scrobiculatum NT

Paspalum vaginatum NT

Passiflora aurantia NT

Passiflora cinnabarina NT

Passiflora herbertiana NT

Patersonia glabrata NT

Patersonia longifolia NT

Patersonia sericea NT

Pavetta australiensis NT

Pelargonium australe NT

Pelargonium helmsii NT

Pelargonium inodorum NT

Pelargonium rodneyanum NT

Pellaea falcata FERN.

Pellaea nana FERN

Pellaea paradoxa FERN

Peltophorum pterocarpum HW

Pennantia cunninghamii NT

Pennisetum alopecuroides NT

Pentaceras australe NT

Peperomia blanda var. floribunda NT

Peperomia tetraplylla NT

Peristeranthus hillii ORCHID

Persicaria attenuata NT, BM

Persicaria decipiens NT, BM

Persicaria dichotoma NT, BM

Persicaria elatior NT, BM

Persicaria hydropiper NT, BM

Persicaria lapathifolia NT, BM

Persicaria orientalis NT, BM

Persicaria praetermissa NT, BM

Persicaria strigosa NT, BM

Persicaria subsessilis NT, BM





Persoona stradbrokensis SEE SPECIES PROPAGATION.

Persoona tenuifolia SEE SPECIES PROPAGATION.


Petalostigma pubescens SA

Petalostigma triloculare SA

Petermannia cirrosa NT

Petrophile canescens NT

Petrophile pulchella NT

Phaius australis ORCHID

Phebalium nottii NT

Phebalium squamulosum subsp. argenteum NT

Phebalium squamulosum subsp. squamulosum NT

Phebalium squamulosum subsp.verrucosum NT

Phebalium squamulosum subsp. argenteum NT

Phebalium squamulosum subsp. squamulosum NT

Phebalium squamulosum subsp. verrucosum NT

Phebalium woombye NT

Philotheca conduplicata NT

Philotheca difformis subsp. smithiana STVC

Philotheca myoporoides STVC

Philotheca papillata STVC

Philotheca salsolifolia subsp. pedicellata NT

Philotheca salsolifolia subsp.salsolifolia NT

Philotheca verrucosus NT

Philydrum lanuginosum BM

Phragmites australis BM

Phyllachne colensoi DIV, STF

Phyllanthus cuscutiflorus STVC

Phyllanthus gunnii NT

Phyllanthus hirtellus NT

Phyllanthus microcladus NT

Phyllanthus similis NT

Phyllanthus subcrenulatus NT

Phyllota phylicoides NT

Pilidiostigma glabrum NT

Pimelea glauca NT

Pimelea latifolia subsp. altior NT

Pimelea latifolia subsp. elliptifolia NT

Pimelea latifolia subsp. hirsute NT

Pimelea latifolia subsp. latifolia NT

Pimelea ligustrina subsp. ciliate NT

Pimelea ligustrina subsp. hypericina NT

Pimelea ligustrina subsp. ligustrina NT

Pimelea linifolia subsp. caesia NT

Pimelea linifolia subsp. linifolia NT

Pimelea linifolia subsp. linoides NT

Pimelea neo-anglica NT

Piper hederaceum subsp. hederaceum NT

Piper hederaceum subsp. longiorispicum NT

Pipturus argenteus NT

Pisonia aculeata NT

Pisonia grandis NT

Pisonia umbellifera NT

Pittosporum angustifolium NT

Pittosporum lancifolium NT

Pittosporum multiflorum NT

Pittosporum phylliraeoides NT

Pittosporum revolutum NT

Pittosporum undulatum NT

Pittosporum venulosum NT

Planchonella australis SA

Planchonella chartacea SA

Planchonella pohlmaniana SA

Plantago debilis NT

Platycerium bifurcatum FERN

Platycerium superbum FERN

Platycerium veitchii FERN

Platylobium formosum HW

Platysace ericoides NT

Platysace heterophylla NT

Platysace lanceolata NT

Platysace stephensonii NT

Plectorrhiza tridentata ORCHID

Plectranthus alloplectus NT

Plectranthus apreptus NT

Plectranthus argentatus NT

Plectranthus bellus NT

Plectranthus cremnus NT

Plectranthus graniticola NT

Plectranthus gratus NT

Plectranthus graveolens NT

Plectranthus nitidus NT

Plectranthus parviflorus NT

Plectranthus sauveolens NT

Pleomele angustifolia NT

Plumbago zeylanica NT

Pneumatopteris sogerensis FERN

Poa billardierei NT

Poa labillardierei subsp. acris NT

Poa labillardierei subsp. labillardier NT

Poa queenslandica NT

Poa sieberiana subsp. hirtella & subsp. sieberiana NT

Poa sieberiana subsp. sieberiana NT

Poa sp.1 NT

Podocarpus elatus SA

Podocarpus lawrencei SA

Podolepis neglecta NT

Podolobium aciculiferum HW, SA

Podolobium aestivum HW, SA

Podolobium ilicifolium HW, SA

Podolobium scandens HW, SA

Pollia crispata NT

Polyalthia nitidissima NT, SA

Polycarpaea corymbosa NT

Polygala japonica TW

Polygala linariifolia TW

Polymeria calycina TW

Polyosma cunninghamii NT

Polyscias elegans NT

Polyscias murrayi NT

Polyscias sambucifolia subsp. decomposita NT

Polyscias sambucifolia subsp. sambuafolia NT

Polystichum australiensis FERN

Polystichum formosum FERN

Polystichum proliferum FERN

Pomaderris argyrophylla NT

Pomaderris eriocephala NT

Pomaderris ferruginea NT

Pomaderris intermedia NT

Pomaderris lanigera NT

Pomaderris ledifolia STVC

Pomaderris ligustrina subsp. ligustrina STVC

Pomaderris nitidula NT

Pomaderris prunifolia subsp. prunifolia NT

Pomaderris subcapitata NT

Pomax umbellata NT

Poranthera corymbosa NT

Poranthera ericifolia NT

Poranthera microphylla NT

Poranthera obovata NT

Portulaca oleracea NT

Potamogeton crispus NT

Potamogeton octandrus BM

Potamogeton perfoliatus BM

Potamogeton tricarinatus MB

Potamophila parviflora NT

Pothos longipes NT

Pouteria eerwah SA

Pouteria papyracea SA

Pouteria queenslandica SA

Prasophyllum australe ORCHID

Prasophyllum brevilabre ORCHID

Prasophyllum elatum ORCHID

Prasophyllum flavum ORCHID

Prasophyllum patens ORCHID

Pratia pedunculata DIV

Pratia purpurascencs DIV

Premna lignum-vitae SA

Priophys amboidensis NT

Priophys cunninghammii NT

Prostanthera caerulea NT

Prostanthera incisa NTN

Prostanthera lanceolata NT

Prostanthera lasianthos STF

Prostanthera nivea subsp. nivea NT

Prostanthera nivea subsp. induta NT

Prostanthera ovalifolia NT

Prostanthera palustris NT

Prostanthera prunelloides NT

Prostanthera rhombea NT

Prostanthera rotundifolia NT

Prostanthera scutellarioides NT

Prostanthera sejuncta NT

Prumnopitys laei NT

Pseudanthus orientalis SA

Pseudanthus pauciflorus SA

Pseuderanthemum variabile NT

Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum NT

Pseudoraphis paradoxa NT

Pseudovanilla foliata ORCHID with inoculation

Pseudoweinmannia lachnocarpa NT

Pseuduvaria froggattii SA

Pseuduvaria villosa SA

Psilotum complanatum FERN

Psilotum nudum FERN

Psychotria daphnoides NT

Psychotria loniceroides NT

Psychotria simmondsiana NT

Psydrax attenuata NT

Psydrax lamprophylla var. lamprophylla NT

Psydrax odorata subsp. australiana NT

Psydrax odorata subsp. buxifolia NT

Pteridium esculentum FERN

Pteris comons FERN

Pteris ensiformis FERN

Pteris tremula FERN

Pteris umbrosa FERN

Pteris vittata FERN

Pterocaulon redolens NT

Pterostylis baptistii ORCHID

Pterostylis curta ORCHID

Pterostylis daintreana ORCHID

Pterostylis erecta ORCHID

Pterostylis fischii ORCHID

Pterostylis furcata ORCHID

Pterostylis grandiflora ORCHID

Pterostylis hildae ORCHID

Pterostylis hispidula ORCHID

Pterostylis longifolia ORCHID

Pterostylis mutica ORCHID

Pterostylis nutans ORCHID

Pterostylis obtusa ORCHID

Pterostylis ophioglossa ORCHID

Pterostylis parviflora ORCHID

Pterostylis pedunculata ORCHID

Pterostylis russellii ORCHID

Ptilothrix deusta STVC

Ptilotus exaltus NT

Ptilotus macrocephalis NT

Ptilotus mangelsii NT

Ptilotus obovatus NT

Ptychospermum elegans SA

Ptychospermum macarthurii SA

Pultenaea alea HW, SA

Pultenaea daphnoides HW, SA

Pultenaea dentata HW, SA

Pultenaea euchila HW, SA

Pultenaea flexilis HW, SA

Pultenaea maritima HW, SA

Pultenaea myrtoides HW, SA

Pultenaea petiolaris STCV-HW, SA

Pultenaea pycnocephala STCV-HW, SA

Pultenaea retusa HW, SA

Pultenaea robusta HW, SA

Pultenaea rostrata HW, SA

Pultenaea spinosa HW, SA

Pultenea villosa HW, SA

Pyrossia confluens T,S,G. N.G.

Pyrossia lanceolata FERN

Pyrossia longifolia FERN

Pyrossia rupestris FERN

Quassia sp. mooney creek SA

Quassia sp. mount nardi SA

Quintinia sieberi SA

Quintinia verdonii SA

Ranunculus inundatus NT

Ranunculus lappaceus NT.

Ranunculus plebeius NT

Regelia megacephala NT

Regelia velutina NT

Remusatia vivipara

Rhagodia candolleana subsp. candolleana SA

Rhaphiodophora australasica NT

Rhaphiodophora sp.1 NT

Rhinerrhiza divitiflora ORCHID

Rhizophora stylosa ORCHID

Rhodamnia argenta NT

Rhodamnia rubescens NT

Rhodanthe anthemoides NT

Rhodanthe chlorocephala subsp. chlorocephala NT

Rhodanthe chlorocephala subsp. rosea NT

Rhododendron viriosum STVC

Rhodomyrtus psidioides NT

Rhodosphaera rhodanthema NT

Rhynchospora brownie NT

Rhysotoechia bifoliolata NT

Rhytidosporum procumbens NT

Ricinocarpos pinifolius SA

Ricinocarpus speciosus SA

Ripogonum album NT

Ripogonum brevifolium NT

Ripogonum discolor NT

Ripogonum elseyanum NT

Ripogonum fawcettianum NT

Rorippa dictyosperma NT

Rorippa gigantea NT

Rorippa laciniata NT

Rubus moluccanus NT

Rubus nebulosus NT

Rubus parvifolius NT

Rubus probus NT

Rubus queenslandica NT

Rubus rosifolius NT

Rulingia dasyphylla STVC

Rulingia salviifolia STVC

Rumex brownii STVC

Rumohra adiantiformis FERN

Ruppia maritima SUB, BM

Rutidosis heterogama NT

Rytidosperma longifolium NT

Rytidosperma tenuius NT

Sacciolepis indica NT

Salacia chinensis NT

Salvia plebeia DIV

Sambucus australisica NT

Samolus repens DIV

Samolus valerandi DIV

Sannantha angusta NT

Sannantha collina NT

Sannantha similis NT

Santalum obtusifolium NT

Sarcochilus aequalis ORCHID

Sarcochilus australis ORCHID

Sarcochilus ceciliae ORCHID

Sarcochilus falcatus ORCHID

Sarcochilus fitzgeraldii ORCHID

Sarcochilus hillii ORCHID

Sarcochilus parviflorus ORCHID

Sarcochilus spathulatus ORCHID

Sarcocornia quinqueflora subsp. quinqueflora NT

Sarcomelicope simplicifolia subsp. simlicifolia NT

Sarcopetalum harveyanum SA, NT

Sarcopteryx stipata NT

Sarcotoechia lanceolata NT

Sarcotoechia serrata NT

Scaevola aemula NT

Scaevola albida NT

Scaevola calandulencea NT

Scaevola calliptera NT

Scaevola hookeri NT

Scaevola ramosissima NT

Scaevola tomentosa NT

Schelhammera undulata NT

Scheflerra actinophyla NT

Schistotylus purpuratus ORCHID

Schizaea bifida FERN

Schizaea dichotoma FERN

Schizaea rupestris FERN

Schizomeria ovata NT

Schizachyrium fragile NT

Schoenoplectus mucronatus NT, BM

Schoenoplectus subulatus NT, BM

Schoenoplectus validus NT, BM

Schoenus apogon NT

Schoenus brevifolius NT

Schoenus ericetorum NT

Schoenus maschalinus NT, BM

Schoenus melanostachys NT

Schoenus nitens NT

Schoenus pachylepis NT

Schoenus paludosus NT

Schoenus scabripes NT

Schoenus turbinatus NT

Schoenus vaginatus NT

Scirpus polystachyus STVC, BM

Scleranthus biflorus DIV

Scleria mackaviensis NT

Scleria rugosa NT

Scleria tricuspidata NT

Scolopia braunii HW

Secamone ellipticaNT

Selaginella uliginosa DIV

Senecio amygdalifolius NT

Senecio bipinnatisectusNT

Senecio diaschidesNT

Senecio linearifolius NT

Senecio magnificus NT

Senecio minimusNT

Senecio pinnatifolius subsp. pinnatifolius NT

Senecio pinnatifolius subsp. serratus NT

Senecio prenanthoidesNT

Senecio tenuiflorus NT

Senecio vagus subsp. eglandulosus NT

Senecio vagus subsp. vagus NT

Senegalia albizioides NT

Senna acclinis BW

Senna artemisioides subsp. artemisiodes BW

Senna artemisioides subsp. zygophylla BW

Senna cardiosperma BW

Senna charlesiana BW

Senna clavigera BW

Senna ferraria BW

Senna notabalis BW

Senna odorata BW

Senna stricta BW

Senna symonii BW

Senna venusta BW

Seringia arborescensNT

Sesbania cannabina HW

Sesuvium portulacastrumNT

Setaria australiensis NT

Sicyos australisNT

Sida cordifoliaNT

Sigesbeckia orientalis subsp. orientalis NT

Siphonodon australis SA

Sloanea australis NT

Sloanea woollsii NT

Smilax australis NT

Smilax glyciphylla NT

Solanum americanum NT

Solanum aviculare NT

Solanum campanulatum NT

Solanum centrale NT

Solanum corifolium NT

Solanum densevestitum NT

Solanum ditrichum NT

Solanum ellipticum NT

Solanum erianthum NT

Solanum gabrielae NT

Solanum hapalum NT

Solanum inaequilaterum NT

Solanum laciniatum NT

Solanum nobile NT

Solanum nummularium NT

Solanum opacum NT

Solanum parvifolium NT

Solanum petrophilum NT

Solanum plicatile NT

Solanum prinophylum NT

Solanum semiarmatum NT

Solanum stelligerum NT

Solanum symonii NT

Solanum vescum NT

Solanum vicinum NTN

Solenogyne bellioides NT

Sophora fraseri HW

Sophora tomentosa subsp.australis HW

Sophora tomentosa subsp. tomentosa HW

Sorghum leiocladum NT

Sowerbaea juncea NT

Sparganium subglobosum BM

Spartothamnella juncea NT

Spermacoce brachystema BM

Sphaerolobium vimineum HW

Sphagnum cristatum DIV

Spinifex sericeus NT

Spiranthes australis ORCHID

Spirodela polyrhiza

Sporadanthus caudatus NT

Sporadanthus interruptus NT

Sprengelia sprengelioidesNT

Sporobolus laxus H,T,L,F,S,G. NT

Sporobolus virginicus subsp. minor NT

Sporobolus virginicus subsp. virginicus NT

Spyridium scortechinii NT

Stackhousia spathulata NT

Stackhousia viminea NT

Stellaria angustifolia subsp. angustifolia NT

Stellaria angustifolia, subsp. rotundisepala NT

Stellaria angustifolia subsp. tenella NT

Stellaria flaccida NT

Stenocarpus salignus NT

Stenocarpus sinuatis NT

Stephania japonica var. discolor NT

Sterculia quadrifida NT

Sticherus flabellatus FERN

Sticherus lobatus FERN

Sticherus urceolatus FERN

Streblus pendulinus NT

Streptothamnus moorei NT

Strychnos arborea NT

Stuckenia pectinatus SUB

Stylidium debile NT

Stylidium graminifolium NT

Stylidium laricifolium NTN

Stylidium paniculatum TNT

Styphelia triflora HW

Styphelia viridis subsp. breviflora HW

Styphelia viridis subsp. viridis HW

Suaeda australis NT, DIV

Swainsona brachycarpa HW

Swainsona canescens HW

Swainsona galegifolia HW

Swainsona greyana HW

Swainsona maccullochiana HW

Swainsona procumbens HW

Swainsona queenslandica HW

Symplocos stawellii NNT

Symplocos thwaitesii NT

Syncarpia glomulifera subsp. glabra NT

Syncarpia glomulifera subsp. glomulifera NT

Synonum glandulosum NT

Syzygium alliiligneum NT

Syzygium aqueum NT

Syzygium australe NT

Syzygium buettnerianum NT

Syzygium corianthum NT

Syzygium cormiflorum NT

Syzygium crebrinerve NT

Syzygium cryptophlebium NT

Syzygium erythrocalyx NT

Syzygium erythrodoxum NT

Syzygium fibrosum NT

Syzygium forte subsp. potamophilum NT

Syzygium francisii NT

Syzygium hodgkinsoniae NT

Syzygium leuhmannii NT

Syzygium malaccense NT

Syzygium moorei NT

Syzygium oleosum NT

Syzygium paniculatum NT

Syzygium tierneyanum NT

Syzygium wilsonii NT

Tabernaemontana pandacaqu NT

Taeniophyllum muelleri NT

Talipariti tiliaceusis NT

Tapeinochilos ananassae DIV, NT

Tasmannia insipida STVC

Tasmannia stipitata STVC

Tecomanthe hillii NT, SA

Telopea aspera NT

Telopea speciossima NT

Tephrosia brachyodon HW

Tephrosia filipes HW

Tephrosia gordum-solice HW

Terminalia arenicola NT

Terminalia arostrata NT

Terminalia catappa NT

Terminalia muelleri NT

Terminala platyphylla NT

Ternstroemia cherryi SA

Tetracera nordtiana NT

Tetragonia tetragonioides SA

Tetrarrhena juncea BM

Tetrastigma nitens

Tetratheca juncea NT

Tetratheca thymifolia NT

Teucrium argutum NT

Teucrium corymbosum NT

Thaleropia queenslandica NT

Thelychiton falcorostrus ORCHID

Thelychiton kingianus ORCHID

Thelychiton speciosus ORCHID

Thelymitra angustifolia ORCHID

Thelymitra fragrans ORCHID

Thelymitra ixioides subsp. ixioides ORCHID

Thelymitra malvina ORCHID

Thelymitra pauciflora ORCHID

Thelymitra purpurata ORCHID

Themeda australis NT

Themeda triandra NT

Thespesia populneoides NT

Thryptomene baeckeacea NT

Thryptomene costata NT

Thryptomene denticulate NT

Thryptomene lancelin NT

Thryptomene saxicola NT

Thryptomene urceolaris NT

Thysanotus juncifolius NT, SA

Thysanotus tuberosus subsp. tuberosus NT, SA

Tinospora smilacina NT

Tmesipteris obliqua FERN

Tmesipteris ovata FERN

Tmesipteris parva FERN

Tmesipteris truncata FERN

Todea barbara FERN

Toechima dasyrrhache NT

Toechima tenax NT

Toona ciliate NT

Trachymene composite NT, STVC

Trachymene incise NT, STVC

Trachymene procumbens NT, STVC

Tragia novae-hollandiae NT

Trema tomentosa sub sp. aspera NT

Trema tomentosa ub sp. tomentosa. NT

Trichodesma zeylanicum NT

Trichosanthus cucumerina STVC

Trichosanthus subvelutina STVC

Tricoryne elatior STVC

Tricostularia pauciflora NT

Triglochin multifructa BM

Triglochin procera BM

Triglochin striata BM

Trimenia moorei NT

Tripladenia cunninghamii NT

Triplarina imbricata NT

Tristaniopsis collina NT

Tristaniopsis laurina NT

Triunia youngiana NT

Trochocarpa laurina NT

Trochocarpa montana NT, STF

Trophis scandens subsp. scandens NT

Turraea pubescens NT

Tylophora barbata NT

Tylophora benthamii NT

Tylophora grandiflora NT

Tylophora woollsii NT

Typha orientalis BM

Typhonium brownii NT

Uraria lagopodioides HW

Uromyrtus australis NT

Uromyrtus lamingtonensis NT

Urtica incisa NT

Utricularia aurea SUB

Utricularia australis SUB

Utricularia biloba BM

Utricularia caerulea BM

Utricularia dichotoma BM

Utricularia gibba SUB

Utricularia lateriflora BM

Utricularia uliginosa BM

Utricularia uniflora BM

Uvaria concava NT

Uvaria leichhardti NT

Vachellia farnesiana BW

Vallisneria australis SUB

Vallisneria nana SUB

Vappodes phalaenopsis ORCHID

Velleia paradoxa NT

Velleia spathulata NT

Verbena gaudichaudii NT

Vernonia cinerea NT

Veronica grosseserrata NT

Veronica plebeian NT

Verticordia auriculata NT

Verticordia brownii NT

Verticordia grandis NT

Verticordia mitchelliana NT

Verticordia nitens NT

Verticordia plumosa NT

Vesselowskya rubifolia NT

Vesselowskya venusta NT

Vigna luteola NT

Vigna marina HW, SA

Vigna vexillata subsp. angustifolia HW, SA

Vigna vexillata subsp. marina HW, SA

Vigna vexillata subsp. youngiana HW, SA

Viminaria juncea HW

Viola banksii DIV

Viola betonicifolia NT

Viola caleyana DIV

Viola hederacea DIV

Viola silicestris DIV

Viscum articulatum NT

Vitex melicopea SA

Vitex rotundifolia SA

Vitex trifolia SA

Vittadinia hispidula subsp. hispidula NT

Vittadinia hispidula subsp. setosa NT

Vittaria elongata FERN

Wahlenbergia communis STVC

Wahlenbergia gloriosa STF

Wahlenbergia gracilis STVC

Wahlenbergia stricta STVC

Waterhousea floribunda NT

Waterhousea unipunctata NT

Wedelia spilanthoides NT, BM

Westringia amabilis NT

Westringea cephalantha NT

Westringea fruiticosa NT

Westringia glabra STVC

Westringea longifolia NT

Westringia sericea NT

Wikstroemia indica SA

Wilkea austroqueenslandica SA

Wilkea huegeliana SA

Wilkea macrophylla SA

Willdampia formosa SA

Wodyetia bifurcate SA

Wolffia angusta DIV

Woollsia pungens SA

Wrightia laevis NT

Wrightia pubescens NT

Wrightia saligna NT

Wurmbea biglandulosa NT

Xanthophyllum fragrans NT

Xanthophyllum octandrum NT

Xanthorrhoea fulva NT, SA

Xanthorrhoea glauca subsp. glauca NT, SA

Xanthorrhoea johnsonii NT, SA

Xanthorrhoea latifolia subsp. latifolia NT, SA

Xanthorrhoea latifolia subsp. maxima NT, SA

Xanthorrhoea macronema NT, SA

Xanthorrhoea malacophylla NT, SA

Xanthosia pilosa NT

Xanthosia tomentosa NT

Xanthostemon chrysanthus NT

Xanthostemon paradoxus NT

Xanthostemon whitei NT

Xanthostemon youngii Veins NT

Xerochrysum bracteatum NT

Xerochrysum viscosum NT

Xylosma terraereginea NT

Xyris bracteata BM

Xyris complanata BM

Xyris gracilis BM

Xyris juncea BM

Xyris operculata BM

Youngia japonica NT

Zanthoxylum brachyacanthum NT

Zeuxine oblonga ORCHID

Zieria arborescens subsp. arborescens NT

Zieria arborescens subsp. deccurens NT

Zieria compacta NT

Zieria furfuracea NT

Zieria laevigata NT

Zieria laxiflora NT

Zieria minutiflora NT

Zieria prostrata NT

Zieria smithii NT

Zieria southwellii NT

Ziziphus oenopolia Flowering NT

Zornia dyctiocarpa NT

Zornia floribunda NT

Zornia muriculata NT

Zoysia macrantha NT


Many vegetative parts of a plant can be used for propagation of new plants. The most common methods of propagation consist of Stem cuttings, root cuttings, eye cuttings and leaf cuttings. Cuttings offer the gardener the chance to grow plants that do not readily set seed; seed is often sterile or difficult to germinate under nursery conditions. Cutting grown plants exhibit exactly the same DNA traits as the parent plant. Cutting grown plants gives you the opportunity to select the desired characteristics you desire in height, shape leaf or flower colour, vigor or maybe salt tolerances.

The potting mix for cuttings has to be sterile, low in fertility, and well-drained to provide sufficient aeration yet have good moisture retention, so that watering does not have to be done too frequently. Materials commonly used are one part coarse sand, one part peat and one part perlite (by volume), or one part peat and one part coarse sand (by volume) or two parts sand and one part vermiculite (by volume). The mix should be well watered and allowed to drain prior to preparation of the cuttings.

  1. Stem cuttings are the most common method. This is where a section of the stem is partly buried in the soil, including at least one leaf node. The cutting is able to produce new roots, usually at the node. Stem cuttings are divided into soft wood, semi hardwood and hardwood cuttings.

As a general guide the following seasonal wheel may help in deciding what is the best time of the year different types of cuttings should be taken. Soft wood and semi hardwood cuttings can be extended if frosts are not a problem and the early spring and late autumn weather is warm.

Softwood or Herbaceous Cuttings: These are the easiest type of plants to propagate from. Use 30mm to 70mm long herbaceous cuttings taken from September to late January or as late as March if you are in a frost free area. Vigorously growing plants of the form you desire should be used when growing from cuttings Place the cuttings in a cool semi shaded position preferably under 30mm to 70mm shade cloth.

Semi Hardwood Cuttings: These are a little more difficult to grow and take longer to strike. Use 40mm to 90mm long semi hardwood cuttings taken from January to mid June or as late as mid July if you are in a frost free area.

Hardwood Cuttings: Hardwood cuttings are taken from dormant, mature evergreen stems or deciduous plants. Use 70mm to 150mm long hardwood cuttings taken from late February to mid early September or as late as early October in the south where dormancy prevails longer.

The three types of hardwood cuttings are straight, mallet and heel. A straight cutting is the most commonly used stem cutting. Mallet and heel cuttings are used for plants that might otherwise be more difficult to root. For the heel cutting, a small section of older wood is included at the base of the cutting. For the mallet cutting apart of the main branch or stem is included at the base of the cutting stem.

Procedures for Stem Cuttings:

As the procedure is similar for each type of cutting I will discuss the cuttings as one group with specific mentions where they vary. The following instructions are a general rule and local conditions with the individual plant requirements must be considered.

Plants selected for cuttings must be healthy, free of disease and preferably from the upper or outer sections.

The health of the stock plant is vitally important for success. If possible avoid plants with symptoms of mineral or nutrient deficiencies. Also avoid plants that have been fertilized in the past 6 to 8 weeks particularly those with high nitrogenous soft foliage as they will not root well. The stock plant should not be under moisture stress.

Generally speaking younger plants root better than their older, more mature cousins. Lateral shoots often root better than cuttings from terminal shoots. Lateral shoots can be induced by tip pruning 5 to 8 weeks prior to taking the cuttings.

Early morning is the best time to remove the material from the stock plant. Once the material has been removed it is important to keep the cuttings cool and moist until the cutting is prepared and placed in the green house. Black plastic bag with wet paper towels may be used to store cuttings. Try to avoid any delays from the time the material is removed from the stock plant to the final preparation.

The present season or past season’s growth is the most suitable. Avoid material with flower buds if possible. If it is possible take the cuttings a month earlier or after flowering has ceased. If they cannot be avoided then remove all the flowers and buds as you prepare the cuttings. This allows all the cuttings reserves or energy to be used in producing new roots.

The material size depends on the genus, species and type of cutting material being used. See Above. Use a sharp, stainless steel, thin bladed pocket knife that has been sterilized in alcohol. Continually dip the cutting tool in the alcohol to prevent transmitting diseases from infected plant parts to healthy ones.

First make a diagonal cut at the base on a 45 degree angle just below the node. Then remove the leaves from the lower one third to one half of the selected cutting. Plants with large leaves may need the apical half removed to reduce water loss and conserve space.

Species difficult to root should be wounded near the base. Wounding a stem refers to slightly crushing or damaging the base of the stem. Another method is to remove a small section of the bark from the base on one side. Be gentle. The diagram below right shows a single node cutting with the 45 degree cut made below the node.

Root hormones can be a valuable resource to help stimulate root development. This is generally not required on herbaceous or soft wood cuttings but is more important on hardwood and difficult to strike plant material.

To prevent contamination of the hormone place a small amount on the surface of another container. I prefer to use the lids off soft drink bottles. Hormone that is not used should be discarded as rubbish. Be sure to tap the cuttings to remove excess hormone when using a powder formulation. Liquid hormones are generally easier and more reliable to use as there is less wastage and the amount used on each cutting can be controlled.

Insert the cuttings using a dipple stick do not force the cutting into the mix. Insert it to a depth of one-third to one-half of its length into the medium. Maintain the vertical position with the apical end to the top. Make sure the buds are pointed up. Space cuttings far enough apart to allow all leaves to receive sunlight. Gently water again with clean sterile water after each tray or pot has been filled. Cover the cuttings with plastic bag and place in indirect light beneath 30mm to 70mm shade in a warm position. Keep the medium moist until the cuttings have rooted. Rooting will be improved if the cuttings are misted on a regular basis if not covered in plastic. I use old icecream sticks for dipple sticks and long meat skewers with taped on one end for the posts so that the plastic does not fall down onto the cuttings.

Rooting times vary greatly with the type of cutting, the genus and species being rooted and environmental conditions. Once rooted, they may be left in the rooting structure until spring.

Root cuttings

Root cuttings can be used on plants that have surface roots or long thick rhizomatosous roots. The cutting is taken where a section of root is buried just below the soil surface. This section produces new shoots from root nodes. Take 25mm to 75mm sections of roots and place the cuttings horizontally about 8mm to 10mm below the soil surface. This method is usually used indoors or in a hotbed. Many of the Homalanthus specie and Melaleuca specie reshoot readily using this method as do many creeping grasses.

Eye cuttings and heal cuttings

These cuttings are used when cutting material is in short supply. The eye refers to the bud which emerges from the leaf axils at each node.

Single Eye: This is used for plants with alternate leaves when space or stock material is limited. Cut the stem 8mm to 10mm above and below a node. Place the cutting on a 45 degree angle in the medium with the node just touching the surface. The leaf most probably will need support. I use a meat skewer and carefully place it through the leaf and into the soil for support.

Double Eye: This is used for plants with opposite leaves when space or stock material is limited. Cut the stem about 8mm to 10mm above and below the pair of nodes. Insert the cutting vertically in the medium with the node just touching the surface of the medium. The leaves can lie on the mix. The leaves of larger leaf plants will need to be trimmed.

Leaf cuttings

Leaf cuttings use different parts of a leaf where the leaf is placed on a moist sterile mix. These have to develop both new stems and new roots. Some leaves will produce one plant at the base of the leaf. In some species, multiple new plants can be produced at many places on one leaf, and these can be induced by cutting the lateral veins

Leaf cuttings are used almost exclusively for a few indoor plants. Leaves of most plants will either produce a few roots but no plant, or just decay.

Whole leaf with petiole: Detach the leaf with the petiole in tact. Insert the petiole to the leaf base into the medium. One or more new plants will form along the petiole. It is more often used on plants with fleshy leaves. Asplenium bulbiferum can be propagated using this method.

Whole leaf without petiole: This is used for plants with sessile leaves. Insert the cutting vertically into the medium. A new plant will form from the axillary bud. It is more often used on plants with succulent type leaves Viola betonicifolia can e reproduced using this method..

Split vein: Detach a leaf from the stock plant. Slit its veins on the lower leaf surface being careful not to sever the vein completely. Lay the cutting, lower side down, on the medium. The petiole can be used to help secure the leaf so that it does not move. New plants will form at each cut. If the leaf tends to curl up, hold it in place by covering the margins with the rooting medium. Carpobrotus species and probably most other native succulents would propagate using this method.

Leaf sections: This method is frequently used with snake plant and fibrous rooted begonias. Detach the leaf and cut the leaves into wedges with at least one main lateral vein. Lay leaves flat on the medium. A new plant will arise at the vein. I am not aware of any Australian Native plants where this method has been used on a regular basis.


Plant runners are a way in which some plants can be propagated asexually. A plant runner is a rapidly growing stem that grows above the ground and on the soil surface. The stock plant usually produces a set number of runners which eventually, produces new individuals from the tips of their nodes. As the new plant is slowly developing, the stems of the plant continue to take advantage of the rich soil and grow, while the roots begin to get stronger and support the newly created offspring. These can be severed and placed in a pot, watered and maintained for a few weeks until the new roots have fully developed. Viola hederacea, Pratia specie, Dichondra repens or Lastreopsis specie are all easily propagated using this method.


First select a healthy plant that is disease free. It is best to divide plants just prior to the onset of new growth. Prior to removing the plant from the ground plants should be given a deep watering a few days before removal, then again about 2 hours before removing them from the ground. It is best to soak potted plants in water for a couple of hours prior to removing the plant from the pot.

Use a spade and cut down each side about 100mm out from the base of the plant. Dig back on one side so that the spade can be wedged below the plant. Now lift the plant out trying not to damage the roots.

Wash the roots gently but thoroughly to remove all the soil.

Divide the clumps so that there is a crown or tuff with roots and leaves on each division. This is best done using secateurs, a large knife or spade in very large clumps.

Remove any unwanted or dead roots.

Remove half the foliage leaving those leaves that surround the growing point.

Spread the remaining roots outwards and downwards to allow the plants the maximum room to develop new roots.

Water thoroughly but do not fertilize. Place the containers beneath 30mm shade cloth and keep moist. After a fortnight or after the signs of new roots or shoots fertilize with our recommended fertilizer and repeat after about a month.

Once the plants have re-established themselves plant out and fertilize as before.

Division is a term applied to a number of propagation methods where by a plant is propagated by splitting it into 2 or more pieces all of which have roots stems, culms or stolons. Division is most often used with plants which form grass-like clumps which include Rushes like Eleocharis acuta, lilies like Anigozanthos flavida or even some larger type ferns like Acrostichum specie.

Grass-like clumps

All Grasses and Reeds that are declared rare, vulnerable or endangered are protected by Federal and State Laws and must not be removed from the wild unless you are a land developer, mining company or main Roads department etc. This includes bulbs, roots, leaves and flowers. No part of any plant can be removed from Federal, State or Local Government land without the prior permission of the authority.

“Grassy clumps” generally have strap-like leaves arising from an underground rhizome which is a thickened underground stem. The best known Australian plants in this group are the Lomandra specie or Juncea specie. Less well known are the Dianella specie and Stypandra specie both with spikes of small blue flowers.

Water the plants well a day or 2 before the operation is to be done. Avoid very hot weather. Cut around the clump and out on one side so that the shovel can be placed under the root ball.

Remove the plant from the soil. Cut it into 3 or 4 equal parts, first down the middle then halve those sections again ensuring that each section has some roots and, rhizome and culms or shoots. The rhizomes should have at least several eyes or growing shoots. Remove unwanted dead leaves and any old small sections that look weak or dead. Plants can be divided further but ensure each division has a several strong shoots and healthy roots attached to the tuff. Replant ensuring the soil is at the same level as before. Water and fertilize. New shoots will appear within two weeks.

Divided into segments so that each one comprise a piece of the rhizome, some leaf shoots and some roots. Dead leaves and dead roots should be removed. If you just want a few plants for your own use, the best sized division comprises three or four leaf shoots with a good section of rhizome and healthy roots. With these, the humid environment of a greenhouse or similar shelter is probably not required, just a sheltered position and regular watering.

If a humid greenhouse environment is available, the divisions can be quite small, comprising only one set of leaf shoots. Once potted into individual small pots, these are kept in the greenhouse for a few weeks (4 to 6 weeks in the warm part of the year; longer at other times). It may be beneficial to trim the leaves to reduce moisture loss through transpiration. Divisions of this size will also need to be “hardened” after the roots have developed. A simple method is to expose them to the open air during the night for a week or so, putting them back into the humid shelter during the day. After this period they can be moved to an outdoor, sheltered position for at least another week before potting on.



There are a host of plants which spread by producing suckers from their root systems. Some of these are so vigorous and invasive that propagation is probably the last thing on the gardener’s mind. Rubus specie, especially the exotic Rubus fruiticosus is well known for its voracious suckering habit. Others, however, are less anti-social.

Among the Australian natives Dampiera species and the related Lechenaultia species often spread by suckering as do some Lobelia specie, Scaevola specie and Peperomia specie. Even seemingly unlikely genera such as Grevillea and Acacia have some specie that sucker.

All you have to do with this group is to dig up small pieces, make sure that there are roots attached and repot them into individual containers. Water them with our recommended fertilizer and place in a sheltered position beneath 30mm to 50mm shade cloth for a few weeks.


Layering is a propagation technique which is not used all that often these days, where a branch of a shrub is pegged down, covered with soil and then severed from the parent plant when roots have formed. There are times when nature does all of the work for us. This method is useful for propagating small numbers of plants that are relatively difficult to propagate by any other method. I have grown Eucalyptus specie, Mallotus specie and Eleocarpus using this method just for fun. Plants are usually well advanced with the new plants being several meters in height.

Most of these “self-lay” and are ground covers where branches are in contact with the ground due to the growth habit of the plants. Several Hibbertia specie are known to form colonies by layering. Hibbertia pedunculata often form roots at many points along its stems especially in warm humid climates. Propagation is simply a matter of damaging the stem between the section required and the stock plant. Once it has developed roots sever the stem into one or more sections provided each contains some roots and treat them similar to rooted cuttings. It is best done in the early morning and avoid hot weather.

Another group of Australian plants are the Ficus species, Conostylis species  and Myoporum specie which all develop lateral stolons above the ground which root at the leaf nodes. These usually form small plantlets where they touch the ground and these can be cut off and potted up.

If you don’t have access to a greenhouse you can still successfully propagate layered species in your garden. Just place a small pot of mix under the branch and place the roots into it. If necessary, peg the branch down with some wire to prevent the roots being pulled out of the mix by the wind. After a few weeks the roots should be well established in the mix and the new plant can be severed from its parent. An easy way to grow ground covers.

The branch needs to be secured. Instead of the ground a large pot can be used. Damage the stem on the lower surface just before or as it touches the ground or immediately after the stake. Another method instead of a pot is to securely wrap the wound in moist peat, or sphagnum moss and seal with a weather proof tape. Once roots or new shoots appear the new cutting can be severed below the tape and gently repotted.

Corms, Tubers & Rhizomes

All Corms, Tubers & Rhizomes that are declared rare, vulnerable or endangered are protected by Federal and State Laws and must not be removed from the wild unless you are a land developer, mining company or main Roads department etc. This includes bulbs, roots, leaves and flowers. No part of any plant can be removed from Federal, State or Local Government land without the prior permission of the authority.

For the serious grower temperatures are best if they are between 20 degrees centigrade and 32 degrees centigrade during the growing season and 2 degrees and 8 degrees when the tubers are maturing and hardening off.

The ground needs to be relatively level and well prepared to a depth of 300mm. Light fatty clay is preferred by most bulbous plants. A rich layer of well composted animal manure and plant waste composted at 50:50 ratio is ideal. Add a light spreading of Hood’s Blood and Bone so that the phosphorous levels are adequate to grow good tubers. Lime should be added to bring the pH into 6.5pH to 7.2pH depending on the genus and specie to be grown. The compost should be about 20mm thick and lightly turned into the soil with the lime and blood and bone.

Plant the corms in early spring after the last frosts have abated. Plant them at 450mm to 500mm centers with the rows at 500mm apart. Sow the corms at a depth of 50mm. Do not plant any closer as this will cause a sever decrease in the number of corms, tubers or rhizomes set by the plants in autumn.

Water and keep the soil moist to allow growth to reach around 100mm in height without setting the plants back. It is important to maintain soil moisture for the rest of the growing season which should be around 6 to 7 months. In late autumn, when the blooms have peaked water can be withdrawn.

Once the plants dye down the corms, tubers or rhizomes can be retrieved and stored for the winter. Most corms, tubers or rhizomes wil require a period of dormancy in the vegetable crisper over winter before sowing the following year.

With Water Chestnuts the soil should be flooded once the plants reach 100mm to 120mm in height to a depth of 30mm to 80mm in depth. In autumn after the plants begin to brown off at the tips the water can be naturally drained or evaporated completely. It is now that the hardening off of the chestnuts will commence. If rainfalls refill the area then it must be drained immediately. Leave the plants for 3 to 5 weeks to mature properly corms should be a rich chestnut brown in colour when they are ready for harvesting.

A similar process can be done using seeds to attain a large number of smaller corms which can be sown the following year.

Bulbs: New bulbs form beside the originally planted bulb. Separate these bulb clumps every 1 to 3 years to maintain the largest blooms and to increase bulb numbers. Dig up the clump after the leaves have withered. Gently pull the bulbs apart and store them in a cool dry place for 2 to 4 days before replanting them. Small, new bulbs may not flower for 2 or 3 years, but large ones should bloom the first year.

Corms: A large new corm forms on top of the old corm, and tiny cormels form around the large corm. After the leaves wither, dig the corms up and allow them to dry in indirect light for 2 or 3 weeks. Remove the cormels, then gently separate the new corm from the old corm. Dust all new corms with a fungicide and store in a cool place until planting time. Place the corms in the vegetable crisper 2 to 3 weeks prior to sowing. This will ensure all the corms sprout together and flower at the same time.

Rhizomes: New rhizomes form as an extension of the old rhizome. Dig the rhizomes up when the plants look ragged and unkempt which is usually during the early winter months. Separate the rhizomes and sever mature rhizomes ensuring every clump has several eyes. Cut the leaves off just above the old ground level. Replant at the old level or just below the surface in the newly rejuvenated beds and water thoroughly with our recommended fertilizer. the native ginger Alpinia caerulea or Alocasia brisbaniensis can be reproduced using this method..


The three methods which I have found successful on the orchard for citrus are bud grafting wedge grafting and for smaller numbers the approach graft.

Bud grafting is suitable where large numbers of plants are need to be done, the material is of two different sizes or if the parent scion plant is in very limited supply. The stock plant is the plant with the roots. The scion is the piece of material that is required to fruit or bloom at a later date and is at the top.

Equipment needed are grafting tape ( A good stretching grafting tape not a cheap one that does not stretch or breaks easily), sharp razor blade knife, grafting mastic or grafting plasticine and sterilizing solution.

The Cleft and wedge grafts are the most commonly used on orchards and has the advantage of being easy and quick to accomplished with larger trees bearing fruit sooner.

The bud graft is used where the scion material is in limited supply or very large numbers are required. The bud usually takes quickly but may be 6 months behind the cleft and wedge graft meaning a full season is lost in fruit production.

The approach graft is seldom used and is used for small numbers. It has a high success rate with larger trees being grown in the first year. It is the ideal method for home gardeners.

Cleft or Wedge Graft:

  1. The stock plant is cut off at 50mm to 100mm above the collar making sure that there are a few leaves left in tack but not within 20mm of the cut.
  2. The scion is selected so that it is 60mm to 90mm long and the base is the roughly same diameter as the stock.
  3. The stock plant now has a 5mm to 15mm VEE notch cut into it with the knife after the blade has been sterilized. DO NOT TOUCH THE NEW CUT WITH THE FINGERS. Contaminants and oil may affect the bond.

 Cut the base of the scion back 5mm to 15mm to the same shape as the notch on the stock so that it fits tight. DO NOT TOUCH THE NEW CUT WITH THE FINGERS. Contamina

  1. Contaminants and oil will affect the bond.
  2. Insert the scion into the notch of the stock so that the xylem are in contact.
  3.  Wrap the grafting tape around the stock and scion starting from the bottom and moving to the top of the graft and back down again. Tie the tape off. Start about 10mm to 15mm below the graft and finish 10mm to 15mm above the graft.
  4. Apply grafting mastic, plasticine over the tape to ensure water does not enter the site.
  5. The graft if successful will see the scion shoot new growth in 4 to 6 weeks. There is no need to remove the tape if a good quality one is used as it will expand as the union takes and will eventually split and drop off.

Bud Graft:

  1. The stock plant is cut off at 200mm to 300mm above the collar making sure that there are a few leaves left in tack near the top of the plant.
  2. The scion is selected as a new developing bud that has begun to swell.
  3.  The stock plant now has a 10mm to 15mm VERTICAL SLIT at around 100mm above the collar with the sterilized knife blade. DO NOT TOUCH THE NEW CUT WITH THE FINGERS. Contaminants and oil may affect the bond.
  4. Remove the bud from the growing tree so that there is a 10mm heel left on it. DO NOT TOUCH THE NEW CUT AREA WITH THE FINGERS. Contaminants and oil may affect the bond.
  5. Insert the bud into slit made in the stock.
  6.  Wrap the grafting tape around the stock and scion starting from the bottom and moving to the top of the graft and back down again. Tie the tape off. Ensure there is a gap where the bud can be seen and can emerge. Start about 10mm to 15mm below the graft and finish 10mm to 15mm above the graft.
  7. Apply grafting mastic, plasticine over the tape to ensure water does not enter the site.
  8. The graft if successful will see the bud shoot new growth in 3 to 4 weeks. There is no need to remove the tape if a good quality one is used as it will expand as the union takes and will eventually split.
  9. Cut the top off the stock plant at a 45 degree angle starting at the bud and going upwards towards the apex and away from the bud. This will leave an area of bare wood where the new shoot will eventually cover.

Approach Grafting:

  1. The stock plant is allowed to grow normally in a pot to 300mm to 500mm tall. Trim leaves off at the area where the union will take place.
  2.  The scion is also allowed to grow in a pot to 300mm to 350mm tall or can be an existing tree on the block. Trim leaves off at the area where the union will take place.
  3. Remove the top of the stock plant abot 50mm above the area of where the union will take place.
  4.  The stock plant now has a 10mm to 15mm slice removed from one side of the stem or trunk with the knife after the blade has been sterilized. DO NOT TOUCH THE NEW CUT WITH THE FINGERS. Contaminants and oil may affect the bond.
  5. The scion plant now has a 10mm to 15mm slice removed from one side of the stem or trunk with the knife after the blade has been sterilized. Make sure the cuts align before you cut the scion. DO NOT TOUCH THE NEW CUT WITH THE FINGERS. Contaminants and oil may affect the bond.

5. Bring the scion and stock together so that they touch and can be taped together tightly. If this is done out doors make sure the two sections are stable and won’t get blown about and kill the union.

  1. Wrap the grafting tape around the stock and scion starting from the bottom and moving to the top of the graft and back down again. Tie the tape off. Start about 15mm to 25mm below the graft and finish 15mm to 25mm above the graft.
  2. Apply grafting mastic, plasticine over the tape to ensure water does not enter the site.
  3. The graft if successful will see the scion shoot new growth in 4 to 6 weeks. There is no need to remove the tape if a good quality one is used as it will expand as the union takes and will eventually split.
  4. Make a cut below the graft on the scion so that it is no longer reliant upon its own roots. Make this cut as close as possible to the union using a sterile sharp pair of secateurs. Seal the wound with grafting wax. Be careful not to damage the union.
  5. Remove by trimming the stock plant back as close as possible to the union with a sterilized pair of sharp secateurs. Seal the wound with grafting wax. Be careful not to damage the union.

Fern Spores:

All ferns that are declared rare, vulnerable or endangered are protected by Federal and State Laws and must not be removed from the wild unless you are a land developer, mining company or main Roads department etc. This includes bulbs, roots, leaves and flowers. No part of any plant can be removed from Federal, State or Local Government land without the prior permission of the authority and this includes the spore.

While ferns do not flower they do however produce sexually, producing an egg and sperm. the sperm are reliant on weather conditions to swim from their antheridium to the egg’s archegonium to complete the process of fertilization. (For further details and explanations see “The Science of Botany chapter 14 Fern reproduction”)

Most people are put off at the thought of growing ferns from spore. Like all plants that produce their offspring from seed or spore the methods are basically the same. Remember nature has been doing this for millions of years and has been very successful. I have had excellent results growing over 260 different species of Australian ferns so give it a go.

Step 1. Selecting mature spore from the fern fronds, which has just started to release its spore. Rinse the fronds under clean running water and dry. This is to wash off any other spores from rogue ferns that may have settled onto the fronds. (There is nothing worse than having common brake or common bracken contaminating a prized tree fern or epiphyte.)

Step 2. Place the dry fronds in a clean brown paper bag and keep them in a cool dark place like the linen closet for a few days to a week before you are ready to sow the spore.

Step 3. Take a large ice cream container, a small ice cream container and a clean clear plastic bag large enough to seal the large ice cream container.

Step 4. Wash both containers so that they are very clean and sterile.

Step 5. Punch or drill some small holes in the bottom of the small ice cream container.

Step 6. Use a clean fine seed raising mix that has had some clay or crusher dust added to it. About 10mm is great or add around 30mm peat. Then moisten the mix. epiphytic ferns do better on the peat than clay.

Step 7. Moisten and place the mix in the microwave oven with a large glass of water for 7 or 8 minutes, until the water is boiling. Allow them to cool in the oven. You will need the water later so do not tip it out.

Step 8. Take the brown paper bag out of the linen closet. Shake the bag and remove the fronds. You should have a brown, fawn powder, small round pepper size spore or yellow green spore depending on the specie involved.

Step 9. Remove the mixture from the oven once it has cooled and place it in the small ice cream container.

Step 10. Sprinkle the spore sparsely over the mixture in the small ice cream container.

Step 11. Place the small ice cream container in the large ice cream container.

Step 12. Remove the water from the microwave and pour it into the larger ice cream container so that there is 20mm to 25mm of water in the bottom.

Step 13. Place the ice cream containers in the plastic bag and seal.

Step 14. Place the contents and bag in a warm shady place preferably 50mm to 70mm shade depending on the specie. Shade houses and some window sills are ideal.

Step 15. Wait until the ferns are 15mm to 25mm high before you attempt to transplant them. Once they are ready open the bag up slightly and allow the air to flow around the little ferns. Every 3 to 5 days open the bag a little further so the ferns get use to their new environment. Allow them a week or two to harden off before you transplant them into 50mm standard tubes.

Do not try to transplant them as single plants as they are a little delicate still.

Platycerum and Asplenium will have to be divided into single plants. Be careful as they are still fragile at this stage. Replace them close to their original position. After a few weeks the ferns will power away without any set backs. Here they can be further divided where necessary removing the smaller ferns leaving the largest one in place.

Once they reach 50mm to 60mm you may wish to divide the stronger and hardier individual plants into smaller clumps in 100mm squat pots. The closer you mimic the wilderness areas where the ferns grow the better your results. Remember not all ferns like Polystitchum australe grow in lush rainforest conditions – Platycerum prefer the brighter outerlimits of branches even growing on Avicinea species or mangroves in days past while Drynaria grow on exosed rocks where drier and harsher conditions prevail and Lindsea are often found on poorer baren clays in dry, open, schlerophyll forests.

Step 16. Fertilize using Seaweed, fish emulsion or organic chicken pellets soaked in water on an alternate basis. Fertilize every two months for one year even when in the ground then follow up on an annual basis in September or early March.


All orchids are protected by Federal and State Laws and must not be removed from the wild unless you are a land developer, mining company or main Roads department etc. This includes bulbs, roots, leaves and flowers. No part of any plant can be removed from Federal, State or Local Government land without the prior permission of the authority and this includes the seeds.

Division: is the easiest method for amateurs to propagate Dendrobium and many other epiphytic orchids. At some point, the orchid will become root bound in its pot or large enough to divide the clump on a tree or slab. The only tools you require is a sharp sterile knife a slab of cork or pumice stone and some hemp or nylon string. I prefer hemp string because it is totally natural but is difficult to obtain.

The potted Dendrobium: Remove the Dendrobium from its pot and set it on a firm surface. Cut through the roots to create separate sections of the plant. Each piece should include four to five stems and a large chunk of the root system. Repot using a central stick to ensure the plant is tied securely so that it does not move.

Slab plants: Take the slab and cut it down the middle ensuring each section has healthy terminal stems. Retie the new divisions back to the new piece of cork or pumice stone. Tie them so that they do not move. Do not over tighten as this cut’s off the flow of nutrients to the new leaves.

Treat plants that are growing naturally on a tree in the same way. First cut the plant in half then slice just below the roots into the outer layer of bark being careful not to damage the stems or the xylem and phloem layers of the tree. Remove the section and retie it to another section of the tree or cork slab as desired.

Back Bulbs:

Back bulbs can be taken from mature plants.

  1. Remove the parent plant from its container.
  2. Divide the plant up so each new plant has an old back bulb without leaves, an old bulb with leaves and maybe a new bulb that hasn’t flowered or isn’t fully developed.
  3. Remove or straighten the roots out and cut so that they are around 100mm long. Remove all the roots from the old back bulb without leaves.
  4. Allow to air dry for 24 hours to 48 hours.
  5. Repot into a suitable size pot using an orchid mix or tie firmly so that they do not move before rooting into the fork of a new tree.

If the plant is existing in your garden and you wish to use this method of propagating choose a day that follows a week of cool weather. Select the division as above and slice through the plant behind an old bulb without leaves, ensuring the new plant has an old bulb with leaves and a new bulb that has not fully developed. Repeat as above in steps 3 to 5.


Orchid seeds require treatment before sowing. Really Orchid seeds are meant for professionals with time, equipment and space. However if you wish to persevere then here are the basics and you are learning from an amateur. You will need the following flask, Chloros solution, boiled water, an eye dropper, paper bag, a warm sheltered position and some patience and luck.

  1. Collecting the seed: Seed can only be collected from fully ripe pods. You may need to watch a pod for several days or even weeks following the time it stops swelling for it to turn yellow. At this stage the pod must be watched carefully for the pod to commence spitting along the placenta. If possible place the paper bag over the pod and tie it off. If necessary place a plastic bag over the paper bag to prevent rain or moisture contacting the seeds.
  2. Knowledge is very important now, as different species and genre have various numbers of viable seed in a pod. Viable seeds may be as few as 20 or as many as several million. Check the bag daily and remove once the seed begins to disperse. Shake all the seeds from the pod into the bag.
  3. Purchase the appropriate agar solution from an orchid society as they will know what you want and which one will be best for your species. Prepare the agar solution and pour into the flask.
  4. Remove some of the seeds by shaking them into a solution of 1 part chloros to 20 parts water and allow soaking for 10 minutes.
  5. Remove the seeds with the eye dropper in the solution and spread evenly over the set agar.
  6. Place the flasks in a room that is will lit with indirect light and the temperature is a consistent 25 to 30 degrees centigrade.
  7. Wait 4 to 7 months for the seedlings to develop to a stage where they can be removed and planted on into a fine orchid mix. Do not remove the seedlings from their environment of light or temperature for at least another two months. Even at this stage it is best to place the seedlings in a green house where their environment can be controlled.

Seed should be shaken in Chloros (usually 1 in 20 with water) for 10 minutes before planting to kill any disease. Sow using droppers or needles in a sterile environment, into flasks. Seal and place in high humidity, warm environment. It normally takes 4 to 6 months to raise seedlings to the point where they can be transplanted. It can take 4 to 10 years for the seedlings to flower

Terrestrial Orchid Cultivation

All orchids are protected by Federal and State Laws and must not be removed from the wild unless you are a land developer, mining company or main Roads department etc. This includes bulbs, roots, leaves and flowers. No part of any plant can be removed from Federal, State or Local Government land without the prior permission of the authority.

Native terrestrial orchids comprise of many Genus with their individual specie which range from being relatively easy to cultivate to those that are damn near impossible and definitely frustrating to say the least.

Most terrestrial orchids are deciduous during the dry season. These usually commence their growing season with the onset of the wet season through to the end of the wet season. The flowering occurs shortly after the leaves have been established sending up the new scape flowering then dying back to a subterranean tuber in a yearly cycle of growth.

The more commonly grown genre in Australian cultivation include the Acianthus, Caladenia, Caleana, Diuris, Pterostylis and Thelymitra. It is for this reason I will concentrate on these genre which have proven reliable by many enthusiasts. Many other native, terrestrial Genre not included may still be cultivated under these guidelines with decreased successes until a lot more research has been completed.

The saprophytic orchids have been deliberately excluded because they are highly specialized orchids in nature that replicating their growing conditions is near impossible for any period of time. This intriguing group of orchids has some of the most amazing blooms of any orchid with the above mentioned groups worthwhile persevering with.

From the delicate Caladenia species (Spider Orchids), the amazing Caleana species (Duck Orchids), the brilliantly coloured Diuris species (Donkey Orchids), the curious Pterostylis species (Greenhoods) and the spectacular Thelymitras species (Sun Orchids) ground orchids are just beginning to charm the gardener. These orchids have some of the most amazing colour combinations and shapes of any flowers found anywhere in the world.

The life cycle needs to be fully understood prior to any attempt to grow these beautiful orchids or failure is assured. The best advice I can give is if you are lucky enough to have these orchids growing naturally preserve their environment as nature has done for millions of years. I marked all the active growth areas on my Nana Glen property with survey pegs and kept the areas mulched with their local mulch and fertilized once I saw the new shoot commencing their seasonal cycle.

Failing the above notice that terrestrial orchids usually flower, then are followed by a period of dormancy, very similar to many other exotic and native epiphytic orchids. The biggest difference is that the majority’s period of growth and flowering tends to be in the cooler months of the year following the wet season not during the wet season, while the dormant period is in the warmer drier months.

They can be dormant for 6 to 8 months of the year and need to be kept reasonably dry during this period. Ideal shade house conditions would be 30mm to 50mm shade with a solid alsynite roof. Our Fern Nursery comprised of a shade cloth section with alternating 30mm and 50mm shade cloth and the dry area was 2 sheet of alsynite with 2 sheets of corrugated iron running in a north south direction. This gave all the plants shade that was of different intensities during the day. This situation is ideal during the dormancy period for all plants.

Watering is by far the most crucial part growing terrestrial orchids successfully. When in active growth the plants should be watered regularly so that the potting mix remains moist at all times. As the plants finish flowering and start to die back they will commence to develop the new tubers. Watering at this stage needs to be decreased so that the mix is almost completely dry. If the mix remains wet at this time the tubers have a good chance of rotting. From early January start to water lightly occasionally (if it rains water lightly and if it storms water the plants thoroughly.) As the new growth appears and accelerates increase the water accordingly. I will stress here that rain water is far more beneficial than tap water.

Light varies depending on the genus, Pterostylis species and Acianthus species prefer shadier conditions (40mm to 60mm) than the Caladenia species, Caleana species and Diuris species (20mm to 30mm) the aptly named Sun Orchids Thelymitra species (10mm to 20mm) (The name applies to the plants because the flowers open as the sun rises and close by night). Too often enthusiast treat the orchids like babies locking them up in too dense a shade and create to humid conditions which lead to fungal and mite problems. All these species resent stagnant humid conditions so place them in a position where they receive good light and air flow.

Fertilizing is necessay for optimum growth and organic fertilizers offer the best method. Organic fertilizer like the ones we recommend delivered on a monthly basis from the onset of the leaves to the demise of the flowers is the best method we have learned over the years.

Pests may not be wanted but they do appear from time to time. The usual suspects are Slugs and Snails which can do immense damage in a very short period of time. Start placing upturned half orange and mandarin skins around near the plants as you begin to water. These baits will attract them as soon as they appear and before they increase in numbers. Keep the benches dry by watering in the mornings or keep the plants suspended on mesh benches is also a good deterrent. Thrips and Red Spider can at times also cause problems. Good air flow and drier conditions is usually enough to keep them at bay. If the problem doesn’t abate then a light application of natural pyrethrum or Garlic usually does the trick.

Potting mixes are important so use a good mix. Use our recommended open dry mix for terrestrial orchids. Add a small teaspoon of 100mm natural blood and bone to the mix for each 250mm standard pot. Repotting should be carried out annually during the dormant period. Remove the plants from the pots and gently remove the old soil being careful not to damage the tubers. Fill the new pot with the new mix to about 30mm below the surface. Replace the tubers on the new mix. Cover the tubers with 5mm of mix. Cover the surface with 10mm to 15mm of fine broken forest litter. Some enthusiasts insist on using Cassuarina or Allocasuarina needles. If the latter is used the logic is that they are more likely to prevent fungal problems and are easier for the orchid’s leaves to penetrate.

Pot size will depend on the number of tubers you have. A 100mm pot will handle 5 to 7 tubers, while a 150mm pot can handle 10 tubers and a 200mm pot 20 tubers. (The best plantings and flowerings appear in the 200mm pots.)

Further comments from Members:

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